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1480

The Anonimo Gaddiano claims that Leonardo da Vinci is living with the Medici and working in the Garden of the Piazza San Marco in Florence, a Neo-Platonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers.

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1480

WorkedOn

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1480

Giocomo Salai is born in Milan.

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Giocomo Salai (1480-1524): painter

1480

Christopher Columbus makes his first big voyages. He sails between Portugal and Iceland.

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Agents

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), aged 29: man

1480

Cardinal della Rovere is sent as legate to the Netherlands and France to settle the quarrel concerning the Burgundian inheritance between Louis XI and Maximilian of Austria, to obtain the help of France against the Turks, and to effect the liberation of Cardinal Balue whom Louis had held in strict custody since 1469 on account of treasonable acts.

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Giuliano della Rovere, as cardinal (left), with uncle and patron Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV (right)
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1519)
"Louis XI visiting the Cardinal La Balue", by Jean-Leon Gerome

Astronomical Events

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 21: king
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 37: pope; cardinal
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 59: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 57: king

1480

January 20

on Tuesday

19 days later

It seemed doubtful whether the peace would come to anything. And the plague was also making great ravages.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 29

1480

March 13

on Saturday

1 month, 23 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici arrived in Livorno, on his return from Naples. It was considered a marvel that he should have returned, as everyone had doubted the king allowing him to resume his post, and a still greater marvel that he should have been able to arrange everything so diplomatically. God help him!(1)

(1) Lorenzo de' Medici had gone on his own initiative, seeing that the war could no longer be borne, and not wishing to lose the favour and authority that he had acquired in Florence, especially after the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. The Florentines feared lest harm should come to him, and remembered the case of Jacopo Piccinino, who in 1465 unwarily put himself into the hands of the same king, and lost his life. Lorenzo, however, must have felt his ground carefully before moving, and when he returned after having concluded peace, he became more popular and powerful than ever.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Livorno was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1480

March 15

on Monday

2 days later

He (Lorenzo de' Medici) arrived in Florence at 21 in the afternoon (5 p.m.).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1480

March 16

on Tuesday

1 day later

The ratification of peace arrived in the night, about 7 (3 a.m.). There were great rejoicings, with bonfires and ringing of bells.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1480

March 22

on Monday

6 days later

The city gates, which had been shut shortly before, were re-opened.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 29

1480

March 25

on Thursday

3 days later

Peace was proclaimed, and the image of Our Lady of Santa Maria Impruneta was brought to Florence for the fete.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1480

March 29

on Monday

4 days later

(Ash Wednesday). The Pope sent an aggravatoria(1) forbidding anyone to communicate; but as it was not made public, almost everyone communicated, and was troubled in conscience after it became known.

(1) A kind of excommunication. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1480

April 9

on Friday

11 days later

Two ambassadors were sent to the Pope and to Naples: Messer Antonio Ridolfi and Piero di Lutozzi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1480

April 28

on Wednesday

19 days later

Messer Piero Vespucci(1) was liberated from prison, and left Florence, and went to the Duke of Calabria at Siena and stopped there.

At this time it was noised abroad that the Pope had made a league with the Venetians, the Sienese, and the Duke of Urbino.(2) It was not true.

(1) The Duke of Calabria, and his father King Ferdinand, had made urgent solicitations in favour of Vespucci.

(2) Federigo di Montefeltro.

Attachments
Portrait of Federico da Montefeltro, by Piero della Francesca

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

May 7

on Friday

9 days later

Ten Sesti and one Decima were voted; and a Sgravo (decrease) of 3 thousand florins was made and an Aggravo (increase) of a thousand florins.(1)

At this time the Duke of Calabria was sent a sum of 30 thousand florins, on several occasions. It may be imagined what need there was for these taxes of Sesti and Decime. We Florentines have the wise custom of giving money in payment to everyone who does us an injury, and who destroys and pillages our territory. And this is not a solitary instance; it will always be the same; anyone who wants money from the Florentines has only to do them an injury.

(1) A Sgravo means that some taxes were lowered or remitted; whilst on others there was an increase (Aggravo). See note to 13th June, 1478. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1480

May 27

on Thursday

20 days later

The wife of Giovanni de' Pazzi, and one of the Giugni, and many others, were arrested, who wished to liberate the Pazzi at Volterra.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1480

June 2

on Wednesday

6 days later

Signor Roberto entered Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

June 3

on Thursday

1 day later

Messer Piero Vespucci was permitted to return to Florence, and was restituted in all his rights, according to the wish of the duke.(1)

At this time the price of grain fell to 15 soldi the bushel, and the like low prices.

(1) He, however, preferred leaving Tuscany, and went to offer his services to the Sforza in Milan, and was appointed Ducal Councillor by Ludovico il Moro. Sent to exercise his authority at the city of Alessandria, he met with a tragic end, being killed in 1485 in a popular rising.

Attachments
Portrait of Ludovico Sforza

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Tuscany was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

June 20

on Sunday

17 days later

The Duke of Calabria confined within limits 18 knights and citizens of Siena. He also kept his soldiers in the city, so that he was master of the situation. And the Sienese did not consider it at all just that he should act in this way, but he chose to do so. He had the idea of acting in the same way with regard to us; but please God, by a great miracle, it happened that on the 6th August the Turkish army came to Otranto and began to besiege it; so it was necessary to leave our neighbourhood, at the king's command, and return to defend the kingdom. The Turks were encamped in three places, being at Rodi (Rhodes), and with the Hungarians, besides at Otranto.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Rhodes was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1480

August 18

on Wednesday

1 month, 29 days later

A cardinal,(1) one of the king's sons, arrived in Florence, on his way from Hungary to Rome.

(1) Giovanni d'Aragona.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Hungary was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1480

September 2

on Thursday

15 days later

Two silk-mercers' shops in Porta Santa Maria, near Vacchereccia(1) were burnt down; and the other night the whole Canto di Vacchereccia as far as the Chiassolino del Buco was burnt down.(2) And the fire rushed across to the opposite side of the street and burnt down all the other corner of the Vacchereccia, destroying about 20 shops of the silk-mercers and money-changers. There was great loss, many having all their property consumed.

And at this time there was much talk about the loss of Otranto, and Leccio was feared for.

(1) The street still so called, between Via Por San Maria and the Piazza, named after the tower of the Vacca, belonging to the old Casa del Foraboschi, and forming the lower-portion of the present tower of the Palazzo Vecchio. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Leccio was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1480

September 27

on Monday

25 days later

A certain hermit came to the house of Lorenzo de' Medici at the Poggio a Caiano; and the servants declared that he intended to murder Lorenzo, so they took him and sent him to the Bargello, and he was put to the rack.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 31: patron; poet; ruler

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 31

1480

October 15

on Friday

18 days later

This hermit died at Santa Maria Novella, having been tortured in various ways. It was said that they skinned the soles of his feet, and then burnt them by holding them in the fire till the fat dripped off them; after which they set him upright and made him walk across the great h all; and these things caused his death. Opinions were divided as to whether he were guilty or innocent.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1480

October 27

on Wednesday

12 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici sends a delegation of painters to Rome

Cosimo Rosselli leaves Florence for Rome, together with other Florentine painters, where he has been called as part of the reconciliation project between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, and Pope Sixtus IV. The Florentines start to work in the The Sistine Chapel as early as the Spring of 1481, along with Perugino, who is already there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 31: patron; poet; ruler
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 66: pope
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 34: painter

1480

November 4

on Thursday

8 days later

Twelve ambassadors were appointed to go to the Pope; and they set out on the 15th November.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 66: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 31

1480

December 5

on Sunday

1 month, 1 day later

The Cardinal of Mantua(1) passed through Florence, on his way from Mantua to Rome.

(1) Francesco Gonzaga.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Mantua was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1481

27 days later

Michelangelo's mother dies.

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1481

Draft of a letter from Leonardo da Vinci to Ludovico Sforza:

Your Gracious Highness! I have sufficiently seen and tested the productions of all who are considered masters of the art of inventing war-machines. And since the working and function of these instruments is no different from that of the machines in common use, I shall endeavour -- approaching no one else -- to make myself clear to Your Excellency and reveal my secrets. I shall put them at your disposal whenever you desire and hope for good results from the things which I shall now briefly describe ...

First: I have a means of making very light bridges which can be very easily transported ... And I have others which are proof against fire and are thus indestructible in battle, easy to take down and put up again, and I also know of a means to get fire to the bridges of the enemy and destroy them. Secondly: In besieging a place I know how to cut off the water in the dikes, also how to construct many drawbridges and other apparatus necessary for such an undertaking. Thirdly: If during a siege the engines cannot be effectively used on account of the height or strength of the town wall, I have a means to destroy every tower or fortification ... Fourthly: I know of a kind of siege-engine which is very light and easy to move and which can be used hurl fire-bombs. Their smoke will terrify, confuse and severely injure the enemy. Fifthly: I know how to construct subterranean caves and winding passages which can be made without any noise ... Sixthly: I can make sound, indestructible armoured vehicles. If these reach the enemy with their cannons, they can compel the largest forces to retreat and afterwards the infantry can follow them in safety and without any let or hindrance. Seventhly: I can make, if necessary, bombards, mortars and other field-guns ... Eighthly: Where cannons cannot be used I shall construct stone-throwing machines, catapults, slings and other instruments, amazing and hitherto completely unknown ... Ninthly: If this should be necessary, I know of apparatus for use at sea for attack and defence, such as ships which can withstand the force of the strongest opponents and produce dust and smoke. In time of peace I believe I can achieve something in architecture, as well as another, both in building public and private buildings and in channelling water from one place to another. Further, I work as a sculptor in marble, bronze and clay and can paint as well as others with whom I may be compared. I could also add my labours to the bronze horse which is to contribute to the undying fame and eternal memory of your father and the renowned house of Sforza ...

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Source: Primary

Leonardo da Vinci; 'Letters of the Great Artists', p. 34-8

1481

Created

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1481

After a bitter struggle for the duchy of Milan with the child-regent Gian Galeazzo Sforza's mother, Bona of Savoy, followed, the boy's uncle, Ludovico Sforza, emerges as victor and seizes control of the government of Milan.

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Agents

Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), aged 29: duke
Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 12: duke

1481

January 11

on Tuesday

10 days later

Two more ambassadors were appointed to go to Rome: Messer Guido Antonio Vespucci and Pierfilippo Pandolfini.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1481

January 12

on Wednesday

1 day later

Antonio Pucci being Gonfaloniere, carried through the vote for a balzello (a special tax) of 39,000 florins; and had it levied, making it arbitrary.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1481

February 6

on Sunday

25 days later

There was an earthquake (in Florence) at about half-past 4 (12.30 at night), but not a very severe one.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 31

1481

March

23 days later

Leonardo da Vinci receives a commission to paint The Adoration of the Magi for the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto, which he leaves unfinished.

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1481

March 31

on Thursday

1 month later

The fortresses of Colle, Poggibonizi, Monte a Sansovino, and Poggio Imperiale were restituted to us, together with other places, except the Castellina, Montedomenici, Piancaldoli, and Sarzana.

The plague was now decreasing.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1481

April 13

on Wednesday

13 days later

The Pope sent us an Indulgence, to be obtained by attending six churches: Santa Maria del Fiore, the Nunziata dei Servi, Santa Croce, Santa Maria Novella, Santo Spirito, and Sa' Jacopo in Campo Corbolini.(1) And it began on this day and lasted till Easter. Everyone who wished to obtain it had to visit these six churches on three mornings, confessing and doing penance; and had to lend aid, at the said churches, to the forces sent against the Turks.

(1) This church, which was founded in the year 1000, is preceded by a little peristyle closed by wooden gates, as the church is no longer in use. On the capitals of the columns are the arms of the Alberti. In 1206 it passed into the possession of the Knights of Jerusalem, and a good many of their tombs are in the interior. It stands in the Via Faenza, and must not be confounded with either of the two other churches of the same name: San Jacopo tra Fosse, and San Jacopo in Borgo San Jacopo. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1481

May 28

on Saturday

1 month, 15 days later

We heard that the Turkish sultan was dead; but nevertheless the Christians did not yet make a move.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1481

June 2

on Thursday

5 days later

One of the Frescobaldi, and one of the Baldovinetti, and one of the Balducci, were arrested; and on the 6th June they were hung from the windows of the Bargello, or rather, of the Casa del Capitano, having confessed that they had intended to murder Lorenzo de' Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1481

June 8

on Wednesday

6 days later

The Porta a Faenza(1) was closed, because the plague was very bad outside this gate, and was in three or four houses in Florence.

(1) This gate, which was on the Prato, was demolished when the Fortezza di Basso was built, or rather, it was built into the keep of the fort. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1481

August 4

on Thursday

1 month, 27 days later

Twelve men were appointed, and given powers to act for the whole people of Florence. The first thing they did was to decree that whoever owed the commune anything should pay three florins interest on each florin lent.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 32

1481

August 22

on Monday

18 days later

We apothecaries arranged that we should not keep our shops open on holidays till 22 in the evening (6 p.m.), as had hitherto been the custom, but that four shops in the whole city (to be chosen by lot) should remain open all day.(1)

This day it snowed in the mountains of Pistoia.

(1) With regard to this custom, I am pleased to add that on the 15th October, 1547, a decree was published by the Otto di Guardia e di Balia (the Eight), on the observance of the fetes, forbidding any work to be done on these days, and the shops to keep open, with certain exceptions, amongst which is the following: "And four apothecaries' shops, to be drawn by lot among the Arte (Guild), may remain open all day; the others may sell from 21 in the evening onwards" (5 p.m.).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1481

September 10

on Saturday

19 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici married one of his daughters to Jacopo Salviati.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 32: patron; poet; ruler

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 33

1481

September 18

on Sunday

8 days later

We heard that Otranto had been regained. There were rejoicings, bonfires, etc.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

1481

October 2

on Sunday

14 days later

Signor Gostanzo di Pesaro(1) arrived in Florence, with a fine troop of men-at-arms, and several squadrons of crossbowmen on horseback, being on his way to Milan.

(1) A Florentine captain, to whom the baton of Capitano generale was given two days later.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:46 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1481

October 8

on Saturday

6 days later

My brother Gostanzo won the Palio at Santa Liperata, and this was the first that he had won with his horse called "il Draghetto" (the Little Dragon). He had bought two horses from Barbary: one called "il Pelligrino" (the Pilgrim) he sold to the Count of Urbino, getting 100 ducats for it.

The prisoners of the Stinche escaped. They opened the doors with the keys given them by one of the warders, called Domenico di Cristofano. They got out at about 7 in the night (3 a.m.), the warder also escaping.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1481

November 30

on Wednesday

1 month, 23 days later

The tax called the Scala(1) was collected.

(1) Probably the Decima scalata; see note to 13th June, 1478.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1481

December 26

on Monday

26 days later

My brother Gostanzo won the Palio of Prato with his horse Draghetto.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Prato was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1482

6 days later

WorkedOn

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Agents

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1482

Instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Girolamo Savonarola is assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence.

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Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 30: priest

1482

According to Vasari, Leonardo da Vinci, who is a talented musician, creates a silver lyre in the shape of a horse's head.

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1482

WorkedFor

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Agents

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1482

Created

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Agents

No agents

1482

Leonardo da Vinci moves to Milan to work in the service of the city's duke, Ludovico Sforza. He gains the title of "painter and engineer" of the duke.

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1482

March 4

on Saturday

2 months, 2 days later

The authorities considered that this new tax of the Scala was not a suitable one for the city; therefore they had recourse to the Sesto again, and doubled it, with advantage, as it seemed to those who understood the business. But certainly some people were already in sorry plight were completely ruined by the Sesto.

At this time the Venetians declared war upon the Duke of Ferrara, and we much feared lest we should be drawn into it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1482

March 14

on Tuesday

10 days later

A chancellor of Count Girolamo was hung at the windows of the Bargello. He had been captured by one of the Altoviti,(1) who was a proscribed rebel, and in order to be pardoned, found out this man, and caught him between Piombino and Pisa; and he won his pardon.

(1) This must have been the famous Cola Montano, a Bolognese; not a chancellor, but maintained by Count Girolamo Riario, and the Pope, and the King of Naples, and all the enemies of Florence, during the war following the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. That he was taken by one of the Altoviti is not mentioned elsewhere. Brought to Florence, he was put in the prison of the Bargello or Captain of the Piazza dei Signori; where he wrote with his own hand a Confessione, which is preserved in the State Archives of Florence, amongst the Carte Strozziane, still unedited, but well worth publishing, as important contributions to the history of that time. The order of the Signori e Collegi to the Otto di Custodia e Balia, of the 12th March, for the execution of Montano, still exist in the said archives amongst the papers of these magistrates. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Piombino was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1482

March 19

on Sunday

5 days later

A horseman of Signor Roberto was arrested on the Ponte a Valiano, who was carrying letters to Signor Roberto's son; which letters shed some light upon an intended conspiracy; and in consequence of this, Antonio Pucci and other citizens left for the Pisan territory, and in a few days got a number of soldiers together.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:04 AM and sunset was at 6:11 PM.

1482

March 25

on Saturday

6 days later

Madonna Lucrezia, wife of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and mother of Lorenzo, died on the day of the Annunciation. And at this time the Pope sent us an Indulgence at Santa Maria del Fiore.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1482

April 5

on Wednesday

11 days later

The Pazzi, who were imprisoned at Volterra, had their rights restituted, and were liberated and sent out of Italy; two of the younger ones had been liberated two months earlier, on account of illness, or else they would have died.

This year there were severe earthquakes at Rodi (Rhodes) which ruined the church and killed many people, mostly in a church where 40 Cavalieri Fieri (Knights of Rhodes) met their death. The precise day is not known to me, but it was during this year.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rodi was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1482

April 20

on Thursday

15 days later

There was a quarrel at Rome between the Orsini and the Colonnesi; and the city was thrown into confusion as usual. Everyone has to suffer for the disputes of these great men.

At this time the cupola of Santo Spirito was finished; and in fact sermons were preached beneath it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1482

April 28

on Friday

8 days later

The Duke of Urbino came to Florence, lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and he was received with honour. And on the 29th he left for Milan, to take up his post as Capitano generale, stopping at Ferrara where Signor Roberto was. There they besieged a fort called Ficheruolo till the 1st June.(1)

And in these days the Duke of Calabria on the other hand was besieging Ostia, near Rome; and on the 10th June it was said that he had taken it, but this was not true. He sacked Corneto,(2) however. The Sienese now recalled some of their exiles.

(1) This is not correct; see note to 2nd July.

(2) These are all facts relating to the war which had lately broken out between the Venetians and the Pope on the one hand, and the Florentines, Milan, and Naples on the other. Federigo, Duke of Urbino, was Capitano generale, and Commander of the League against Venice, and Roberto di Sanseverino was in the service of the latter.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ostia was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Corneto was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1482

June 12

on Monday

1 month, 15 days later

Signor Gostanzo came to Florence, on his return from Ferrara.

At this time there was much talk of the worship of an image of Our Lady at Bibbona, or rather in a tabernacle about a bowshot from Bibbona. It is, namely, a Virgin seated and holding the dead Christ in her arms, after He has been taken down from the Cross; which is called by some a Pieta. This worship began on the 5th April, when it was transfigured: that is, it changed from blue to red, and from red to black and divers colours. And this is said to have happened many times between then and now, and a number of sick persons have been cured, and a number of miracles have been performed, and quarrels reconciled; so that all the world is running there. Nothing else is talked of at this moment; I have spoken to many who tell me that they themselves have seen it transfigured, so that one must perforce believe it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Bibbona was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1482

June 20

on Tuesday

8 days later

We heard that Messer Niccolo Vitegli had taken Citta di Castello for us, and we sent a mortar there. War had broken out in several parts.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1482

July 2

on Sunday

12 days later

We took Ficheruolo.(1)

(1) The text appears to say that the Florentines or the League besieged and took this place; but it really was exactly the contrary. Ficheruolo belonged to the Duke of Ferrara, with whom the Florentines were allied, and now fell into the hands of the Venetians.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Ficheruolo was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1482

July 4

on Tuesday

2 days later

We heard that all the forts of Città di Castello had now been taken, and the whole place.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Città di Castello was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 35

1482

July 11

on Tuesday

7 days later

Antonio Belandi of Siena was restricted to certain boundaries near Monte Alcino.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Montalcino was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1482

July 25

on Tuesday

14 days later

We heard that the papal troops had defeated the Duke of Calabria, and had taken 300 men-at-arms and 19 leaders; and it was a fact.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1482

August 27

on Sunday

1 month, 3 days later

Many people here saw fiery flames in the air above Florence, towards the west, at about one o'clock (9 p.m.); and they were also seen at Dicomano and elsewhere.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

September 10

on Sunday

14 days later

The Count of Urbino died at Bologna.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1482

September 14

on Thursday

4 days later

Roberto il Magnifico(1) died at Rome; he who had been so famous for his victory over the Duke of Calabria near Rome, when he took 300 men-at-arms. These two great captains died with a few days of each other, just when they imagined that they were at the height of their glory. What errors are made by the world! Men incur so many perils in order to slay and kill others, and to obtain a short-lived fame on this earth, not considering what it means to kill a man, and how soon they themselves will have to die and render an account.

(1) Roberto Malatesta, a captain sent by the Venetians to aid the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1482

December 24

on Sunday

3 months, 11 days later

The Cardinal of Mantua, papal legate, came to Florence on his way to Ferrara. He was received with all due honour.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

Winter

Cardinal della Rovere returns to Rome with Cardinal Balue, who he has liberated from the custody of Louis XI.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 61: cardinal
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 39: pope; cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 59: king

1483

9 months, 5 days later

Christ and St. Thomas is placed in position on the east facade of Orsanmichele.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1483

Leonardo da Vinci makes a sketch of the design for the Arial Screw while in Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1483

Workshop in Venice

Andrea del Verrocchio opens a workshop in Venice to work on the statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, leaving his pupil Lorenzo di Credi in charge of his workshop in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1483

Cardinal della Rovere's mistress gives birth their illegitimate daughter, Felice della Rovere.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 40: pope; cardinal

1483

January 5

on Friday

4 days later

The Duke of Calabria came to Florence, leaving again on the 8th for Ferrara, and taking 800 horsemen with him; amongst his force were many Turks(1). He was received with great honour.

(1) Taken into his pay after the recapture of Otranto.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

1483

February 6

on Tuesday

1 month, 2 days later

Some of the Turks whom the duke was sending back, passed through. As 400 of them had deserted to the Venetians, he thought it best to send back the remainder; and we raised a Christian brigade for him here in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1483

February 12

on Monday

6 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence, going as ambassador to Ferrara, in very fine array.(1)

(1) To the diet which was held there, to treat of negotiations with regard to the war.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1483

March 8

on Thursday

24 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici returned from Ferrara, where he had been honourably received as a man of merit.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1483

March 28

on Wednesday

20 days later

Raphael is born in Urbino.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Urbino was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520): painter; architect; poet

1483

April 1

on Sunday

4 days later

At Siena, four men were thrown out of the windows of the Palazzo de' Signori, and six more were hung, who belonged to the Monte de' Nove(1); and many citizens fled into Florentine territory.

(1) A certain political party at Siena.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1483

April 6

on Friday

5 days later

The Turkish ambassador came to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 36

1483

April 7

on Saturday

1 day later

The Sienese beheaded three of their citizens, one being Antonio Belandi, and another one of the knights made by the Duke of Calabria. Thus, in the opposition of parties, are treated those ambitious men who are not contented with the state of life to which God has called them.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1483

April 23

on Monday

16 days later

There was an eclipse of the moon. And it happened that three people fell dead on this day: a boy about twelve years old, whom I myself saw lying dead in the church of San Simone, a notary called Ser Bonacorso, and a girl. It was considered in Florence to have been an extraordinary day, the moon having had a powerful influence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1483

April 25

on Wednesday

2 days later

Leonardo da Vinci accepts the commission for an altar painting offered by the confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, which had a chapel in the now demolished church of San Francesco Grande in Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1483

May

6 days later

It rained in Florence for practically the whole month.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1483

May 30

on Wednesday

29 days later

Our Lady of Impruneta was brought into the city, for the sake of obtaining fine weather, as it had rained for more than a month. And it immediately became fine.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

June 14

on Thursday

15 days later

A league was made with the Sienese for twenty-five years, and our fortresses were restored to us. At this time there died at Faenza a Brother of the Order of the Servi di Maria,(1) who had performed many miracles; the bells having rung of their own accord when anyone died, and sick persons being healed. People went to him from all the country round. I spoke to a trustworthy man, who said that he had witnessed these facts. Miracles were constantly happening; sometimes down by the river and sometimes up in the mountains; and sometimes he was seen speaking with a woman, who was the Virgin. I mention this to show that people were in the mood to expect great things from God.

(1) From the Historie di Faenza by Giulio Cesare Tonduzzi, and the Annali dell' Ordine de' Serviti by Arcangelo Giani, we find that this was the Beato Jacopo Filippo Bertoni, who died on the 25th May, 1483. These writers also testify to the prodigies referred to by Landucci, which so moved the Faentini that they wished honours to be conferred upon Misserino Bertoni dalla Cella di Monte Chiaro, father of the defunct, by a public decree.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Faenza was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1483

June 21

on Thursday

7 days later

In a tabernacle in Orto Sa' Michele there was placed the figure of San Tommaso beside Jesus, and the Jesus in bronze, which is the most beautiful thing imaginable, and the finest head of the Saviour that has as yet been made; it is by Andrea del Verrocchio.

At this time the Duke of Calabria and Signor Roberto left Ferrara and went into Lombardy, where much damage was being down on all sides, and Signor Gostanzo was poisoned there.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1483

August 5

on Sunday

1 month, 15 days later

The exiled Sienese came against their city, as far as the fortress of Sitorno, but were unable to do anything. The citizens took many prisoners from the fortress and carried them into Siena.

In these days the Florentines destroyed a fortress in the upper valley of the Arno, called Monte Domenici, because it had rebelled.

During this August of 1483, the Duke of Calabria captured many fortresses in Lombardy from the Venetians,(1) and crushed the Venetian troops in such a manner that they could not hold out any longer. This occurred because the Church had excommunicated all those who gave aid to the Venetians, which prevented them having soldies from beyond the Alps. And the fleet of the King of Naples came into the port of Ancona, and that of the Venetians set out to find it. But on the 5th September, the king's fleet sailed away without waiting for their opponents. Great things had been expected if they had encountered each other.

(1) From the 12th December, 1482, the Pope had made peace with the League, and then associated himself with it in the war against Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Monte Domenici was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1483

September 7

on Friday

1 month, 3 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the King of France, on their way to Rome to arrange peace in Italy; and whilst they were here they received the news that their king had died on the 30th May, 1483. And on the 13th September one of these ambassadors died at Santa Maria Novella, and the others set out for Rome.

During these days, for fear of hunger and of the war going on in Lombardy, many families left it, and there passed through Florence on their way into Roman territory 50 to 100 at a time, till they amounted to several thousands. Many also went to Romagna and elsewhere. It was said that there were more than 30 thousand persons altogether. It was a most pitiful sight to see these poor people pass, with a wretched little donkey, and their miserable household possessions: saucepans, frying-pans, etc. One wept to see them barefoot and ragged; and it is the cursed wars which have caused all these. No one went by without receiving some little help from us.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Lombardy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Italy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

October 8

on Monday

1 month, 1 day later

Certain stone seats which had been made round the Mercato Vecchio a short while before were taken away again.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1483

October 23

on Tuesday

15 days later

A cardinal-legate came to Florence, who was going to the King of France as ambassador, to confirm to him his father's crown. And this cardinal chanced to be the very man whom the last King of France(1) had kept for many years in prison, in a cage.

(1) Louis XI. The name of the cardinal was Jean Balue, whom Louis XI. had persuaded Pope Paul II. to make a cardinal; and later, for political reasons, he had imprisoned him in an iron cage, from which he was liberated in 1481 through the intercession of Pope Sixtus IV. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 69: pope
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 62: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 60: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1483

November 10

on Saturday

18 days later

Three Florentine ambassadors left Florence, being sent to the King of France; they were Messer Gentile, Bishop of Arezzo, and Antonio Canigiani, and Lorenzo, son of Piero de' Medici.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1483

December 3

on Monday

23 days later

Leonardo da Vinci agrees to deliver the Virgin of the Rocks to the confraternity in time for the Feast of the Conception of that year.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1484

29 days later

Josquin des Prez composes Ave Maria… virgo serena in Milan.

Attachments

Ave Maria… virgo serena Performance of "Ave Maria, gratia plena...virgo serena" by the Hilliard Ensemble.

Astronomical Events

Agents

Josquin des Prez (1450-1521), aged 34: composer

Source: Primary

http://imslp.org/wiki/List_of_works_by_Josquin_Desprez

1484

Cardinal della Rovere protects the Colonna family against the cruel persecutions of Cardinal Girolamo Riario.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 41: pope; cardinal

1484

January 1

on Tuesday

The new Signoria(1) entered into office, and were stricter than the last. They sent for the citizens and required everyone to pay his debts; and they imprisoned them in the Bargello and the Stinche. Many were afflicted and worn out by so many wars.

In addition to other hardships, corn was sold at 50 soldi a bushel, beans at 46 soldi a bushel, white bread at 1 soldo 8 denari a pound, and flour rose to 3 lire a bushel.

On this 1st March our ambassadors returned from France, and Antonio Canigiani had been knighted by the French king. We did him honour, sending an escort to meet him.

The price of crushed beans now increased to 4 lire a bushel, peas to 5 lire, corn to 49 soldi, and everything dearer; and a little later corn rose to 3 lire 8 soldi a bushel.

(1) Alamanno Rinuccino in his Ricordi Storici also speaks ill of this Signoria.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1484

April 6

on Sunday

3 months, 6 days later

Seven shiploads of grain arrived at Pisa, comprising 7 thousand moggia(1); 3 thousand moggia were brought here, and 4 thousand went to Ferrara and Lombardy, where there was great scarcity.

(1) A Tuscan moggio was generally 8 staia (bushels). (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Lombardy was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1484

April 9

on Wednesday

3 days later

Three more shiploads of grain arrived at Livorno; but it still cost 50 soldi a bushel, and the commune sold it at 42 soldi.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Livorno was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1484

June 14

on Saturday

2 months, 6 days later

The plague broke out again; and this morning one of the Brogietti buried three children at once, two girls and a boy, all having died of plague.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1484

June 19

on Thursday

5 days later

Corn cost 9 soldi 33 denari a bushel.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1484

July

12 days later

In this July a worship of an image of the Virgin Mary(1) at Prato began; people rushing there from all the country round. It worked miracles like that of Bibbona, so that building was begun and great expense incurred.

(1) This is the Madonna called della Carceri, which is worshipped at Prato, where there was soon built a very elegant temple after the design of Giuliano da San Gallo. Ferdinando Baldanzi wrote a fine description of it, which can be read in the Calendario Pratense of 1847. A church was also built at Bibbona in the Volterrano, in honour of the other image mentioned on the 12th June, 1482. Savonarola alludes to the prodigies worked by these two images in the second of his Poesie tratte dall' autografo, in which he says:

"O anima cecata Tu senti mille segni A Prato e a Bibbona"

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1484

August 9

on Saturday

1 month, 9 days later

We received news of the Peace.(1) There were bonfires and great rejoicings.

(1) The peace between the Venetians and the Lega Santissima (Most Holy League).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1484

August 14

on Thursday

5 days later

At 6 in the night (2 a.m.) we heard that Pope Sisto was dead. He died on the 13th, at 14 in the forenoon (10 a.m.). On the 20th the bells were tolled for his death.

At this time as many men as possible were being hired to send to Sarzana and Pietrasanta.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1484

August 30

on Saturday

16 days later

We heard that the new Pope was chosen, and the bells were rung at 4 (midday) on Monday. He had been a Genoese cardinal, Messer Giovanni de' Zeboni,(1) Cardinal of Molfetta; and he took the name of Innocent VIII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1484

September 8

on Monday

9 days later

The Peace was published in Florence, and there were rejoicings.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 40

1484

October 23

on Thursday

1 month, 15 days later

The State arrested a son of Filippo Tornabuoni, called Alessandro, and he was confined within certain boundaries in Sicily. It was said to be because he had designs against Lorenzo de' Medici, who was his relative; this may not have been the case, but I only repeat what was said.(1)

At this time Pietrasanta was besieged very closely. There were many of our commissaries there, with a fine troop of men.

The wax tapers and the palii were now removed from San Giovanni, and the order was given that they should no longer be placed there.(2) The church was thoroughly cleaned, and remained perfectly simple without these decorations; up till this time all the offerings of tapers and palii used to be placed here, so that nothing of the church itself could be seen.

(1) On the day of san Giovanni (24th June) the magistrates stood on the ringhiera of the Palagio, to receive the deputations sent by tributary towns, the palii being hung round the ringhiera in order: from Pisa, Arezzo, Pistoia, Volterra, Cortona, Lusignano, Castiglione, Aretino, etc. The tapers were brought on splendid painted cars. The Marzocco was crowned four days before and four days after, and during this time there was an indemnity for debtors, etc. The tapers and palii were all put in San Giovanni, the palii being hung on iron rings, and remaining there for one year, when they were removed to place for the fresh ones. The old ones were used for decoration on public fetes, or for altar-cloths, or were sold by auction. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Lusignano was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Cortona was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Sicily was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Castiglione was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1484

November 6

on Thursday

14 days later

Antonio Pucci, a commissary of Pietrasanta, was brought back dead to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Antonio Pucci (1418-1484), aged 66: gonfaloniere

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 41

1484

November 7

on Friday

1 day later

We captured Pietrasanta, which capitulated to Lorenzo de' Medici, and on the 11th we took the fortress. Piero, son of Filippo Tornabuoni, was made warden, and Jacopo Acciauoli commissary; Jacopo Acciauoli being put in command of the walls. The news reached here at 14 at night (10 p.m.), and the next day the shops remained closed, and there were great rejoicings and bonfires. And the same day Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, another commissary there, was brought back to Florence dead.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1485

1 month, 25 days later

Girolamo Savonarola delivers apocalyptic sermons in San Gimignano as a Lenten preacher.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 33: priest

1485

The plague reaches Milan.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1485

Michelangelo attends school and is taught by humanist Francesco da Urbino.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1485

Lodovico di Buonarrota remarries.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1485

January 13

on Tuesday

12 days later

The Genoese fleet came to Livorno, and approached the towers, but did nothing. It left again on the 1st February.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that nigh