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1500

Raphael and Evangelista da Pian di Meleto are commissioned to paint The Baronci Altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 17: painter; architect; poet
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto (1460-1549), aged 40: painter

1500

TravelledTo

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1500

Leonardo da Vinci and Luca Pacioli go to Mantua, then Leonardo continues on to Florence. In Mantua, he draws the Portrait of Isabella d'Este. In Florence, he paints the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne.

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Astronomical Events

1500

Leonardo da Vinci returns to Florence, where he and his household are guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and are provided with a workshop.

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Astronomical Events

1500

Raphael comes into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello in Urbino.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 17: painter; architect; poet

1500

Born

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1500

The troubled history of Michelangelo and the Tomb of Pope Julius II

The complicated and unsatisfactory story of Michelangelo's work on the Tomb of Pope Julius II spans much of his professional life.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1500

Giorgione meets Leonardo da Vinci in Venice.

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Astronomical Events

1500

February

1 month, 1 day later

Ludovico Sforza re-enters Milan with an army of mercenaries.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), aged 48: duke

1500

April

1 month, 29 days later

Ludovico Sforza is handed over to the French.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), aged 48: duke

1500

November 3

on Saturday

7 months, 6 days later

Birth

Benvenuto Cellini is born in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1501

1 month, 29 days later

Martin Luther enters the University of Erfurt.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1501

1501

Raphael and Evangelista da Pian di Meleto finish The Baronci Altarpiece.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 18: painter; architect; poet
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto (1460-1549), aged 41: painter

1501

Italic type (cut by Francesco Griffo) is first used by Aldus Manutius at the Aldine Press in Venice, in an edition of Virgil.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1501

1501

Gaspar Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, makes the first documented European landing in North America since the Vikings in c. 1000 A.D.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1501

1501

Raphael is accorded a fully trained master.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 18: painter; architect; poet

1501

Amerigo Vespucci maps the two stars Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, as well as the stars of the constellation Crux, which are below the horizon in Europe.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512), aged 47

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1501

1501

Rodrigo de Bastidas, sailing westward from Venezuela in search of gold, becomes the first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1501

1501

May 12

on Sunday

4 months, 11 days later

Extract from a letter from Francesco Malatesta to Isabella d'Este mentioning Leonardo's viewing and valuation of some antique vases formerly owned by the Medici:

I showed them to Leonardo Vinci the painter. He praised all of them but especially the crystal one, because it is all of one piece and very clear.... and Leonardo said that he had never seen a better piece.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Source: Primary

Charles Nicholl; Nicholl, Charles. "Leonardo da Vinci. Flights of the Mind." E-book, p. 591.

1501

August 16

on Friday

3 months, 6 days later

p12 1501, die XVJ augusti,

Spectabiles . . . virim, the Consuls of the Arte della Lana and the Lords Overseers (of the Cathedral) being met together in joint assembly within the hall of the said Overseers, have chosen as sculptor to the said Cathedral the worthy master, Michelangelo, the son of Lodovico Buonarroti, a citizen of Florence, to the end that he may make, finish and bring to perfection the male figure known as the Giant, nine braccia in height, already blocked out in marble by Maestro Agostino grande of Florence, and badly blocked ; and now stored in the workshops of the Cathedral.

p13 The work shall be completed within the period and term of two years next ensuing, beginning from the first day of September next ensuing, with a salary and payment of six broad florins of gold in gold for every month. And for all other works that shall be required about the said building (edificum) the said Overseers bind themselves to supply and provide both men and scaffolding from their Office and all else that may be necessary. When the said work and the said male figure of marble shall be finished, then the Consuls and Overseers who shall at that time be in authority shall judge whether it merits a higher reward, being guided therein by the dictates of their own consciences.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1501

November 9

on Saturday

2 months, 25 days later

Leonardo da Vinci draws out 50 florins from his savings at Santa Maria Nuovo.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Source: Primary

Charles Nicholl; Nicholl, Charles. "Leonardo da Vinci. Flights of the Mind." E-book, p. 591.

1502

1 month, 23 days later

In Cesena, Leonardo da Vinci begins work as senior military architect and general engineer for Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI.

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Astronomical Events

1502

An anecdote from Luca Pacioli's De viribus quantitatis relates an incident with Leonardo da Vinci in his capacity as military engineer on campaign with Cesare Borgia.

One day Cesare Valentino, Duke of Romagna and present Lord of Piombino, found himself and his army at a river which was 24 paces wide, and could find no bridge, nor any material to make one except for a stack of wood all cut to a length of 16 paces. And from this wood, using neither iron nor rope nor any other construction, his noble engineer made a bridge sufficiently strong for the army to pass over.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Charles Nicholl; Nicholl, Charles. "Leonardo da Vinci. Flights of the Mind." E-book, p. 602.

1502

Leonardo da Vinci creates a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage.

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Astronomical Events

1502

Leonardo da Vinci gifts to his pupil Salai a precious garment given to him by Cesare Borgia.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke
Giocomo Salai (1480-1524), aged 22: painter

Source: Primary

Pedretti, Carlo. "Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style", p.142.

1502

WorkedFor

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1502

Raphael paints The Mond Crucifixion for a church in Urbino.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 19: painter; architect; poet

1502

The king of Spain agrees to fund Columbus one final voyage to America, but Colombus again fails to reach Asia.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 51: man

1502

Raphael goes to Siena at the invitation of another pupil of Perugino, Pinturicchio, "being a friend of Raphael and knowing him to be a draughtsman of the highest quality" to help with the cartoons, and very likely the designs, for a fresco series in the Piccolomini Library of the Duomo in Siena in Siena Cathedral.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pinturicchio (1454-1513), aged 48: painter
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 19: painter; architect; poet

1502

Raphael paints the The Oddi Altarpiece for the altar of the Oddi family chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato in Perugia.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 19: painter; architect; poet

1502

June 26

on Thursday

5 months, 26 days later

Extract from a dispatch of Machiavelli to the Signoria of Florence concerning Cesare Borgia:

This Duke is so enterprising that nothing is too great to be discounted by him. For the sake of glory and the enlarging of his dominions, he deprives himself of rest, yielding to no fatigue, no danger. He arrives in one place before anyone knows he has left the other, he gains the good will of his soldiers, he attracts to him the best men in Italy, and he has constant good luck. For all these reasons he is victorious and formidable.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke
Machiavelli (1469-1527), aged 33: historian

Source: Primary

Machiavelli; "Leonardo da Vinci. The Flights of the Mind"; E-book, p. 595.

1502

June 30

on Monday

4 days later

The Marchioness of Mantua writes a letter to the Cardinal of Este, saying that she should very much like to place Michelangelo's statue of Cupid, together with an antique statue of Venus, in her own collection.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1502

July 30

on Wednesday

1 month later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

30 July - "the dove-cote at Urbino".

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Urbino was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 1

on Friday

2 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

1 August -"In the library at Pesaro".

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pesaro and Urbino was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 8

on Friday

7 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

8 August - "make harmonies out of the different falls of water as you saw in the fountain at Rimini on the 8th day of August".

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rimini was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 10

on Sunday

2 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

"At the Feast of San Lorenzo at Cesena."

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Cesena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 15

on Friday

5 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

15 August - "On St Mary's day in the middle of August at Cesena."

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Cesena was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1502

August 18

on Monday

3 days later

Passport drawn up in Pavia granting Leonardo da Vinci free access to the dominions of Cesare Borgia as his chief military architect:

Cesare Borgia of France, by the grace of God Duke of Romagna and Valence, Prince of the Adriatic, Lord of Piombino etc., also Gonfalonier and Captain General of the Holy Roman Church: to all our lieutenants, castellans, captains, condottieri, officials, soldiers and subjects to whom this notice is presented. We order and command that the bearer thereof, our most excellent and well-beloved architect and general engineer Leonardo Vinci, who by our commission is to survey the places and fortresses of our states, should be provided with all such assistance as the occasion demands and his judgement deems fit.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pavia was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1502

September

14 days later

A Greek and Italian parallel text edition of Herodotus' Histories done for Count Matteo Maria Boiardo is published in Venice by Aldus Manutius.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1502

September 18

on Thursday

17 days later

Christopher Columbus lands at Costa Rica.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Costa Rica was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 51: man

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1502

November 7

on Friday

1 month, 20 days later

Columbus reaches the coast of Honduras and passes south to Panama.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Honduras was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Panama was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 51: man

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1502

November 16

on Sunday

9 days later

Jacques Mesnil discovers a summary of a charge in the Florentine Archives for November 16, 1502, which reads simply "Botticelli keeps a boy", under an accusation of sodomy.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Botticelli (1445-1510), aged 57: painter; man; goldsmith

1502

December 26

on Friday

1 month, 10 days later

Extract from a dispatch of Machiavelli to the Signoria of Florence while in the service of Cesare Borgia:

This morning Messer Rimino was found lying in the piazza cut into two pieces; he still lies there, so that everyone has had an opportunity to see him ... The reason for his death is not yet clear, except that such was the pleasure of the Prince, who shows is that he can make and unmake men according to their deserts.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1502

December 26

on Friday

Cesare Borgia kills Ramiro D'Orco; this incident is referenced in Machiavelli's The Prince.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Machiavelli (1469-1527), aged 33: historian
Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1502

December 31

on Wednesday

5 days later

Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupies Urbino, where he imprisons two potentially treacherous allies, Vitellozzo and Oliveretto; he executes them the next morning.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Urbino was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1503

1 day later

Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and works on it on and off for the next thirteen years. Walter Pater gives an immortal description in a passage from The Renaissance.

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Astronomical Events

1503

As a child, Benvenuto Cellini plays with a scorpion he finds near a water-pipe and is narrowly rescued from being stung by his father, who cuts off its head and tail with a pair of scissors.

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Astronomical Events

1503

The pocket handkerchief comes into general use in polite European society.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1503

1503

Created

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1503

Leonardo da Vinci returns to Florence where he is commissioned to paint a mural, The Battle of Anghiari, in the council hall in Florence's Palazzo Vecchio.

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Astronomical Events

1503

Michelangelo is commissioned to paint a mural, The Battle of Cascina, in the council hall of the Palazzo Vecchio.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1503

May 13

on Wednesday

4 months, 12 days later

Naples is captured by the Spanish.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Spain was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1503

1503

July 3

on Friday

1 month, 21 days later

Extract a cover letter from Leonardo da Vinci to Sultan Bejazet (or Beyazid) II offering his services. This is dated by Charles Nicholl to July 3, 1503.

I, your servant, have heard about your intention to build a bridge from Stanboul to Galata, and that you have not done it because no man can be found capable of it. I, your servant, know how. I would raise it to the height of a building, so that no one can pass over it because it is so high ... I will make it so that a ship can pass under it even with its sails hoisted.... I would have a drawbridge so that when one wants one can pass on to the Anatolian coast.... May God make you believe these words, and consider this servant of yours always at your service.

Attachments
Realisation of a bridge designed by Leonardo da Vinci

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1503

July 23

on Thursday

20 days later

Orbital calculations suggest that on this day, Pluto moves outside Neptune's orbit, remaining there for 233 years.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1503

1503

October 18

on Sunday

2 months, 27 days later

Leonardo da Vinci rejoins the Guild of Saint Luke.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1503

October 24

on Saturday

6 days later

Leonardo da Vinci is assigned the Sala del Papa in S. Maria Novella to begin work on the cartoon for the Battle of Anghiari.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Source: Primary

Pedretti, Carlo. "Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style," p. 82

1503

November 1

on Sunday

8 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elected to the papacy, and is known as Pope Julius II.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 60: pope; cardinal

1504

2 months, 1 day later

Ser Piero da Vinci dies in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

1504

Raphael is based in Florence, on and off, for the next four years.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 21: painter; architect; poet

1504

Venetian ambassadors suggest to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

In Florence, Leonardo da Vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli become involved in a scheme to divert the Arno river, cutting the water supply to Pisa to force its surrender: Colombino, the project foreman, fails to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project is a major failure.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

Raphael paints The Marriage of the Virgin for a Franciscan church in Città di Castello.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 21: painter; architect; poet

1504

Aldus Manutius publishes his edition of Demosthenes in Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

The Signoria of Florence commissions both Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

Botticelli is invited to join the committee appointed to decide where Michelangelo's David will be placed.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Botticelli (1445-1510), aged 59: painter; man; goldsmith

1504

Michelangelo's colossal David is set up in front of the Palazzo della Signoria.

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Astronomical Events

1504

Pietro de' Medici drowns in passing the river Garigliano.

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Astronomical Events

1504

February 29

on Monday

1 month, 29 days later

Christopher Columbus uses his knowledge of a lunar eclipse this night to convince Jamaican tribesmen to provide him with supplies.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 53: man

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

April 23

on Saturday

1 month, 24 days later

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, routes troops to Bavaria.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bavaria was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 45: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

May 4

on Wednesday

11 days later

The mural for the Council Hall of Florence was commissioned from Leonardo with a contract of 4 May 1504, signed by Machiavelli as secretary of the Republic; but Leonardo had already begun working on the cartoon in the Sala del Papa in S. Maria Novella, which had been assigned to him on 24 October of the preceding year.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1504

July 9

on Saturday

2 months, 6 days later

Born

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

No agents

1504

August

23 days later

The mother of the next Duke of Urbino writes a letter of recommendation of Raphael to the Gonfaloniere of Florence: "The bearer of this will be found to be Raphael, painter of Urbino, who, being greatly gifted in his profession has determined to spend some time in Florence to study. And because his father was most worthy and I was very attached to him, and the son is a sensible and well-mannered young man, on both accounts, I bear him great love..."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 21: painter; architect; poet

1504

November 7

on Monday

3 months, 8 days later

Christopher Columbus returns to Spain from his fourth voyage, during which he and his younger son, Ferdinand, explored the coast of Central America from Belize to Panama.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Spain was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Panama was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 53: man

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1504

Winter

Leonardo's work on the cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari was suddenly interrupted in the last months of 1504, and he went to Piombino on a somewhat official mission as a military architect. (During his absence Michelangelo was to receive the commission for the Battle of Cascina.) His mission was preceded by a diplomatic action conducted by Machiavelli himself. It can be inferred, therefore, that it was Machiavelli who suggested Leonardo's name for the programme of fortification projects suggested by Jacopo IV Appiano, Lord of Piombino, an ally of the Florentines at the time of the Pisian war, 1503-4, when Leonardo had already been consulted on the project of diverting the Arno River for strategic reasons, and when Antonio da Sangallo the Elder was the chief military architect of the Florentine Republic. Leonardo's activity at Piombino, revealed by newly discovered evidence, included the study of the city walls, the citadel and the main gate.

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Astronomical Events

1505

9 months, 5 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II, commissioned to create the tomb for the pope, and spends eight months in the quarries of Carrara selecting marble for the tomb.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 62: pope; cardinal

1505

The Marchioness Isabella Gonzaga of Mantua endeavours through Cardinal Bembo to obtain from Giovanni Bellini another picture, this time of a secular or mythological character.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516), aged 75: painter

1505

Giovanni Bellini paints the The San Zaccaria Altarpiece, which is considered perhaps the most beautiful and imposing of all his altarpieces.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516), aged 75: painter

1505

Michelangelo chances upon Leonardo da Vinci discussing Dante at Piazza della Signoria and berates him for his failure to cast The Horse.

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Astronomical Events

1505

Painting the Mona Lisa

Leonardo da Vinci had musicians play music to entertain Lisa when painting her portrait.

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Astronomical Events

1505

Leonardo da Vinci resumes his studies on flight, at Fiesole.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1505

April

3 months later

WorkedOn

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1505

June 15

on Thursday

2 months, 15 days later

Died

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

No agents

1505

July 2

on Sunday

17 days later

Martin Luther vows to become a monk in a moment of terror, due to a near lightning strike during a thunderstorm, near the village of Stotternheim.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Stotternheim was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1505

1505

July 6

on Thursday

4 days later

Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Battle of Anghiari in the Palazzo Vecchio with the help of a few assistants.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1505

July 17

on Monday

11 days later

Martin Luther enters the monastic life at an Augustinian cloister in Erfurt.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Erfurt was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1505

1506

5 months, 18 days later

Albrecht Dürer, visiting Venice for a second time, describes Giovanni Bellini as still the best painter in the city, and as full of all courtesy and generosity towards foreign brethren of the brush.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1506

Leonardo da Vinci took three months' leave of absence from his work on the Battle of Anghiari mural in Florence to go to Milan in the service of the French governor Charles d'Amboise, who commissioned the project of a house and garden from him.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1506

TravelledTo

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1506

Pope Julius II gives his illegitimate daughter, Felice, in marriage to Giovanni Giordano Orsini.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

Leonardo da Vinci returns to Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1506

Leonardo returns to Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1506

January 14

on Sunday

13 days later

The classical statue of Laocoön and His Sons is unearthed in Rome. On the recommendation of Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo, Pope Julius II purchases it and places it on public display in the Vatican a month later.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 22

on Monday

8 days later

The Swiss Guard arrives at the Vatican, to serve as permanent ceremonial and palace guards under Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 24

on Wednesday

2 days later

Pope Julius II confirms papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations and approves the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

April 18

on Wednesday

2 months, 24 days later

Pope Julius II lays the cornerstone of the Basilica of St. Peter's.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

14 days later

p22 From Florence, May 2nd, 1506.
To the Florentine Maestro Guliano da San Gallo Architect to the Pope, in Rome.

Guliano (sic), I learn from a letter sent by you that the Pope was angry at my departure, that he is willing to place the money at my disposal and to carry out what was agreed upon between us ; also, that I am to come back and fear nothing. As far as my departure is concerned, the truth is that on Holy Saturday I heard the Pope, speaking at table with a jeweller and the Master of the Ceremonies, say that he did not want to spend another baiocco on stones, whether small or large, which surprised me very much. However, before I set out I asked him for some of the money required for the continuance of my work. His Holiness replied that I was to come back again on Monday: and I went on Monday, and on Tuesday, and on Wednesday, and on Thursday as His Holiness saw. At last, on the Friday morning, I was turned out, that is to say, I was driven away : and the person who turned me away said he knew who I was, but that such were his orders. Thereupon, having heard those words on the Saturday and seeing them afterwards put into execution, I lost all hope. But this alone was not the whole reason of my departure. There was also another cause, but I do not wish to write about it ; enough that it made me think that, if I were to remain in Rome, my own tomb would be prepared before that of the Pope. This is the reason for my sudden departure. Now you write to me on behalf of the Pope, and in similar manner you will read this letter to the Pope. Give His HoHness to understand that I am more eager to proceed with the work than ever I was before, and that if he really wishes to have this tomb erected it would be well for him not to vex me as to where the work is to be done, provided that within the agreed period of five years it be erected in St. Peter's, on the site he shall choose, and that it be a beautiful work, as I have promised : for I am persuaded that it will be a work without an equal in all the world if it be carried out.

p24 If His Holiness now wishes to proceed, let him deposit the said money here in Florence with a person whose name I will communicate to you. I have a quantity of marble in preparation at Carrara, which I will have sent here, and I will do the same with the marble I have in Rome, although it will entail a considerable loss to me : but I should disregard that if by this means I could obtain permission to carry out the work here. From time to time I would despatch the pieces as they are finished, in such a manner that His Holiness would be as well content as if I were working in Rome — more, indeed, because he would see the completed works without having any anxiety. With regard to the aforesaid money and work, I will bind myself in any way His Holiness may direct, and I will furnish whatever security here in Florence he may require. Let it be what it may, I will give him full security, even though it be the whole of Florence. There is yet one thing I have to add : it is this, that the said work could not possibly be done for the price in Rome, but it could be done here because of the many conveniences which are available, such as could not be had in Rome. Moreover, I should do better work and take more interest in it, because I should not have to think about a number of other things. However, Guliano mio carissimo I beg of you to let me have an answer, and quickly. I have nothing further to add. This 2nd day of May, 1506.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

November 6

on Tuesday

6 months, 8 days later

Pope Julius II personally leads his troops into Bologna, retaking the city from the excommunicated tyrant Giovanni II Bentivoglio.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

December 19

on Wednesday

1 month, 13 days later

p25 From Bologna, December 19th, (1506) To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni in Florence.

Buonarroto, -- To-day, this 19th day of December, I have received a letter from thee in which thou recommendest to me Pietro Orlandini (Aldobrandini), asking me to perform what he requires of me. Know that he has written asking me to have a dagger blade made for him, and that he wants it to be of admirable workmanship. However, I do not know how I can serve him quickly and well ; one reason being that it is not my craft, and the other that I have no time to attend to it. I will endeavour, nevertheless, to secure that before a month has passed he shall be served to the best of my ability. I received thy tidings concerning your daily life, and especially the news about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter the same shop as thyself and that he is eager to improve, for I desire to assist him as well as you others ; and if God help me, as He has ever done, I hope before Lent is over to p26 have finished what I have to do here, when I will return to Florence and will assuredly do for you as I promised. With reference to the money which, as thou sayest, Giovansimone wishes to invest in a shop, it seems to me better that he should wait for another four months so that the "flash and the report" may take place simultaneously. I know thou wilt understand my meaning, so I will say no more. Tell him from me to strive towards improvement, and that if, after all, he should want the money of which thou speakest in thy letter, it will have to be withdrawn from my account in Florence, for I have none here to send, as I am receiving but a low price for the work I am doing ; moreover, it is very uncertain, and something might easily happen to throw me upon my beam ends. For these reasons I exhort you all to be patient and to wait these few months until I return.

As to Giovansimone's coming here, I do not advise him to come yet, for I live here in a poor room and have bought only one bed, in which four persons have to sleep, so that I have not the means to receive him as he asks. But if he still wishes to come here, let him wait until I have cast the figure I am modelling, when I will send off Lapo and Lodovico, who are helping me, and will despatch a horse for him, so that he may not arrive here like a beast of burden. No more. Pray to God for me that my affairs may go well.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 29

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", p25-6

1507

13 days later

WorkedOn

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1507

Leonardo da Vinci is back in Florence trying to sort out litigation issues with his brothers over his father's estate.

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Astronomical Events

1507

TravelledTo

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1507

Leonardo da Vinci meets Francesco Melzi, a Milanese gentleman who becomes his pupil and one of his lifelong companions.

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Astronomical Events

1507

January 22

on Tuesday

21 days later

p27 From Bologna, January 22nd, 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, opposite to the Apothecary, della Palla, near the Porta Rossa.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee, from which I learn that Lodovico has arranged with Francesco about Mona Zanobia's farm. Thou tellest me also that Giovansimone has begun to attend the same shop as thyself, and that he wants to come here to Bolognia. I have not replied before because I have not had time until to-day. With regard to the above-mentioned farm, thou sayest that Lodovico has entered into an agreement, and that he is going to write to me on the subject. Please understand that if he has written to me I have never received any letter which deals with the matter please tell him this, therefore, so that he may not p28 be surprised at receiving no reply to his letter, if he has written one.

I will tell thee my views about Giovansimone, so that thou mayest impart them to him on my behalf. I do not wish him to come here before I have cast the figure I have in hand, and for this I have a sufficient reason, though do not ask me what it is. Enough that as soon as I have cast the figure I will see that he shall come here without fail. It will then be less inconvenient, as I shall be released from the expenses which I have now to bear.

I expect that by the middle of Lent my figure will be ready for casting, and I pray God that it may turn out well ; for if it be successful I hope to stand well with this Pope and to receive his favour. If I should cast it at mid-Lent and it should turn out well I hope to be in Florence for the Easter festival, and then I will assuredly do by you as I promised, if ye continue to be diligent.

Tell Piero Aldobrandini that I have entrusted his blade to the best worker in such things I can find, and that he promises to let me have it during the coming week. As soon as I receive it I will send it on, if I consider it satisfactory : if not, I will have another made. Tell him also not to be surprised if I have not served him as quickly as I ought, for I have so little time to spare that I could not do otherwise than I have done.

This twenty-second day of January, 1506.

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1507

January 31

on Thursday

9 days later

p29 From Rome, January 31st, 1507.
To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrota Simoni, in
Florence. To be delivered at the Customs
House, Florence.

Most Revered Father, — I learn from one of your letters that the Spedalingo has not yet come back to Florence and that as a consequence you have been unable to conclude the business about the farm as you desired. It has given me annoyance also, for I supposed you had already paid over the money for it. I half suspect that the Spedalingo has gone away on purpose so that he may not have to give up this source of income but may continue to hold both the money and the farm. Please let me know about it, for should matters be as I fear I would take my money from his keeping and place it elsewhere.

As for my affairs here, I should get on all right if only my marbles were to arrive : but I seem to be most unfortunate in this matter, for since I arrived there have not been two fine days in succession. A boat happened to get here some days ago, but it was only by the greatest good fortune that it escaped accident, as the weather was most unfavourable : and as soon as I had unloaded it the river suddenly rose in flood and submerged it (the marble), so that even p30 now I have not been able to set to work on anything, although I make promises to the Pope and encourage him to hope in order that he may not lose his temper with me ; hoping myself all the time that the weather will improve and that I shall soon be able to begin work—God grant it so ! Please take all the drawings, that is to say, all those papers I put into the sack of which I told you, and make them up into a little bundle and send them to me by some carrier. But see that they are securely done up and run no risk of damage from rain, so that not even the smallest paper may suffer hurt. Bid the carrier take good care of them, for some are of the very greatest importance. Write and say into whose charge you have given them and what I have to pay the man. As to Michele, I wrote to say that he was to put that chest in safety somewhere under cover and then come immediately to Rome where he should want for nothing. I do not know what he has done. I beg of you to enquire into this ; and, further, I beg of you to put yourself to a little trouble over these two things — that is to say, first to see that the chest is put in a safe place under cover, and afterwards I would like you to have the marble Madonna brought to your house, and take care that nobody shall see it. I am not sending you any money for these two things because I do not think they will cost much. If you have to borrow, you can do so, because very soon — if my marble arrives I will send you money for this purpose and for your own use.

p31 I wrote asking you to enquire of Bonifazio the name of the man in Lucca to whom he was going to pay those fifty ducats I am sending to Matteo di Cucherello at Carrara, and I asked you to write the name in the unsealed letter I sent you, which you were to forward to the said Matteo at Carrara so that he might know where to go in Lucca in order to get the money. I expect you have already done this. I beg you also to tell me to whom Bonifazio is paying the money at Lucca, so that I may know his name and can write to Matteo at Carrara telling him from whom he is to receive the said money in Lucca. No more. Do not send me anything more than I write for : my clothes and shirts I give to you and to Giovansimone. Pray to God that my affairs may prosper, and bear in mind that I wish you to invest about a thousand ducats of my money in land, as we have agreed.

On the thirty-first day of January, one thousand five hundred and six.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Rome.

P.S. — Lodovico : I beg you to send on the enclosed letter addressed to Piero d'Argiento, and I beg you to see that he receives it. I think it might be well to send it through the medium of the Jesuits, as he visits them frequently. I beg you to see to this.

Note

The Michele mentioned in this letter is Michele di Piero di Pippo, a stone cutter of Settignano, who was p32 sent to Carrara in connection with the marbles for the facade of San Lorenzo in Florence. With regard to the "Madonna" mentioned further on, it is not certain whether Michelangelo refers to the marble bas-relief now preserved in the Casa Buonarroti in Florence or to the Madonna and Child which is the chief treasure of Notre Dame at Bruges. In passing, it may be worth while to draw attention to the obvious nervousness which marks all Michelangelo's financial transactions. The instructions with regard to the banker at Lucca are characteristic, and afford sufficient proof of the artist's aversion to trusting his money in the hands of other people.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Lucca was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1507

February 1

on Friday

1 day later

p32 Bologna, February 1st, 1507. To Buonarroto di Lodovico Simone, in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I learn from thy letters how matters have gone with regard to the small farm : it has given me the greatest satisfaction and I am well pleased, provided it is a sure thing.

I have made careful enquiries about this Baronciello business, and from what I have heard it is a far more serious thing than ye make it out to be : and for my part, seeing that it is unfair, I would not ask it of him. We are all of us under considerable obligation to Baronciello, and we will do our best to fulfil those obligations, especially such as lie in our power. Thou must know that on Friday evening, at the twenty-first hour. Pope Julius came to my house where I am at work, and remained for about half an hour while I was working. Then he gave me his blessing p33 and went away, showing himself well satisfied with what I am doing. For all this it seems to me we ought to thank God very heartily ; and so I beg you to do, and to pray for me.

I have to inform thee further that on Friday morning I sent away Lapo and Lodovico, who were with me. I turned Lapo away because he was conspiringagainst me and is a rogue, and would not do as he was bid. Lodovico is better, and I would have kept him on for another two months ; but Lapo, in order not to be the only one blamed, corrupted him in such a way that both have been sent off. I tell thee this not because I am troubled by them — for they are not worth three quattrini the two together — but so that, if they come to talk to Lodovico, he should not be surprised. Tell him on no account to listen to them: if thou desirest to know more go to Messer Agniolo, Herald of the Signoria, for I have sent him a full account of the matter, and he of his kindness will give thee all information.

I note what thou sayest about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter thy master's shop and endeavour to make progress : encourage him to do his best, for if this matter turns out well I have hopes of placing you in a good position, if ye are prudent. With reference to that other land beside Mona Zanobia's, if Lodovico likes it tell him to enquire into the matter and let me know. I believe, and it is said here, that the Pope will go hence about Carnival.

On the first day of February, 1506 (1507).

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO DI BUONARROTA SIMONI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 30
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 64: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; p. 32-3

1507

February 8

on Friday

7 days later

p34 From Bologna. To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrotta Simoni, in Florence. The 8th day of February, 1506 (1507).

Most Revered Father, — I have to-day received a letter from you, from which I learn that Lapo and Lodovico have been talking to you. I am content that you should rebuke me, because I deserve to be rebuked as a wretch and a transgressor quite as much as anyone else, and perhaps more. But you must understand that I have not transgressed in any wise in the matter for which you rebuke me, either against them or against anyone else, unless it be that I have done more than I ought. All the men with whom I have ever had dealings know very well what I give them ; and if anyone knows it, Lapo and Lodovico are the two who know it best of all, for in a month and a half one of them has had twenty-seven broad ducats and the other eighteen broad ducats, each with their expenses. Therefore I beg of you not to be carried away by their story. When they complained about me you ought to have asked how long they were with me and how much they had received from me then you would have had to ask them what cause they had for complaint. But the reason of their great anger, particularly of that rascal Lapo, is this they had given it out on all sides that they were the men who were doing this work, or rather, that they were in partnership with me ; and they never realised — Lapo in particular — that he was not the master until I sent him off. Only then did he understand that he was in my service ; and having already given p35 a great deal of trouble and caused the Pope's favour to show signs of declining, it appeared a strange thing to him that I should drive him away like a beast. I am sorry that he should still have seven ducats of mine, but when I return to Florence he shall most assuredly pay me back, though if he has any conscience he would also feel obliged to give me back the other money he has received. But enough. I shall say no more about it as I have written a sufficiently full account of their performances to Messer Agniolo (the Herald). I beg you to go to him, and if you can take Granaccio with you, do so, and let him read the letter I have written so that he may understand what abject creatures they are. But I beg of you to keep silent as to what I have written about Lodovico, for if I cannot find anyone else to come here and cast the metal I shall endeavour to get him back, because as a matter of fact I have not dismissed him ; only Lapo, who received more blame than he cared to support alone, lightened his own load by corrupting Lodovico. You will learn the whole matter from the Herald, and also how you are to act. Do not have any dealings with Lapo, for he is too great a scoundrel, and we have nothing to do with either of them.

With reference to Giovansimone, it does not seem to me advisable that he should come here, as the Pope is leaving during Carnival ; I believe he will visit Florence on the way, and he does not leave affairs here in good order. According to rumour, there is a want of confidence prevalent here which it is wise neither to inquire into nor to write about : but enough that, even if nothing were to happen — and I believe p36 nothing will — I do not want to have the care of brothers on my shoulders. Do not be surprised at this and do not breathe a word of it to anyone, because I have need of assistants, and I should find none willing to come if this were known. And besides, I still think things may turn out well. I shall soon be back in Florence and I will behave in such a manner as to satisfy Giovansimone and the others, if it please God ! To-morrow I will write you another letter with reference to certain moneys I wish to send to Florence, telling you what to do with them. I understand about Piero ; he will answer on my behalf, for he is a good fellow, as he has always been.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

P.S. I have something else to add in reply to the curious behaviour Lapo attributes to me. I want to tell you one thing, and it is this. I bought seven hundred and twenty pounds of wax, and before I bought it I told Lapo to find out where it could be got, and to settle the price, saying that I would give him the money so that he could buy it. Lapo went, and came back again, and told me that it could not be got for a farthing less than nine broad ducats and twenty bolognini the hundred (pounds), which is equal to nine ducats forty soldi. He added that I ought to take the opportunity without delay because I had been very fortunate. I replied that he was to go and find out whether he could get the odd forty soldi per hundred knocked off and that I would then buy it. He answered that the Bolognesi were of such a nature that they would not abate one farthing of the price p37 they had asked. This raised my suspicions, and I let the matter drop. Later in the same day I called Piero aside and told him secretly to go and ask the price of the wax per hundred. Piero went to the same man as Lapo and bargained with him for eight and a half ducats, to which price I agreed, and afterwards I sent Piero to receive his commission, and he got that also. This is one of my strange performances. Of a truth I know it seemed strange to him that I was able to see through his deceit. It was not enough for him to receive eight broad ducats a month and his expenses, but in addition he tried to swindle me ; and he may have swindled me on many occasions of which I know nothing, for I trusted him. I have never met a man who appeared more honest, so I suppose his straightforward look must have misled many another person. Therefore do not trust him in anything, and pretend not to see him.

Notes

The Francesco Granaccio mentioned here was a painter and a fellow-student with Michelangelo in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied also with Michelangelo in the Medici Garden at San Marco.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 13

on Wednesday

5 days later

p37 From Bologna, February 13th, 1507.
To Buonarroto di Lodovico Buonarrota Simony in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — I send this as cover to two letters one is to go to Piero Aldobrandini, and the other to Giovanni Balducci in Rome. The latter I wish thee to hand to Bonifazio Fazi so that he may send it on, the other give to the aforesaid Piero. p38 Concerning those two scoundrels, I have no time to tell the whole story of their knavery, and I beg all of you — and tell Lodovico the same — not to refer to their behaviour in any way, for we have not to deal with them in this matter. Let this suffice.

The thirteenth day of February, 1506.
MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 24

on Sunday

11 days later

p38 From Bologna, February 24th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — It is already fifteen days since I sent certain moneys to Lodovico in Florence with certain instructions, and I have never had a reply. I am much surprised at it. Tell Lodovico, therefore, to let me know if he has received them, and if he has done as I asked ; tell him to let me know without fail, because I am annoyed about it and marvel at his want of perception. He is the sort of man that one would entrust with important business again ! I should have expected him to write a hundred letters, to make sure that at least one should reach me. See to it that he informs me without fail as to what steps he has taken and that the letter is sent in such a way as to reach me.

Yesterday I sent to see if Piero's dagger was finished and found that it had still to be gilt. The man has kept me waiting for a month, but the truth is that he was not able to do otherwise, for owing to the departure of the Court he has had to supply weapons to all the courtiers and has had a very great deal to do. It p39 is for this reason he has kept me waiting. Tell Piero not to be anxious, for in any case he shall have it in a few days. The Pope went away on Monday morning at the sixteenth hour, and if thou desirest to learn in what state he has left my affairs, go to the Herald and he will tell thee. I have no time to write.

The twenty-fourth day of February.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Source: Primary

p.38-9

1507

March 6

on Wednesday

10 days later

p39 From Bologna, March 6th, 1507.
To Buonarroto di Lodovico Buonarroti
in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I did not reply to thy letter or to Piero Aldobrandini's because I had decided not to write until I had received the said Piero's dagger. It is now two months ago that I entrusted this work to a man who has the reputation of being he most skilful master to be found in his particular craft, and although he has kept me waiting until now I did not wish to have it made by anyone else, nor to annul the agreement : wherefore, the aforesaid Piero has some excuse if he considers I have treated him badly, but I could not do otherwise.

Now I have got the dagger back again, or rather, I have got it ; but only this morning, and with much difficulty, for my lad Piero had been obliged to go for it so many times that he was ready to beat the maker over the head with it. Please note that the gold-beater, Chiaro di Bartolomeo, will be the bearer of this and that he will also bring the dagger. See that Chiaro is paid what is due for bringing it, and give it p40 to Piero. If it does not please him, tell him to send me word, and I will have another one made ; and tell him also that since the Court came here every craftsman and all the arts have risen to great dignity and esteem, wherefore he must not marvel if I have so long delayed sending it, for I, too, have had much to think of. This one workman alone has more on his hands since the Court was here than the whole of Bolognia had previously. I have no time for writing. I wrote to Lodovico saying I had received his letters and telling him how I had been deceived, as he will now be able to understand.

On the sixth day of March, 1506.
MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1507

March 26

on Tuesday

20 days later

p40 From Bologna, March 26th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni,
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee acquainting me with the whole story of Piero Aldobrandini and the dagger. I may tell thee that if it were not for love of thee I would leave him to babble on as long as he liked. Thou must know that the blade I sent, and thou hast received, was made according to his — that is to say, Piero's measurements, for he sent me a drawing in a letter and told me that I was to get it made exactly like that. I did so. However, if he wanted a dagger he should not have sent me measurements for a rapier : but I wish to tell thee in this letter what I would not say before, and that is, that thou hadst better not have p41 dealings with him because it is not thy business. If he should come to thee for the aforesaid blade, by no means let him have it ; put a good face on the matter and tell him I gave it to one of my friends that will be enough. I may tell thee that it cost me nineteen carlini here, with thirteen quattrini for the tax.

My affairs here are proceeding favourably, by the grace of God, and I hope to cast my figure before a month is past. Pray God, therefore, that it may turn out well, so that I may return quickly to you, for I am minded to do for you all as I promised. Be kind to Giovansimone and tell him to write to me sometimes, and say to Lodovico that I am well and that I will certainly let him know before I cast my figure. Commend me to Granaccio when thou seest him. I have nothing more to tell thee. The plague is beginning here, and is of a virulent type, for wherever it enters it carries off all within the house, although at present it has not claimed many victims — forty households, perhaps, so they tell me.

This twenty-sixth day of March.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Bolognia.

P.S. — If thou hast given the dagger to Piero say no more about it, but if thou hast not done so do not give it him at all.

Note

Much to Michelangelo's satisfaction, Piero refused the dagger, which enabled the artist to give it to Filippo Strozzi, who had admired it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1507

April 20

on Saturday

25 days later

p43 From Bologna, April 20th, (1507). To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — I have not replied to a letter received from thee several days ago because I have not had the time. In this letter I have to tell thee that up to the present my work goes well, and accordingly I have hopes that it will finish satisfactorily — please God it may be so ! And if it should be so — that is to say, if I come out of this affair well — I will come, or rather, return, to you immediately, and I will do all that I have promised each one of you ; that is to say, I will help you with all I have — in what way you and our father will be able to judge for yourselves. Therefore be of good cheer, and be diligent in thy shop, making the most of every opportunity ; for I hope that before long ye will be keeping a shop by yourselves and for yourselves. If ye understand the business and know how to trade it will be of very great assistance. Wherefore attend to thy work with diligence. Thou writest of a certain friend of thine, a doctor, who has told thee that the plague is a dangerous disease and that people die of it. I am very glad to know of this because it is very prevalent here and these Bolognesi have not yet learnt that it is fatal. Wherefore it would be a good thing if he were to come p44 here, because then he would perhaps teach them by experience, and they would greatly benefit thereby. I have nothing more to tell thee. I am well and getting on satisfactorily : I hope soon to be back in Florence.

On the 20th day of April. I had no more paper. MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

Note

Giovan Simone Buonarroti was born on March 9th, 1479. He was four years younger than Michelangelo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1507

April 20

on Saturday

p42 From Bologna, April 20th, (1507). To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni, in Florence.

Buonarroto,—To-day I have received thy letter of the 17th of April, from which I learn the long journey my letters have to make before reaching Florence. I cannot alter it, because the arrange- ments are bad. I have learnt many things from thy letter, but I do not reply to them because there is no need. I am sorry thou hast behaved to Filippo Strozzi in so miserly a fashion over so small a matter (i.e.^ the dagger), but since it is done it cannot be undone.

With regard to my own affairs, I am writing to Giovansimone and he will tell thee how I prosper : say the same to Lodovico.

I would like thee to go to the Herald and tell him that as I have never received a reply from him with reference to Messer Bernardino I have concluded that the said Messer Bernardino is unwilling to come here for fear of the pestilence ; wherefore I have engaged a Frenchman to take his place, who will serve me well. I did this because I could not wait any longer. Please let this be known, that is to say, tell Messer Agniolo (the Herald). Commend me to him, and tell him to commend me to his lordship the Gonfaloniere (Piero Soderini). Commend me to Giovanni da Ricasoli when thou seest him. The twentieth day of April.

MiCHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

NOTE p47 The Messer Bernardino is Bernardino d'Antonio dal Ponte di Milano, superintendent of artillery to the Florentine Republic from 1504 to 1512. He took Lodovico di GugHelmo del Buono's place with Michelangelo, and cast the figure of Julius.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1507

April 28

on Sunday

8 days later

p44 From Bologna, April 28th, (1507). To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Sinioni, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, in Porta Rossa.

Giovan Simone, — I have already replied to a letter from thee some days ago. By this time I believe thou wilt have received mine and wilt have learnt my views. If thou hast not received it, thou wilt learn from this letter all that I wrote to thee in the last. I expect Buonarroto will have told thee of my intentions, and thou mayst take it all for settled, for directly I reach Florence, I intend, with God's permission, to set you up in business either by yourselves or in partnership, whichever ye desire, and in whatever manner may appear to us the most secure. Wherefore be of good courage and rely upon what I have told thee as being a certainty. I have no time now for writing ; therefore I will write again more fully later on. I am well and have finished my figure in p45 wax. This coming week I shall begin to make the outer mould, and expect to have it complete in from twenty to twenty-five days. After that I shall prepare for the casting, and if it comes out well I shall be in Florence shortly after.

On the 28th day of April. MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1507

May 2

on Thursday

4 days later

p. 45 From Bologna, May 2nd, (1507).
To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee which gave me much pleasure. Since then I have written thee two letters, and I suppose I have had the same good fortune with respect to them that I usually have, that is to say, I suppose they have not arrived.

I may tell thee that, please God, two months will not pass before I return to Florence : and all that I have promised to do for Buonarroto and for thee I am prepared to carry out. I do not write to thee of my intentions at full length, nor do I say how eager I am to help you, because I am loath that others should get to know of our affairs : be of good cheer, however, for greater — or rather, better — things are in store for thee than thou thinkest. I have no more to tell thee on this head. Thou must know that here everyone is preparing for war, and this is the fourth day that the whole district has been under arms and a prey to rumoured dangers, with which the Church in especial is threatened : the cause of it being the Bentivogli, p46 who have made an attempt to enter the city with a great following of people. The high courage and prudence of his lordship the Legate, however, and the admirable precautions he has taken have, I believe, saved the patrimony from them once more, since at the twenty-third hour this evening we had news from their forces that they were turning back again with small honour to themselves, No more. Pray God for me : and live in happy expectation, because soon I shall be back in Florence.

The 2nd day of May.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

Note

The Bentivogli, sometime lords of Bologna, had been driven out by the Papal forces, and it was as a result of this reoccupation that Julius visited the city, as related in Michelangelo's letters. Shortly after the Pope's departure, however, Annibale Bentivoglio made the attempt to which this letter refers, but was repulsed by the Papal Legate, the Cardinal di Pavia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1507

July 4

on Thursday

2 months, 3 days later

Martin Luther is ordained a priest of the Catholic Church.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1507

1507

July 6

on Saturday

2 days later

p. 46 Bologna, July 6th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Buonarroto, — Learn that we have cast my statue, and that I was not over fortunate with it, the reason being that Maestro Bernardino, either through ignorance or misfortune, failed to melt the metal sufficiently. It would take too long to explain how it happened : enough that my figure has come out up to the waist, the remainder of the metal — half the p. 47 bronze, that is to say — having caked in the furnace, as it had not melted ; and to get it out the furnace must be taken to pieces. I am having this done, and! this week I shall have it built up again. Next week I shall recast the upper portion and finish filling the mould, and I believe it will turn out tolerably well after so bad a beginning, though only as the result of the greatest labour, worry and expense. I was ready to believe that Maestro Bernardino could melt his metal without fire, so great was my confidence in him : but all the same it is not that he is not a skilled master, or that he did not work with a will. But he who tries may fail. His failure has been costly to him as well as to me, for he has disgraced himself to such an extent that he dare not raise his eyes in Bologna.

If thou shouldst meet Baccio d'Agnolo, read this letter to him and beg him to inform San Gallo in Rome, and commend me to him. Commend me also to Giovanni da Ricasoli and to Granaccio. If this turns out satisfactorily I hope to be finished with it in from fifteen to twenty days, when I will return to you. If it is not successful I should perhaps have to do it again, but I will keep you informed.

Let me know how Giovansimone is.
On the 6th day of July.

P.S. With this I shall enclose a letter for Giuliano da San Gallo in Rome. Send it as securely and as quickly as thou canst : if he should be in Florence, give it into his hands.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1507

October 16

on Wednesday

3 months, 12 days later

p.48

From Bologna, October (16th), 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonaryota Simoni,

in Florence.

Buonarroto,—

I have no time to reply to thy last letter as it deserves, but thou mayst learn that I am well and shall soon have finished, and expect to win very great honour ; all of which proceedeth from the grace of God. Directly I have completed my work I shall come to Florence, and then I will deal in such a way with all the matters of which thou writest that ye shall be satisfied, and Lodovico and Giovansimone as well. I pray thee go and seek out the Herald and the Commandant Tommaso (Balducci) : tell them I have not time to write, or rather, to reply to their very welcome letters ; but that by the next post I will assuredly write something to them by way of reply. Also I beg thee to seek out San Gallo, and to tell him that I expect to have finished soon. Find out how he is, and tell him that by the next post I will write and inform him how the work is going on. No more.

The — day of October.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1507

November 10

on Sunday

25 days later

From Bologna, November 10th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni,

Buonarroto, — I marvel that thou writest to me so seldom. I am sure thou hast more leisure for writing to me than I have for writing to thee, so let me have news from thee frequently.

Thy last letter informed me that thou hadst good 49 reason to wish for my speedy return, with the result that for several days I was uneasy in my mind. Therefore, when thou writest, write boldly and explain matters clearly so that I may understand them. Let this suffice.

Know that I look forward to my early return far more eagerly than ye could possibly do, for I live here in the greatest discomfort, subject to the greatest anxieties, and do nothing but labour day and night. I have undergone and am undergoing so much strain that, if I were obliged to make another figure, I do not believe my life would suffice for it, as the undertaking has been one of enormous difficulty ; had it been entrusted to anyone else it would have turned out a failure. But I believe the intercessions of somebody or other have assisted me and kept me in health, for all Bologna was of opinion that I should never complete it : both since it was cast and before, when there was no one who believed the casting would ever take place. However, it is now well on the way to completion, though it will not be finished by the end of this month as I had expected ; but next month it will certainly be off my hands, and I will return to Florence. So be of good cheer, all of ye, for I will do as I promised, whatever happens. Cheer Lodovico and Giovansimone in my name and let me know how Giovansimone is getting on : strive to learn and acquire a knowledge of the business, so that when the time comes ye may know how to trade for yourselves, which will be before long.

On the tenth day of November.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1508

1 month, 22 days later

TravelledTo

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1508

Leonardo da Vinci is back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale.

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Astronomical Events

1508

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II and asked to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

February

1 month, 1 day later

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks the Republic of Venice.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 49: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

February

Michelangelo returns to Florence.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1508

May 10

on Sunday

3 months, 9 days later

Piero Soderini wrote to the Marquis of Massa-Carrara, begging him to retain a large block of marble until Michelangelo could come in person and superintend its rough-hewing for a colossal statue to be placed on the Piazza in Florence.

Attachments
Portrait of Piero Soderini, by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Massa and Carrara was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Piero Soderini (1452-1522), aged 56: politician

Source: Primary

John Addington Symonds; "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.280

1508

May 10

on Sunday

p. 50

May 10th, 1508 :

"I record that on this tenth day of May, in the year one thousand five hundred and eight, I, Michelagniolo, sculptor, have received from his Holiness, our p.51lord Pope Julius the Second, five hundred ducats of the Camera, which were paid to me by Messer Carlino, Chamberlain, and by Messer Carlo degli Albizzi, on account of the paintings in the vault of the Chapel of Pope Sixtus, on which I begin to work this day, under the conditions and stipulations set forth in the document prepared by His Most Reverend Lordship of Pa(via) and subscribed by my hand.

"For the assistant painters who are to come from Florence, who will be five in number, twenty gold ducats of the Camera each, with this proviso : that is to say, when they have arrived and have entered into an agreement with us, the aforesaid twenty ducats which each will have received shall be reckoned as part of their wages, these wages to be due as from the day of their departure from Florence. And if they shall not enter into an agreement with us, they are to retain one-half of the said sum for the expenses of their journey and for their time."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

June 6

on Saturday

27 days later

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a 3-year truce and cede several territories to the Republic.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

December 10

on Thursday

6 months, 7 days later

The League of Cambrai is formed as an alliance against the Republic of Venice between Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

Winter

Raphael is invited to Rome by the new pope, Julius II, perhaps at the instigation of the papal architect, Bramante. Raphael dwells in Rome until his death.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal
Bramante (1444-1514), aged 64: architect
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet

1508

Winter

Raphael is commissioned by Pope Julius II to fresco his private library at the Vatican Palace.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1509

9 months, 5 days later

Earliest known pocket watch made at Nuremberg, Germany by Peter Henlein.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

March 22

on Monday

2 months, 20 days later

Begun at Florence, in the house of Piero di Braccio Martelli, on the 22nd day of March 1508(1). And this is to be a collection without order, taken from many papers which I have copied here, hoping to arrange them later each in its place, according to the subjects of which they may treat. But I believe that before I am at the end of this [task] I shall have to repeat the same things several times; for which, O reader! do not blame me, for the subjects are many and memory cannot retain them [all] and say: 'I will not write this because I wrote it before.' And if I wished to avoid falling into this fault, it would be necessary in every case when I wanted to copy [a passage] that, not to repeat myself, I should read over all that had gone before; and all the more since the intervals are long between one time of writing and the next.

(1) addi 22 di marzo 1508. The Christian era was computed in Florence at that time from the Incarnation (Lady day, March 25th). Hence this should be 1509 by our reckoning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:04 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

Source: Primary

Richter, Jean Paul. 'Scritti Letterari di Leonardo da Vinci,' Part 1: p. 12

1509

April 27

on Tuesday

1 month, 6 days later

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

May 14

on Friday

17 days later

French forces defeat the Venetians in the Battle of Agnadello.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

May 14

on Friday

Battle of Agnadello takes place.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1509

September 10

on Friday

3 months, 29 days later

Istanbul earthquake destroys 109 mosques and kills an estimated 10,000 people.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

Spring

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal