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1520

After the death of Raphael in 1520, Giulio Romano helped complete the Vatican frescoes of the life of Constantine as well as Raphael's Coronation of the Virgin and the Transfiguration in the Vatican.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Giulio Romano (1499-1546), aged 21: draughtstman; architect; painter

1520

Pietro Torrigiano moves to Spain.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pietro Torrigiano (1472-1528), aged 48: sculptor

1520

March 10

on Wednesday

2 months, 9 days later

A ricordo or note from Michelangelo:

Pope Leo, perhaps because he wants to get the facade at S. Lorenzo finished quicker than according to the contract made with me, and I also consenting thereto, sets me free ... and so he leaves me at liberty, under no obligation of accounting to any one for anything which I have had to do with him or others upon his account.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.224

1520

April 6

on Tuesday

27 days later

Raphael dies in Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 37: painter; architect; poet

1520

June 15

on Tuesday

2 months, 10 days later

Pope Leo X issues the bull Exsurge Domine (Arise O Lord), threatening Martin Luther with excommunication if he does not recant his position on indulgences and other Catholic doctrines.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1520

1520

December 10

on Friday

5 months, 28 days later

Martin Luther burns a copy of The Book of Canon Law (see Canon Law) and his copy of the Papal bull Exsurge Domine.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1520

1521

22 days later

Died

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1521

Michelangelo purchases a house.

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Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

Born

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1521

January 3

on Monday

2 days later

Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 46: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

March

1 month, 27 days later

Michelangelo despatches Pietro Urbano to Rome with orders to complete the statue of Christ Triumphant there, and to arrange with the purchaser for placing it upon a pedestal.

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Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 231

1521

April 9

on Saturday

1 month, 9 days later

Michelangelo says that (...) he received money from the Cardinal de' Medici for a journey to Carrara, whither he went and stayed about three weeks, ordering marbles for "the tombs which are to be placed in the new sacristy at S. Lorenzo. And there I made out drawings to scale, and measured models in clay for the said tombs." He left his assistant Scipione of Settignano at Carrara as overseer of the work, and returned to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

April 16

on Saturday

7 days later

Martin Luther is examined before Emperor Charles V and the German Diet of Worms.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Worms was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

April 26

on Tuesday

10 days later

Martin Luther leaves Worms and disappears for a year – he is rumored to be murdered, but is actually in hiding at the Wartburg Castle.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Worms was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

May

5 days later

War breaks out between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Francis I, the King of France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 27: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

May 25

on Wednesday

24 days later

The Diet of Worms ends when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issues the Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

July 20

on Wednesday

1 month, 26 days later

Michelangelo again goes to Carrara -- on the business of quarrying marbles for the tombs of S. Lorenzo -- and stays for nine days.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

August 16

on Tuesday

27 days later

The contractors for Michelangelo's marble blocks to be carved into the tombs of S. Lorenzo, all of which were excavated from the old Roman quarry of Polvaccio, came to Florence, and were paid on account.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

August 19

on Friday

3 days later

Michelangelo's assistant Scipione of Settignano returns to Florence from Carrara about the business of the marble blocks for the tombs of S. Lorenzo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

September

13 days later

Sebastiano del Piombo writes to Michelangelo about Pietro Urbano's mistreatment of his statue of Christ Triumphant:

In the first place, you sent him to Rome with the statue to finish and erect it. What he did and left undone you know already. But I must inform you that he has spoiled the marble wherever he touched it. In particular, he shortened the right foot and cut the toes off; the hands too, especially the right hand, which holds the cross, have been mutilated in the fingers. Frizzi says they seem to have been worked by a biscuit-maker, not wrought in marble, but kneaded by someone used to dough. I am no judge, not being familiar with the method of stone-cutting; but I can tell you that the fingers look to me very stiff and dumpy. It is clear also that he has been peddling at the beard; and I believe my little boy would have done so with more sense, for it look as though he had used a knife without a point to chisel the hair. This can easily be remedied, however. He has also spoiled one of the nostrils. A little more, and the whole nose would have been ruined, and only God could have restored it.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Sebastiano del Piombo; Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 231-2

1521

October

1 month later

Michelangelo stands godfather to the infant son of Niccolo Soderini, nephew of his old patron, the Gonfalonier.

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Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1521

November

1 month, 1 day later

Sebastiano del Piombo writes to Michelangelo that his gossip, Giovanni da Reggio, "goes about saying that you did not execute the figure (of Christ Triumphant), but that it is the work of Pietro Urbano. Take good care that it should be seen to be from your hand, so that poltroons and babblers may burst."

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 231

1522

2 months, 1 day later

Some believe that Australia is sighted by a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão de Mendonça who maps the continent and names it Jave la Grande ("The Greater Java").

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1522

April 27

on Thursday

3 months, 26 days later

In the Battle of Bicocca, French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, and are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1522

June 19

on Monday

1 month, 23 days later

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England and signs the Treaty of Windsor pledging a joint invasion of France, bringing England into the Italian War of 1521–1526.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in England was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1522

July

12 days later

The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais, burning and looting the countryside.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1522

September

2 months, 2 days later

Martin Luther's translation of the Bible's New Testament into Early New High German from Greek, Das newe Testament Deutzsch, is published in Germany, selling thousands in the first few weeks.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1523

4 months, 2 days later

The Genoese enter into negotiations for a colossal statue of Andrea Doria, which they desired to obtain from the hand of Michelangelo. Its execution must have been seriously contemplated, for the Senate of Genoa banked 300 ducats for the purpose.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.237

1523

Cardinal Grimani, who was a famous collector of art-objects, wrote Michelangelo begging for some specimen of his craft. Grimani left it open to him "to choose material and subject; painting, bronze, or marble, according to his fancy." Michelangelo must have promised to fulfill the commission, for we have a letter from Grimani thanking him effusively. He ofers to pay fifty ducats at the commencement of the work, and what Michelangelo thinks fit to demand at its conclusion: "for such is the excellence of your ability, that we shall take no thought of money-value." Grimani was Patriarch of Aquileja.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.237

1523

Died

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1523

January 14

on Sunday

13 days later

Fined for sodomy

Benvenuto Cellini is sentenced to pay 12 staia of flour for relations with a boy named Domenico di ser Giuliano da Ripa.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1523

September 23

on Sunday

8 months, 12 days later

Cardinal Giulio de' Medici is made Pope, taking the name of Clement VII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 45: pope

1524

3 months, 10 days later

Michelangelo is commissioned to design the Laurentian Library at San Lorenzo.

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Astronomical Events

1524

Died

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1524

January 13

on Sunday

12 days later

Pope Clement VII offers Michelangelo a pension in order to retain his services. It appears that Michelangelo only asked for fifteen ducats a month, and that his friend Pietro Gondi had proposed twenty-five ducats. Fattucci rebuked him in affectionate terms for his want of pluck, informing him that "Jacopo Salviati has given orders that Spina should be instructed to pay you a monthly provision of fifty ducats." Moreover, all the disbursements made for the work at S. Lorenzo were to be provided by the same agent in Florence, and to pass through Michelangelo's hands. A house was assigned him, free of rent, at S. Lorenzo, in order that he might be near his work. Henceforth he was in almost weekly correspondence with Giovanni Spina on affairs of business, sending in accounts and drawing money by means of his then trusted servant, Stefano, the miniaturist.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.239

1524

March 24

on Monday

2 months, 11 days later

Michelangelo's friend Cardinal Leonardo Grosso writes to him from Rome, on Michelangelo's depression at the course of the suit against him by the heirs of Pope Julius II regarding the incompletion of the Pope's tomb:

I am also told that you have declined your pension, which seems to me mere madness, and that you have thrown the house up, and do not work. Friend and gossip, let me tell you that you have plenty of enemies, who speak their worst; also that the Pope and Pucci and Jacopo Salviati are your friends, and have plighted their troth to you. It is unworthy of you to break your word to them, especially in an affair of honour. Leave the matter of the tomb to those who wish you well, and who are able to set you free without the least encumbrance, and take care you do not come short in the Pope's work. Die first. And take the pension, for they give it with willing heart.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci (1458-1531), aged 66: cardinal
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 46: pope
Jacopo Salviati (1461-1533), aged 63: politician
Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Cardinal Leonardo Grosso; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.242

1524

April

8 days later

The Sacristy of S. Lorenzo by Michelangelo may have been walled and roofed in before the end of the month.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.240

1524

April 4

on Friday

3 days later

Antonio Mini appears to take Stefano's place as Michelangelo's right-hand man of business.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.240

1524

April 17

on Thursday

13 days later

Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay and sights the island of Manhattan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1524

1525

8 months, 19 days later

Giocomo Salai dies.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Giocomo Salai (1480-1524): painter

1525

The first French ambassador arrives in Istanbul.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1525

The Bubonic Plague spreads in southern France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1525

June 7

on Sunday

5 months, 7 days later

In the year 1525, after Pentecost, between Pentecost and the Wednesday, in the night, in sleep, I saw this vision, how many mighty Waters fell from the heavens. And the first of these met the earth some 4 miles from me, with such fierceness, with a tremendous roaring and splashing, and flooded the whole land. At this I felt such terror that I awakened, ere the other Waters fell. And these Waters that were falling were very huge. And of them some feel far off and some nearer, and they feel from such a height that it was as if they fell slowly all at the same speed. But the first Water, the which met the Earth, fell hard by, and it fell with such speed, with a rushing of wind and a roaring, that I was smitten with terror and awoke, that all my body trembled and it was long before I came to my right senses. But when I rose in the morning I painted the above, as I had seen it. May God guide all things for the best. -- Albrecht Durer

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Source: Primary

'Letters of the Great Artists', p. 65

1525

June 13

on Saturday

6 days later

Martin Luther marries ex-nun Katharina von Bora. The painter Lucas Cranach the Elder is one of the witnesses.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1525

June 16

on Tuesday

3 days later

Henry VIII of England appoints his illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Richmond was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1525

October

3 months, 17 days later

Two important letters from Michelangelo to Fattucci, written in October 1525 and April 1526, show that he had then abandoned the original scheme (for the Medici tombs), and adopted one which was all but carried into effect.

I am working as hard as I can, and in fifteen days I shall begin the other captain. Afterwards the only important things left will be the four rivers. The four statues are on the sarcophagi, the four figures on the ground which are the rivers, the two captains, and Our Lady, who is to be placed upon the tomb at the head of the chapel; these are what I mean to do with my own hand. Of these I have begun six; and I have good hope of finishing them in due time, and carrying the other forward in part, which do not signify so much.

The six he had begun are clearly the Dukes and their attendant figures of Day, Night, Dawn, Evening. The Madonna, one of his noblest works, came within a short distance of completion. SS. Cosimo and Damiano passed into the hands of Montelupo and Montorsoli. Of the four rivers we have only fragments in the shape of some exquisite little models.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.227-8

1525

Autumn

Pope Clement VII makes Fattucci write to Michelangelo that he wishes to erect a colossal statue on the piazza of S. Lorenzo, opposite the Stufa Palace. The giant is to surmount the roof of the Medicean Palace, with its face turned in that direction and its back to the house of Luigi della Stufa. Being so huge, it would have to be composed of separate pieces fitted together. Michelangelo speedily knocked this absurd plan on the head in a letter.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Luigi della Stufa (1453-1535), aged 72: diplomat
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 47: pope

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.256

1526

10 months, 6 days later

Titian makes the acquaintance of Pietro Aretino, the influential poet, and they soon become friends.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Titian (1488-1576), aged 38: painter

1526

Giovanni da Undine comes from Rome to decorate the vault of the new sacristy of S. Lorenzo in Florence with frescoed arabesques.

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Astronomical Events

1526

Michelangelo begins work on the library of S. Lorenzo.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1526

January 14

on Thursday

13 days later

With the Treaty of Madrid, peace is declared between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Flanders was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Agents

King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 32: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1526

1526

May 22

on Saturday

4 months, 8 days later

King Francoise I repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including Pope Clement VII, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 48: pope
King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 32: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1526

1526

May 24

on Monday

2 days later

A Transit of Venus occurs, the last before optical filters allowed astronomers to observe them.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1526

1526

July 24

on Saturday

2 months, 1 day later

Milan is captured by the Spanish.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Spain was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1526

1527

April 29

on Friday

9 months, 9 days later

Michelangelo helps Piero di Filippo Gondi

A note from Michelangelo shows the disturbed state of Florence at the time of the uprising against the Medici:

I record how, some days ago, Piero di Filippo Gondi asked for permission to enter the new sacristy at S. Lorenzo, in order to hide there certain goods belonging to his family, by reason of the perils in which we are now. To-day, upon the 29th of April 1527, he has begun to carry in some bundles, which he says are linen of his sisters; and I, not wishing to witness what he does or to know where he hides the gear away, have given him the key of the sacristy this evening.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.259

1527

May

2 days later

Cellini wounds the Prince of Orange

Benvenuto Cellini shoots and injures Philibert of Châlon, prince of Orange during the Sack of Rome.

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Astronomical Events

1527

May 6

on Friday

5 days later

In the Sack of Rome, Spanish and German troops led by the Duke of Bourbon sack Rome, forcing Pope Clement VII to make peace with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marking the end of the High Renaissance. The Pope grows a beard in mourning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Spain was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1527

1527

May 6

on Friday

Cellini shoots the Duke of Bourbon

Benvenuto Cellini kills Charles III, Duke of Bourbon during the Sack of Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1527

May 16

on Monday

10 days later

In Florence, the Piagnon, a group devoted to the memory of Girolamo Savonarola, drive out the Medici for a second time, re-establishing the Republic of Florence until 1530.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1527

1527

May 17

on Tuesday

1 day later

The Medici flee Florence

The Cardinal of Cortona, with the young princes Ippolito and Alessandro de' Medici, flee Florence due to an uprising.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.258

1527

Late

15 days later

Benvenuto Cellini returns to Florence.

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Astronomical Events

1528

7 months, 4 days later

Michelangelo praises Benvenuto Cellini

A Sienese gentleman had commissioned Cellini to make him a golden medal, to be worn in the hat. "The subject was to be Hercules wrenching the lion's mouth. While I was working at this piece, Michel Agnolo Buonarroti came oftentimes to see it. I had spent infinite pains upon the design, so that the attitude of the figure and the fierce passion of the beast were executed in quite a different style from that of any other craftsman who had hitherto attempted such groups. This, together with the fact that the special branch of art was totally unknown to Michel Agnolo, made the divine master give such praises to my work that I felt incredibly inspired for further effort. "Just then I met with Federigo Ginori, a young man of very lofty spirit. He had lived some years in Naples and being endowed with great charms of person and presence, had been the lover of a Neopolitan princess. He wanted to have a medal made with Atlas bearing the world upon his shoulders, and applied to Michel Agnolo for a design. Michel Agnolo made this answer: 'Go and find out a young goldsmith named Benvenuto; he will serve you admirably, and certainly he does not stand in need of sketches by me. However, to prevent your thinking that I want to save myself the trouble of so slight a matter, I will gladly sketch you something; but meanwhile speak to Benvenuto and let him also make a model; he can then execute the better of the two designs.' Federigo Ginori came to me and told me that he wanted, adding thereto how Michel Agnolo had praised me, and how he had suggested I should make a waxen model while he undertook to supply a sketch. The words of that great man so heartened me, that I set myself to work at once with eagerness upon the model; and when I had finished it, a painter who was intimate with Michel Agnolo, called Giuliano Bugiardini, brought me the drawing of Atlas. On the same occasion I showed Giuliano my little model in wax, which was very different from Michel Agnolo's drawing; and Federigo, in concert with Bugiardini, agreed that I should work upon my model. So I took it in hand, and when Michel Agnolo saw it, he praised me to the skies."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.259-261

1528

Died

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1528

Bubonic plague breaks out in England.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1528

1528

August

7 months, 3 days later

Pietro Torrigiano dies in Spain in the prisons of the Spanish Inquisition.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pietro Torrigiano (1472-1528), aged 56: sculptor

1528

August 22

on Wednesday

21 days later

By a deliberation of the Signory, we are informed that the marble had been brought to Florence about three years earlier, and that Michelangelo now received instructions, couched in the highest terms of compliment, to proceed with a group of two figures until its accomplishment. If Vasari can be trusted, Michelangelo made numerous designs and models for the Cacus, but afterwards changed his mind, and thought that he would extract from the block a Samson triumphing over two prostrate Philistines. The evidence for this change of plan is not absolutely conclusive.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.281

1528

September 12

on Wednesday

21 days later

Andrea Doria defeats his former allies, the French, and establishes the independence of Genoa.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1528

1529

3 months, 21 days later

Cecchino Cellini kills a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn is wounded by an arquebusier (rifleman), later dying of his wound.

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Astronomical Events

1529

Cellini avenges the death of his brother

Cecchino Cellini kills a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn is wounded by an arquebusier (rifleman), later dying of his wound. His brother, Benvenuto Cellini, kills his killer, then flees to Naples to escape the consequences of an affray with a notary, Ser Benedetto, whom he had wounded.

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Astronomical Events

1529

Giorgio Vasari visits Rome.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1529

Tags

1529

Pietro Bembo becomes historiographer of Venice.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1529

1529

Died

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1529

April 6

on Saturday

3 months, 5 days later

The War Office of Florence issues a patent recruiting Michelangelo's services as a military engineer, conferring on him full authority over the work of fortification.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.262

1529

May 10

on Friday

1 month, 4 days later

The Turkish army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople to invade Hungary once again.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Turkey was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Hungary was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1529

1529

June 5

on Wednesday

26 days later

Michelangelo travels to Pisa on war business

Michelangelo had scarcely been chosen to control the general scheme of fortifying Florence, when the Signory began to consider the advisability of strengthening the citadels of Pisa and Livorno, and erecting lines along the Arno. Their commissary at Pisa wrote urging the necessity of Buonarroti's presence on the spot. In addition to other pressing needs, the Arno, when in flood, threatened the ancient fortress of the city. Accordingly we find that Michelangelo went to Pisa on the 5th of June, and that he stayed there over the 13th, returning to Florence perhaps upon the 17th of the month.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.263

1529

July 28

on Sunday

1 month, 23 days later

Michelangel travels to Ferrara on war business

Furnished with letters to the Duke, and with special missives from the Signory and the Ten to their envoy, Galeotto Giugni, Michelangelo left Florence for Ferrara after the 28th of July, and reached it on the 2nd of August. He refused, as Giugni writes with some regret, to abandon his inn, but was personally conducted with great honour by the Duke all round the walls and fortresses of Ferrara. On what day he quitted that city, and whither he went immediately after his departure, is uncertain.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.264

1529

August 5

on Monday

8 days later

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or "Ladies' Peace" in the War of the League of Cognac: Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain the Duchy of Burgundy. Henry VIII of England accedes on August 27.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Italy was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1529

1529

August 8

on Thursday

3 days later

The Ten write to Galeotto Giugni, saying that Michelangelo's presence is urgently required at Florence, since the work of fortification is going on apace, "a multitude of men being employed, and no respect being paid to feast-days and holidays." It would also seem that toward the close of the month, Michelangelo is expected at Arezzo, in order to survey and make suggestions on the defences of the city.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Galeotto Giugni (1497-1541), aged 32: notary

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.265-6

1529

September 21

on Saturday

1 month, 14 days later

Michelangelo abandons his post

Michelangelo flees Florence, abandoning his post as military engineer in charge of the city's fortifications. A letter from Michelangelo to his friend Battista della Palla on the 25th of September 1529 makes clear his reasons:

Battista, dearest friend, I left Florence, as I think you know, meaning to go to France. When I reached Venice, I inquired about the road, and they told me I should have pass through German territory, and that he journey is both perilous and difficult. Therefore I thought it well to ask you, at your pleasure, whether you are still inclined to go, and to beg you; and so I entreat you, let me know, and say where you want me to wait for you, and we will travel together. I left home without speaking to any of my friends, and in great confusion. You know that I wanted in any case to go to France, and often asked for leave, but did not get it. Nevertheless I was quite resolved, and without any sort of fear, to see the end of the war out first. But on Tuesday morning, September 21, a certain person came out by the gate at S. Niccolo, where I was attending to the bastions, and whispered in my ear that, if I meant to save my life, I must not stay at Florence. He accompanied me home, dined there, brought me horses, and never left my side till he got me outside the city, declaring that this was my salvation. Whether God or the devil was the man, I do not know.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.267-8

1529

October 13

on Sunday

22 days later

Galeotti Giugni wrote to the Florentine War Office from Ferrara, upon the subject of Michelangelo's return to Florence under safe conduct. He says that Michelangelo has beged him to intercede in his favour, and that he is willing to return and lay himself at the feet of their lordships.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 273

1529

October 20

on Sunday

7 days later

In answer to Galeotto Giugni's intercession on Michelangelo's behalf for the artist to return to Florence, news is sent to Giugni that the Signory has signed a safe-conduct for Michelangelo.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 273

1529

October 22

on Tuesday

2 days later

Granacci pays Sebastiano di Francesco, a stone-cutter, to whom Michelangelo is much attached, money for his journey to Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 273

1530

2 months, 11 days later

Died

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1530

Giovanni Battista della Palla buys the statue of Hercules from the steward of Filippo Strozzi and sends it into France as a present to the king.

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Astronomical Events

1530

February 24

on Monday

1 month, 24 days later

Charles V is crowned in Bologna by Pope Clement VII.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 52: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1530

1530

April 2

on Wednesday

1 month, 7 days later

Cellini meets Clement VII

Jacopo della Barca conducts Benvenuto Cellini to an audience with Clement VII. The Pope is indisposed in bed with an illness, attended by Jacopo Salviati and the Archbishop of Capua. Benvenuto asks for absolution for a theft he had committed during the Sack of Rome, when he stole some grains of gold worth a hundred and fifty ducats, in recompense for moneys that were not paid him for work he had carried out on behalf of the Pope. The Pope gives his absolution.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1530

August

4 months, 1 day later

Titian moves his two boys and infant daughter to a new home, and convinces his sister Orsa to come from Cadore and take charge of the household. The mansion, difficult to find now, is in the Biri Grande, then a fashionable suburb, at the extreme end of Venice, on the sea, with beautiful gardens and a view towards Murano.

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Agents

Titian (1488-1576), aged 42: painter

1530

August 3

on Sunday

2 days later

In the Battle of Gavinana, Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert. The Piagnon (followers of the memory of Girolamo Savonarola) are overthrown, ending the Siege of Florence, and the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de' Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1530

October 8

on Wednesday

2 months, 6 days later

A flood engulfs Rome.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1530

1530

October 26

on Sunday

18 days later

The Knights of Malta are formed when the Knights Hospitaller are given Malta by Charles V.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Malta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Source: Primary

Knights of Malta

1530

Autumn

From the autumn of 1530 on to the end of 1533 Michelangelo worked at the Medicean monuments.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.286

Agents

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