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1470

Journey to Rome

Andrea del Verrocchio makes a voyage to Rome in the early 1470s.

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Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), aged 35: painter; sculptor

1470

Botticelli opens his own workshop.

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Botticelli (1445-1510), aged 25: painter; man; goldsmith

1470

Jacopo Bellini dies in Venice.

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1470

Giovanni Bellini receives his first appointment to work along with his brother and other artists in the Scuola di San Marco, where among other subjects he is commissioned to paint a Deluge with Noah's Ark.

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Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516), aged 40: painter

1470

April 15

on Friday

3 months, 14 days later

Fifteen men were brought from Prato, who had intended to give over the place, and they were hung(1).

(1) This was the plot of Bernardo Nardi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Prato was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 9.

1471

8 months, 21 days later

TravelledTo

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1471

Taught

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1471

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1471

Lorenzo de' Medici calculates that since 1434, his family has spent some 663,000 florins (approx. 460 million USD today) on charity, buildings and taxes. He writes,

I do not regret this for though many would consider it better to have a part of that sum in their purse, I consider it to have been a great honour to our state, and I think the money was well-expended and I am well-pleased.

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1471

February

1 month, 1 day later

Andrea del Verrocchio completes Palla of the Duomo of Florence.

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The Palla of the Duomo of Florence

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Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), aged 36: painter; sculptor

1471

May 26

on Friday

3 months, 24 days later

I bought some of the first sugar that came here from Madeira; which island had been subdued a few years before by the King of Portugal, and sugar had begun to be grown there; and I had some of the first.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Madeira was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1471

May 27

on Saturday

1 day later

A Monday, the gilt copper ball was put up on the lantern of the cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore(1).

(1) Some writers place this fact in 1472, and others in 1474, some mistake the year and not the month; but Landucci states the truth, which is confirmed by the following two extracts taken from the Archives of the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore. On the 28th May, 1471, 2 lire 8 soldi given to Marchione, servant of the Opera (Administrative Office), to buy bread and wine for the workmen when they put up the ball. And on the 1st June 3 lire paid to the trumpeters of the Palagio; taken by Matteo di Madonna Andreagia, to be given them for their trouble when they played on the lantern when the cross was put up (Quaderna di Cassa, ad an).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1471

May 30

on Tuesday

3 days later

They placed the cross on the said ball, and the canons and many other people went up and sang the Te Deum there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1471

July 28

on Friday

1 month, 29 days later

We had the news that Pope Pagolo was dead; he died on the 26th, Friday night, a little before dawn.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1471

August 9

on Wednesday

12 days later

Sisto IV. was elected Pope. He was from Savona; a Franciscan monk, and general of the Order; then he had been made cardinal by Pope Pagolo, and now Pope. he was elected on Friday, the even of San Lorenzo, and was crowned on San Sisto's day.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Savona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 57: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 10.

1471

September 23

on Saturday

1 month, 15 days later

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1471

October 22

on Sunday

29 days later

It was voted in the Palagio that sealed florins should no longer be used in trade,(1) but florins as large as grossi, at 5 lire 11 soldi, the florin of grossi, at 20 quattrini the grosso; and they were fixed at 20 per cent. higher. It was also voted that the property of the (Guelf) party should be sold.

(1) This decree is published by Vettori in his treatise on the gold florin. The fiorini larghi were called so because they were enlarged in circumference. It was decreed that they should be increased in weight by one old denaro, that is, by the 240th part; and they were also to be larger and flatter (fiorini larghi di grossi is only another name for fiorini larghi). They were worth more than the old fiorini di sugello; but their value on the market was continually fluctuating, and gradually increasing; in 1469, they were worth 5 lire 6 soldi; in 1485, 5 lire 4 soldi; in 1493, 6 lire 11 soldi; in 1500, 7 lire, and in 1531, 7 lire, 10 soldi. The scudo d' oro (a crown) was not coined till 1530. (Trans. from Orsini.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1471

December 15

on Friday

1 month, 24 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro In Vincoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in San Pietro In Vincoli was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1472

17 days later

Leonardo da Vinci paints The Annunciation for the Olivetan monastery of San Bartolomeo, near Florence.

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Source: Primary

Luke Syson; Syson, Luke; Larry Keith, Arturo Galansino, Antoni Mazzotta, Scott Nethersole and Per Rumberg (2011). "Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan". London: National Gallery

1472

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Lausanne.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 29: pope; cardinal

1472

April 5

on Friday

3 months, 5 days later

Born

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

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1472

April 27

on Saturday

22 days later

We heard that Volterra had suddenly revolted; and troops were sent there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1472

May 6

on Monday

9 days later

The Bishop of Volterra came as ambassador, but settled nothing. And on the 7th two mortars were loaded to go there. And on the 10th the Count of Urbino went there with men-at-arms; and by the 19th he took all their castles; and on the 24th he took many prisoners and captured their bastion. And on the 1st June their ambassadors arrived here to demand terms, and almost came to agreement, but everything was upset when they returned there. And so far two mortars had been used. And on the 8th June, the attacking party beheaded one of the Bartolini; and on the 9th they used another mortar.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1472

June 18

on Tuesday

1 month, 13 days later

A knight came to us (from Volterra) with the olive-branch, and an agreement was made, guaranteeing their property and persons. There was much rejoicing. But when the attacking-party entered, one of their constables, a Venetian, began to cry: "Sack it, sack it!" and our men began plundering, and it was impossible to make them observe their agreement. The count had this Venetian hung and also a Sienese. Nevertheless the unfortunate people fared badly. The count came to Florence on the 27th June, 1472; he was given the Patriarch's house, a banner, two basins, two silver ewers, 180 lire, and a helmet. He went away on the 1st July, 1473.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1472

July 1

on Monday

13 days later

In the summer of 1472, at the age of twenty, Leonardo was registered as a member of the Florentine painters' confraternity, the Compagnia di San Luca. The company's ledgers record that

Lyonardo di Ser Piero da Vinci dipintore' was charged 32 soldi for the privilege of membership.

This included 16 soldi for his annual subscription, to be paid in monthly instalments from 1 July 1472, and 10 soldi as a contribution to the company's observances on the feast day of Saint Luke, 18 October.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1472

November 24

on Sunday

4 months, 26 days later

Pietro Torrigiano is born in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

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1473

1 month, 8 days later

Born

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1473

Antonello da Messina introduces the new medium of oil paint into Venice.

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1473

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Catania.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 30: pope; cardinal

1473

Leonardo da Vinci paints The Annunciation for the Olivetan monastery of San Bartolomeo, near Florence.

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Source: Primary

Martin Kemp; "Leonardo: Revised edition". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

1473

June 2

on Monday

5 months, 2 days later

A bell was hung in Santa Maria del Fiore, the largest of all, recast.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1473

July 5

on Saturday

1 month, 3 days later

A lazzerino of the Mangango(1) was condemned to death, and was beheaded. He had committed the crime of violating a girl of about twelve years old in such a way that she died; and then he had buried her body outside the Porta alla Giusticia.(2) And later it was discovered, as the dogs raked it up. Sentences were issued against him, but he could not be found. When captured some years after, he confessed having committed the outrage.

(1) This may mean a worker at the Mangano (cloth-press). (2) This gate was not far from the Torre della Zecca Vecchia, and was so called because criminals passed under it on the way to execution (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1473

July 18

on Friday

13 days later

We heard that our archbishop, who was one of the Neroni of Florence, had died at Rome; and the archbishopric was given to the Cardinal of San Sisti, called Brother Piero.(1)

(1) Piero Riario, nephew of the Pope.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 59: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 11.

1473

August 5

on Tuesday

18 days later

Leonardo da Vinci produces a pen and ink drawing of the Arno valley that is dated to this day. It is said to be one of the earliest Italian landscape drawings that focuses on the particular character of the location.

The drawing is said by some scholars to be a study intended for the 'Baptism of Christ', which Leonardo painted with Andrea del Verrocchio around this time.

Attachments
Drawing of the Arno valley by Leonardo da Vinci
Landscape from 'Baptism of Christ'

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

1473

December 11

on Thursday

4 months, 8 days later

A poor woman in Camaldoli,(1) who had several grown-up daughters, was praying to the crucifix in their house, when they saw it break into sweat, and speaking of it in the neighbourhood, people began to go and pray to it. When the Carmelite friars heard of it, they went and fetched it reverently and placed it in a tabernacle of the Cappella della Croce,(2) and it was worshiped there.

(1) A portion of the city near the gate of San Frediano, which received its name from an old monastery of the Camaldolensi. It is the abode of the roughest and poorest of the people, and the name was extended to a district near San Lorenzo (the Camaldoli of San Frediano, and the Camaldoli of San Lorenzo), the appellation now signifying "rough people." (Trans.)

(2) This is doubtless the crucifix known as La Providenza, and concerning which a certain G. F. B. published the Notizie (Florence, 1852).

Attachments
The village of Camaldoli today
The monastery of Camaldoli

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Camaldoli was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1474

21 days later

The Forteguerri Monument

Andrea del Verrocchio executes The Forteguerri Monument for the Cathedral of Pistoia, which he leaves unfinished.

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1474

The Baptism of Christ

Andrea del Verrocchio, with a young Leonardo da Vinci, paints The Baptism of Christ.

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1474

April 25

on Saturday

3 months, 24 days later

Girolamo Savonarola goes to Bologna where he knocks on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, and asks to be admitted. As he tells his father in his farewell letter, he wants to become a knight of Christ.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 22: priest

1474

May 14

on Thursday

19 days later

Born

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

No agents

1474

September 25

on Friday

4 months, 14 days later

We received a letter written by Matteo Palmieri, captain of Volterra, which I saw and read; it related the following marvel, namely, that in these days there had been born in Volterra a boy (that is, a monster) which had the head of a bull, and three teeth, with a lump of skin on the head like a horn, and the top of the head was open like a pomegranate, with fiery rays coming out. Its arms were all hairy, and its feet were like a lion's with lion's claws. Its body was of the nature of a female of the human race, but its legs down to the feet were those of a bull like the head. And it lived about three hours. The mother died the fourth day. The midwives and the other women present half died of fried. And this was shown to the said Matteo as a terrible thing. And the said Matteo, captain of Volterra, wrote here to Florence with his own hand; and I copied the said letter in the actual words, neither omitting nor adding anything. And because the said Matteo was my father's intimate friend and my godfather, the letter itself came into my hands, although it was directed to other citizens.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1475

3 months, 8 days later

Born

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1475

Created

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1475

The Condottiero Bartolomeo Colleoni dies and by his will leaves a substantial part of his estate to the Venetian Republic on condition that a statue of himself should be commissioned and set up in the Piazza San Marco.

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1475

Born

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1475

Born

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1475

Test Entry

Lorenzo de Medici hosts a festival in celebration of a Florentine victory over Florence.

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1475

Alessandra Bigordi is born in Florence.

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1475

January 29

on Friday

28 days later

Born

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

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1475

January 29

on Friday

Born

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

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1475

March 6

on Saturday

1 month, 6 days later

Michelangelo is born in Caprese Michelangelo.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Caprese Michelangelo was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1475

April 1

on Thursday

26 days later

A lad of about twenty-three, a peasant from the neighbourhood of the Sieci, was arrested, who on Easter night had shut himself up in Santa Maria del Fiore, and hidden under the altar of Our Lady towards the Chapter-house; the next morning he robbed the Madonna of certain silver ornaments on her arms and legs and eyes, and behaved in a disgusting way to show his contempt. And imagine how utterly worthless this crazy fellow was, when he had only been liberated by the captain on Holy Thursday after having been imprisoned for theft. On Saturday he was hung from the Campanile. I have mentioned him rather than others, because having been let out of prison on Thursday, the very next Sunday he committed this outrage.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1475

May 1

on Saturday

1 month later

I, Luca Landucci, went to Rome for the Jubilee, and took with me my mother-in-law; and we travelled for fifteen days going and coming.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 39: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 12.

1475

December 3

on Friday

7 months, 6 days later

test234

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Agents

No agents

1476

29 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1476

Accusations of sodomy

Leonardo da Vinci is anonymously accused, along with three others, of committing sodomy with Jocopo Salterelli (a 17-year-old part-time model in Verrocchio’s studio).

Attachments
Leonardo (far right) and others in court on charges of sodomy
The magistrates discuss the case of young Florentines, including Leonardo, who were anonymously accused of sodomy

Astronomical Events

1476

David is sold

Signoria of Florence purchases the David by Andrea del Verrocchio from the Medici family.

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1476

Galeazzo Maria Sforza is assassinated, leaving his throne to his seven-year old son, Gian Galeazo Sforza.

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Agents

Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 7: duke

1476

The Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes arrives in Florence, bringing new painterly techniques from Northern Europe which were to profoundly affect Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and others.

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Agents

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), aged 27: painter
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 30: painter

1476

April 26

on Wednesday

3 months, 26 days later

At about 15 in the forenoon (11 a.m.) in Santa Maria del Fiore, whilst high mass was being celebrated and the Host elevated, Giuliano, son of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and Francesco Nori were killed, near the choir of the said church towards the door which goes to the Servi; and Lorenzo de' Medici was wounded in the neck, and fled into the sacristy and escaped. They were killed in consequence of a certain conspiracy made by Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Franceschino de' Pazzi and Guglielmo de' Pazzi, the which Guglielma was he brother-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici, his wife being a sister of theirs, called Bianca. And the sons of Messer Piero de' Pazzi were also there, that is, Andrea and Renato and Niccolo; and of the house of Salviati, there were Francesco, Bishop of Pisa, and Jacopo Salviati, who was son-in-law to Filippo Tornabuoni, and another Jacopo also a Salviati, and Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, Bracciolini and Bernardo Bandini of the house of Baroncegli, and Amerigo Corsi, and many others. The conspirators brought Cardinal di San Giorgio(1) here, who was a young man; he entered Florence on the day above-mentioned, and they all came together in Santa Maria del Fiore, and, as I have said, at the elevation of the Host seized their swords, and it is said that Francesco de' Pazzi struck Giuliano, and Bandini the other. And having killed Giuliano they wanted to kill Lorenzo, but did not succeed, as he fled into the sacristy. Meantime the Bishop de' Salviati, with Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, and two of his relatives who were both called Jacopo, went to the Palagio, with several priests, feigning to desire to speak to the Signoria, and they spoke to the Gonfaloniere, and became somewhat confused. The Gonfaloniere perceived the treachery, and he and his companions shut themslves up here and there, and ordered the doors to be closed, and the bell run for a parlamento. And what with the rumour which came from Santa Maria del Fiore of Giuliano's death and the bell ringing at the Palagio, the city was immediately in arms. And Lorenzo de' Medici was taken to his house. Meantime Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi rushed on horseback to the Piazza de' Signori, crying "Popolo e liberta!" (The People and Liberty!), wishing to take the Palagio, but the bishop not having succeeded in getting possession of it, Messer Jacopo was not able to enter. He then went towards his own house, and was advised to take to flight; and he fled by the Porta all Croce, together with many men-at-arms, in the Piazza and at Lorenzo de' Medici's house. And numbers of men on the side of the conspirators were killed in the Piazza; amongst others a priest of the bishop's was killed there, his body being quartered and the head cut off, and then the head was stuck on the top of a lance, and carried about Florence the whole day, and one quarter of his body was carried on a spit all through the city, with the cry of: "Death to the traitors!" That same evening the cardinal was taken to the Palagio, barely escaping with his life, all his companions being captured without exception.

And the bishop remained in the Palagio with all the rest. And that evening they hung Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, from the windows of the Palagio de' Signori, and likewise the Bishop of Pisa, and Franceschino de' Pazzi, naked; and about twenty men besides, some at the Palagio de' Signori, and others at the Palagio dell Podesta and at the Casa del Capitano, all at the windows.

The next day (the 27th) they hung Jacopo Salviati, son-in-law of Filippo Tornabuoni, and the other Jacopo, also at the windows, and many others of the households of the cardinals and of the bishop. And the day after that (the 28th April, 1478), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi was captured at Belforte. And that evening of the 28th, about 23 in the evening (7 p.m.), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Renato de' Pazzi were hung at the windows of the Palagio de'' Signori, above the ringhiera(2); and so many of their men with them, that during these three days the number of those killed amounted to more than seventy. The cardinal remained a prisoner of the Palagio, and no harm was done him, except that he was made to write to the Holy Father, with his own hand, all that had happened. And the same day the prisoners in the Stinche(3) managed to break open the prison, and all escaped - with the exception of one unfortunate man who was captured and hung.

(1) Rafaello Riario.

(2) The ringhiera was the platform consisting in three steps and railing, which used to be round the Palagio (Palazzo Vecchio) on the front and on the north. It was used for haranguing the people and was only demolished in 1812, when the present steps and platform replaced it. (Trans.)

(3) The Stinche were the old prisons, which formed a large rectangular mass between the Via del Diluvio (now Via del Fosso), the Via del Palagio (now Via Ghibellina), the Via del Mercatino, and the Via de' Lavatoi. The exterior walls were extremely high, and windowless. The name was derived from that of a fortress which had rebelled against Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and which the Florentines retook, bringing the prisoners back as a trophy. Originally intended for traitors and revels, these prisons were used afterwards for various purposes, even for madmen; whilst later on debtors and bankrupts were confined there, and others with life-sentences. In 1835, under the Grand-duke Leopold, it was decreed that they should be sold, and shops and houses were built on the area; also the large hall, called Filamonica, and riding-school, afterwards replaced by the Pagliani theatre, now called the Verdi. (Trans.)

Attachments
Bianca de' Medici is traditionally presumed to be the woman in the centre
Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici by Botticelli
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio
The skull of Giuliano de' Medici, fractured from the blade that killed him
The Stinche, or old prisons of Florence, as shown in an engraving

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1476

August 15

on Tuesday

3 months, 21 days later

Four of the city gates in Florence were closed; the first was Porta San Miniato, the second was the Porta all Giustizia, the third Porta Pinti(1), and the fourth the Porticciuola della Mulina (of the Mill).(2)

(1) The Porta a Pinti, demolished with the walls in 1866, was at the end of the Borgo Pinti, and was a very picturesque gate, with a group of old cypresses. (Trans.)

(2) The Porticciuola della Mulina was near the Prato, down by the river, leading to the Mulina (Mill) of the Vagaloggia. It was sometimes called Pirticciuola del Prato. The three last gates were taken down when the walls were demolished. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1476

November 26

on Sunday

3 months, 13 days later

Vlad the Impaler declares himself reigning Prince of Wallachia for the third and last time. He was killed on the march to Bucharest, probably before the end of December. His head was sent to his old enemy Sultan Mehmed of the Ottomans.

Attachments
A copy of a contemporary portrait of Vlad Tepes, the Impaler

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bucharest was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1476

1476

December 26

on Tuesday

1 month later

We heard that the Duke of Milan(1) had been stabbed and killed by one of his citizens called Giovanni Andrea,(2) who was moved to commit the crime by certain unjust acts of the duke. He was put to death by the populace, out of zeal for the common good. There were several conspirators; and the first who reached the duke was this Giovanni Andrea, who feigned to offer him a letter with one hand whilst he stabbed him with the other. It happened as with Scevola the Roman, when they took life for life. Such men are rarely found. And I believe that they carry out their crimes by divine permission. This was on the day of Santo Stefano, in church, during the mass. And when they tried to flee, they could not, because the crowd of people, and mostly the women who hindered them by spreading out their gowns(3) in such a way that the barons of the duke, and chiefly a certain Ghezzo who stood next to him, caught and slew the said Giovanni Andrea. And three others were taken and hung. Some people said that these three who were caught were quartered by four horses.

(1) Galeazzo Sforza. (Trans.)

(2) Lampugnano.

(3) The women used to sit on the floor during these long ceremonies. (Trans.)

Attachments
Woodcut depicting the assassination of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan
Giovanni Andrea, the assassin of the Duke of Milan, as depicted in Assassin's Creed

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1477

6 days later

Buonarrotto Buonarotti is born in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

1477

January 15

on Monday

14 days later

Pope Sisto nominated several cardinals; one he nominated for the emperor. And he ordered that the feast of San Francesco should be observed like the other feasts which are enjoined.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 63: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1477

June 7

on Thursday

4 months, 23 days later

The duty on the wine was raised, so that where 14 soldi used to be paid, it was now 20; but a promise was given that it would not last for more than five years.

And at this time the cupola of the Servi was finished (i.e. of the SS. Annunziata).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1478

6 months, 28 days later

Created

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

1478

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Mende.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 35: pope; cardinal

1478

Leonardo da Vinci writes in his notebooks that he has begun "two Virgin Marys."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1478

First printing (in Padua) of Mondino de Liuzzi's Anathomia corporis humani, the first complete published anatomical text.

Attachments
Dissection of Heart, from Mondino Dei Luzzi's "Anathomia corporis humani"
Mondino de Luzzi, "Lesson in Anatomy"

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478

1478

Leonardo da Vinci leaves Verrocchio's studio and is no longer resident at his father's house.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1478

Girolamo Savonarola's studies are interrupted when he is sent to the Dominican priory of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Ferrara as assistant master of novices.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 26: priest

1478

January

Leonardo da Vinci receives a commission to paint an altarpiece for the Chapel of the Signoria in the Palazzo Vecchio.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1478

February 18

on Monday

1 month, 18 days later

George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478

1478

March 25

on Monday

1 month, 5 days later

The Holy Father gave a plenary indulgence in Santa Maria del Fiore for one day, from vespers on the 24th March till the next vespers, on the 25th March, which people availed themselves of with great devotion. The Cause of this was the preaching of Brother Antonio da Vergiegli in Santa Maria del Fiore during Lent, which bore good fruit.

On this same 25th March, a law was determined upon at the Palagio, which forbade anyone who had killed a man to return to Florence(1).

(1) The provision is of the 16th March, 1478, Old Style, and perhaps the 25th is the day on which it was published. It was made to limit the concession of safe-conducts, and the causes which led to it may be read in the exordium which I have pleasure in publishing as a document which describes the way of thinking at that time. "The high and magnificent Signori having in mind how grave is the sin of homicide, by which man, a creature made and created in the image of God, is destroyed; and seeking the reasons why it is so very frequent under our jurisdiction; find among other things that it is encouraged by the facility of pardon and roper severity not being used in punishing such a detestable and abominable excess, he who commits the homicide being allowed to be continually in the presence of those who have suffered from the offence and of those who desire to live virtuously; none of whom can regard such manslayers without great indignation and perturbation of mind. And although the laws of the Florentine people bitterly avenge and punish such crimes, and give security against them; notwithstanding, whatever may be the reason, either too great humanity (which in reality one ought to call cruelty), or else undisciplined charity, such entirely right and just decrees are not properly observed. And the high Signori and discreet chief citizens wish to remedy these things which are so contrary to honest living and against divine laws, by making the fear of pubishment deter men from committing them, when they are deprived of all hope of pardon, and by adjuring the magistrates not only not to overlook such things, but to enforce the law with severity, hoping firmly that this provision may hav ea good effect" (State Archives of Florence, Consigli maggiori Provv. Reg. ad annum).

The term "Signori e Collegi" used in the decrees meant as follows: the Signori were the eight Priori and the Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, and the Collegi were the sixteen Gonfalonieri della Compagnie and the twelve men (three from each quarter) formerly called the twelve Buonuomini, who were summoned by the Signori to take council on almost every occasion. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1478

April 26

on Friday

1 month, 2 days later

On Easter Sunday, in an incident called the Pazzi conspiracy, a group including members of the Pazzi family, backed by the Archbishop of Pisa and his patron Pope Sixtus IV, attacks Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Florence. Giuliano is killed, but Lorenzo escapes with only a stab wound.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 29: patron; poet; ruler

1478

April 29

on Monday

3 days later

There was a little rest and quiet, without more bloodshed, but people were still bewildered with terror.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1478

April 30

on Tuesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

(Ascension-day). The obsequies of Giuliano de' Medici took place in San Lorenzo.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1478

May 1

on Wednesday

1 day later

The new Signoria entered into office. That evening Andrea de' Pazzi and Brigliaino(1) were captured. And also, the same evening, returning from Pisa, Messer Piero Vespucci was captured and taken to the Palagio, as it was said that he had aided the escape of a man concerned in the plot.

(1) Giovanni di Domenico, called Brigliaino, a hanger-on of the house of Pazzi, and a worthless man.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 3

on Friday

2 days later

At about 18 in the afternoon (2 p.m.), a priest(1) was captured in the Badia of Florence, who was a chancellor (secretary) of Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi, and another at the same time, from Volterra(2); they had remained hidden there from the day of the murder till now. And that evening Brigliaino and one of the cardinal's chancellors were hung at the windows of the Palagio, and when the ropes were cut, they fell down on the platform. The soldiers quarreled over robbing the dead bodies of doublets and hose.

(1) Stefano di Ser Niccolo of Bagnone, a priest in San Procolo at Florence.

(2) Antonio di Gherardo Maffei of Volterra, scribe of the Camera Apostolica, or notary of the Ruota (a society of Doctors of Law).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 5

on Sunday

2 days later

The horses and mules of Messer Jacopo and others were sold by auction.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

May 9

on Thursday

4 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 10

on Friday

1 day later

They sent Andrea de' Pazzi and two of his younger brothers into a new prison, in the vault of a tower at Volterra.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 15

on Wednesday

5 days later

The body of Messer Jacopo was disinterred in Santa Croce and buried near the city wall, between Porta alla Croce and the Porta alla Giusticia, inside.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1478

May 17

on Friday

2 days later

At about 20 in the evening (4 p.m.), some boys disinterred it (the body of Messer Jacopo) a second time, and dragged it through Florence by the piece of rope that was still round its neck; and when they came to the door of his house, they tied the rope to the door-bell, saying: "Knock at the door!" and they made great sport all through the town. And when they grew tired and did not know what more to do with it, they went to the Ponte al Rubiconte and threw it into the river.(1) And they sang a song with certain rhymes, amongst others this line: "Messer Jacopo is floating away down the Arno." And it was considered an extraordinary thing, first because children are usually afraid of dead bodies, and secondly because the stench was so bad that it was impossible to go near it; one may imagine what it was like, from the 27th April till the 17th May! And they must have had to touch with with their hands to throw it into the Arno. And as it floated down the river, always keeping above the surface, the bridges were crowded with people to watch it pass. And another day, down towards Brozzi, the boys pulled it out of the water again, and hung it on a willow, and then the beat it, and threw it back into the Arno. And it is said that it was seen to pass under the bridges of Pisa, always above the surface.

(1) History says that the magistrates had the body thrown into the Arno, to put a stop to the boys' treatment of it. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Brozzi was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 20

on Monday

3 days later

Guglielmo de' Pazzi gave his word to keep within fixed boundaries; and he was sent to his own estate and there limited to a distance of from five to twenty miles from Florence. And Messer Piero Vespucci was imprisoned in the Stinche for life, because he had aided in the flight of a certain Napoleone Francese, who was proscribed for having been concerned in the conspiracy of Messer Jacopo narrated above.(1)

(1) It is probably that Vespucci was led to assist the flight of Francese not so much from friendship and humane feeling, as from hatred for Giuliano de' Medici, victim of the plot; the latter being the favoured lover of Piero Vespucci's daughter-in-law, the beautiful Simonetta Catani, the wife of Marco Vespucci, the continual and avowed object of Giulian's love-poems.

Attachments
Simonetta Vespucci modeling Venus in Botticelli's "Birth of Venus"

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1478

June 1

on Saturday

12 days later

The clothes and household effects of the said Pazzi and others were sold by auction, under the roof of the Zecca (Mint), and they filled the place from end to end for their possessors had been very rich.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

June 5

on Wednesday

4 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was set free.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

June 7

on Friday

2 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

June 12

on Wednesday

5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) left Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1478

June 13

on Thursday

1 day later

It was voted in Council to put on many new taxes, Sesti and Decime(1); and 50 thousand florins on the priests.

(1) The "Seventy," in the lifetime of Lorenzo, fearing the rigorous equality sought for by the Catasto, changed it to a form of subtle progressive taxation, which they called the Decima scalata. This apparently favoured the lower classes; there were certain cases in which the lower classes paid only a twentieth of their income, and the upper classes paid a Sesto (the sixth part). The Medici, however, were extremely clever in favouring their friends by sgravi (remissions), and oppressing their enemies by aggravi (increases) or demands for old debts. The citizens had to make a full declaration of their family, possessions and means, as for the Castato. A man who had twelve children was exempt, only having the pay the registration fee, so as to be eligible for office. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1478

July 2

on Tuesday

19 days later

An ambassador came to Florence from the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

July 5

on Friday

3 days later

The feast of San Giovanni was kept, not having been kept on the actual day, and perambulating shows went about, and there was a procession; the palio(1) was also run, and there were girandole and spiritegli and giganti(2) and many fine things, as if it had been the real day.

(1) The palio was actually the prize for which the races were so called were run, and consisted of a costly piece of drapery of velvet or silk, which was displayed at the winning-post. The famous palio of San Giovanni is mentioned by several historians as having taken place in the thirteenth century; the race was run from the Porta alla Croce to the Porta al Prato; and the prize was originally of scarlet velvet, and later of scarlet silk. (Trans.)

(2) The edifizi (shows mounted on carts) were platforms on wheels, upon which figures were placed, representing scriptural, mythological or other subjects, and sometimes short scenes were enacted. At the present time, on the day of San Giovanni, the band plays in the evening, mounted on a similar platform on wheels. (Trans.) Girandole were platforms covered with rockets and wheels of fire, which took the form of shops, houses, etc. Spiritegli were people on stilts, who admidst the dense crowd appeared to be walking in the air, over the heads of the rest, like spirits. Giganti were men with their feet bound to high stilts, who wore masks and were dressed up to appear like giants; they supported themselves on poles made to resemble walking-sticks (Vasari, Lives of the Painters). (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

July 10

on Wednesday

5 days later

Another ambassador came from the King of France; he was going to the Pope, and was lodged in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni.

And at this time the horsemen of the Duke of Milan came by the Pisan road, and passed near Poggibonizi, and the troops of the king continued to approach.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 9: duke

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 21

1478

July 13

on Saturday

3 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 19

on Friday

6 days later

The Sienese invaded our territory and took booty and prisoners, and on the 22nd they captured Calciano.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Calciano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 days later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

8 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 1

on Thursday

1 day later

The enemy took Lamole, and captured more than 100 persons, and also continued to bombard the Castellina. The rule for our Italian soldiers seems to be this: "You pillage there, and we will pillage here; there is no need for us to approach too close to one another." They often let a fort be bombarded for several days, without attempting to succour it. We require to be taught by the northern soldiers how to make war.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Lamole was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 10

on Saturday

9 days later

The French ambassador and the Florentine ambassador(1) returned from Rome, without having arrived at anything satisfactory.

(1) Guidantonio Vespucci.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 15

on Thursday

5 days later

The French ambassador left; and at this time we lost the Castellina. And Messer Niccolo Vitelozzi(1) was going about sacking certain forts of Citta di Castello, and burning men, women, and children, with every sort of cruetly. After that, Messer Lorenzo of Citta di Castello(2) burnt some of our fortresses in the district of Arezzo, and committed atrocities, burning people. They were both cruel men. Such generally come to a bad end. Godly people, as we read in Holy Scripture, never come to a bad end.

(1) Or rather, Vitelli, ally of the Florentines and of Lorenzo de' Medici.

(2) Lorenzo Giustini, who held that city for the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Città di Castello was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 18

on Sunday

3 days later

We lost the Castellina (as above said); the inhabitants escaped.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 22

1478

August 19

on Monday

1 day later

A peasant was tried and hung, and was taken down as dead and placed on a bier; but having reached the Tempio,(1) he recovered consciousness, not being dead. He was taken to (the hospital of) Santa Maria Nuova, where he died a few days after. All Florence saw him.

And on the same day the enemy (the Sienese) encamped before Radda and Panzano.

(1) The Oratory of the Company of Santa Maria del Tempio, which consoled those condemned to death, and buried their bodies. It was beyond the Porta alla Giustizia, near the Porta alla Croce, outside the walls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1478

August 20

on Tuesday

1 day later

They (the Sienese) bombarded the said castles all day.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

August 21

on Wednesday

1 day later

A commissary came to us from Venice, who hired for us 3 thousand soldiers, to be paid by the Venetians.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

3 days later

The enemy (the Sienese) made an incursion as far as Ponte a Grassina, carrying off a smith and many others.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Grassina Ponte was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1478

August 24

on Saturday

The people about Rovezzano took fright, and the alarm was sounded and they fled into Florence with all their possessions, by the Porta alla Croce, so that it really seemed as if the territory were lost. Such a terror were never seen, everyone being utterly dismayed. They did not consider themselves safe even in Florence, and suffered much discomfort and misery.

And on the same day we last Radda, which was sacked and burnt.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Rovezzano was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 25

on Sunday

1 day later

Three men were hung, who were caught outside the Porta Sa' Niccolo, having gone about pillaging in the guise of the enemy; and it was they who had struck such terror into the hearts of the people outside Porta alla Croce, and caused them to desert their homes. These men were Florentines.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1478

August 27

on Tuesday

2 days later

We lost Meletuzzo and San Polo, the constable there having been guilty of treachery.

And on the same day, Pretone and his brother the constable of Radda, and Jacopo Vecchietti who was a commissary there, were arrested, and they were imprisoned in the Stinche, as it was said that they had been guilty of treachery. A man of San Polo was also taken, and was put to the rack.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in San Polo was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1478

September 2

on Monday

6 days later

We heard that a conspiracy had been discovered at Venice, and that several persons had been beheaded or imprisoned.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

September 7

on Saturday

5 days later

(Monday). Our Capitano, the Marchese di Ferrara, came to Florence, arriving at about 22 in the evening (6 p.m.), with a great company of crossbowmen on horseback, and musketeers, and we escorted him into the city with great honour, lodging him in the same house which he had before. He had about 50 mules laden with baggage, and remained in Florence till Saturday, the 12th, when he took his baton and went into camp.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1478

September 14

on Saturday

7 days later

Brolio was taken by assault. And on the same day a man died of plague, in the Casa del Capitano(1), in prison, to which he had been condemned for life; and another man who was sick of the plague was taken out of prison and carried to the hospital of La Scala,(2) where all those sick of the plague were carried. At this time the plague had increased so much, that 40 or more were sick at the hospital, and 7 or 8 died every day, and some days even 11; besides others in the district who did not go to the hospital.

(1) THe house of the Capitano del Popolo, which was behind the Palazzo Vecchio.

(2) The hospital of the Scala was in the street of that name, at the corner of the Via Polverosa (now Via degli Oricellari), and where the convent of San Martino was afterwards built.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Brolio was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1478

September 25

on Wednesday

11 days later

Cacchiano was lost and was given over to the flames.

And on the same day, mortars were sent to Casoli di Volterra, and our camp was set up before it; but our troops never went to succour those who were losing.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Cacchiano was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

1478

September 29

on Sunday

4 days later

We regained Castelnuovo. At this time there were between 60 and 70 sick of the plague in the hospital and district together, and it was spreading to the camp also.

On this same day the enemy's camp was moved to the Monte a Sansovino. They were beginning to go a little further away.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.

1478

October 5

on Saturday

6 days later

Our forces began to besiege Casoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Casoli was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

Tags

1478

October 6

on Sunday

1 day later

Six Sienese were arrested here, one of them being the Podesta of Castelnuovo, which had been regained.

And at this time there were about 100 sick of the plague, at the hospital of La Scala, and in many houses of Florence; amongst others a man was found dead upon one of the benches in Santa Maria Novella.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1478

October 11

on Friday

5 days later

A boy was found sick of the plague at the gate of the hospital of San Pagolo,(1) and no one could be found to carry him to the hospital of La Scala.

At this time the enemy were bombarding the Monte a Sansovino.(2)

(1) On the Piazza Nuova di Santa Maria Novella, under the Loggie. This building, diminished in size, remained a hospital for many years. Lately, however, it has been changed into an educational institution for poor girls. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1478

October 14

on Monday

3 days later

A sick woman was on her way to La Scala, the attendants helping and supporting her by the arms, but when she got as far as the hospital of the Porcellana,(1) she fell dead; so that one may say that the plague is exceedingly serious.

(1) This hospital was in the Via della Scala, at the corner of the Via della Porcellana.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1478

October 20

on Sunday

6 days later

A truce was made with the enemy for eight days, two days' notice to be given. Intelligent men did not approve of it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

October 31

on Thursday

11 days later

Notice was given, and the enemy pressed hard on the Monte a Sansovino. And there was a plot in our camp; and the Capitano hung one of the chief men under him.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 1

on Friday

1 day later

Start of the Spanish inquisition.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478

1478

November 1

on Friday

The "Eight," who were in office, and their notary, were deposed, for having burnt certain books.

And on the same day, the Monte a Sansovino was lost; the garrison capitulating on condition that their persons and property should be respected. And everyone said that if the truce had not been made, the enemy would have had to break up their camp, as they were so short of provisions that they could not have held out more than three days. Our forces never chose to make a sortie. Hence came the evil; and everyone marvelled that the enemy were not completely victorious after this, for they won much glory.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 14

on Thursday

13 days later

A father and son from Pistoia were arrested for treason. They were scourged.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

November 15

on Friday

1 day later

Messer Piero Vespucci was taken out of the Stinche and sent to the Podesta; and on the same day they put him back in the Stinche, for some good end.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 3

on Tuesday

18 days later

The traitor from Pistoia, called Piero Baldinotti,(1) was taken in the executioner's cart and hung, and the son was imprisoned for life in the Stinche.

And at this time our soldiers went into quarters in the Pisan territory and elsewhere, and also the Capitano.

(1) He had wished to deliver Pistoia from the yoke of the Florentines, and give it to the King of Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1478

December 7

on Saturday

4 days later

Messer Tommaso Soderini went as ambassador to Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 24

on Tuesday

17 days later

A peasant of the neighbourhood, belonging to the Popoleschi, was found dead in his house, having hung himself with a towel.

And during these days the Arno was very high and overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses. It caused great damage.

And the plague was also causing much mortality; it pleased God to