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embassy

1471

September 23

on Saturday

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1478

May 9

on Thursday

6 years, 7 months, 20 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1480

April 9

on Friday

1 year, 11 months, 6 days later

Two ambassadors were sent to the Pope and to Naples: Messer Antonio Ridolfi and Piero di Lutozzi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

December 24

on Sunday

2 years, 8 months, 19 days later

The Cardinal of Mantua, papal legate, came to Florence on his way to Ferrara. He was received with all due honour.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1483

September 7

on Friday

8 months, 17 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the King of France, on their way to Rome to arrange peace in Italy; and whilst they were here they received the news that their king had died on the 30th May, 1483. And on the 13th September one of these ambassadors died at Santa Maria Novella, and the others set out for Rome.

During these days, for fear of hunger and of the war going on in Lombardy, many families left it, and there passed through Florence on their way into Roman territory 50 to 100 at a time, till they amounted to several thousands. Many also went to Romagna and elsewhere. It was said that there were more than 30 thousand persons altogether. It was a most pitiful sight to see these poor people pass, with a wretched little donkey, and their miserable household possessions: saucepans, frying-pans, etc. One wept to see them barefoot and ragged; and it is the cursed wars which have caused all these. No one went by without receiving some little help from us.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Lombardy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Italy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

October 23

on Tuesday

1 month, 16 days later

A cardinal-legate came to Florence, who was going to the King of France as ambassador, to confirm to him his father's crown. And this cardinal chanced to be the very man whom the last King of France(1) had kept for many years in prison, in a cage.

(1) Louis XI. The name of the cardinal was Jean Balue, whom Louis XI. had persuaded Pope Paul II. to make a cardinal; and later, for political reasons, he had imprisoned him in an iron cage, from which he was liberated in 1481 through the intercession of Pope Sixtus IV. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 69: pope
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 62: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 60: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1483

November 10

on Saturday

18 days later

Three Florentine ambassadors left Florence, being sent to the King of France; they were Messer Gentile, Bishop of Arezzo, and Antonio Canigiani, and Lorenzo, son of Piero de' Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1493

November 17

on Friday

10 years, 10 days later

We sent ambassadors to Rome to visit the Pope. They were Piero son of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Bishop of Arezzo, Pier Filippo Pandolfini, Francesco Valori, and Tommaso Minerbetti. They went in fine array, especially Piero de' Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1494

May 4

on Friday

5 months, 18 days later

Four French ambassadors entered Florence. They were lodged in the house which formerly belonged to Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

May 5

on Saturday

1 day later

They went to the Signoria, and having set forth the matters entrusted to them, receive a reply. On the 7th they left, and went to Rome.(1)

(1) During their sojourn in Florence they were served with the silver plate of the Signoria; and to do them honour, the musicians of the Signoria were sent to play before them.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

July 10

on Tuesday

2 months, 6 days later

The French ambassadors returned from Rome; one of them remaining in Florence.

In these days the fleet of the King of Naples came to the Port of Pisa, and besieged Spezia and Porto Venere.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Porto Venere was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1494

July 22

on Sunday

12 days later

We sent ambassadors to Venice; they were: Pagoloantonio Soderini(1) and Giovan Battista Ridolfi.

(1) He was recalled on the 9th November.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1494

August 5

on Sunday

14 days later

Piero de' Medici went to meet the Duke of Calabria, in the neighbourhood of Arezzo, to visit him, as one visits a great gentleman, a lord. The French ambassadors who were in Florence, having asked for their safe-conduct, and not receiving it at once, when they knew of this journey of Piero's began to suspect us of not being friendly to their king; at least this was said in the city, and it was said that the king threatened the Florentines. It was difficult to persuade them that we were faithful friends, and that their suspicions were without foundation. All this, however, I only heard by report.

In these days the fleet of the King of France arrived at Genoa, and there was much talk of an encounter.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1494

October 4

on Thursday

2 months later

More ambassadors from the King of France came to Florence, and going to the Signoria, could not obtain a decisive answer but only a vague one; so that on the 9th they both left Florence in indignation, and returned to the king without a safe-conduct. It was then said that the king swore to let his soldiers pillage Florence; and everyone thought it had been a piece of folly and rashness not to give the safe-conduct readily.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1494

December 4

on Tuesday

2 months, 1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

An embassy from the Duke of Milan came to Florence.(1)

(1) To congratulate the Florentines upon their recovered liberty.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

Agents

Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), aged 42: duke
Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 58: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 74

1494

December 30

on Sunday

26 days later

30th December (Tuesday). Ambassadors were chosen to go to Pisa: Piero Capponi and Francesco Valori, together with the French one; and they were to take letters from the king with them, saying that Pisa should be given back to us.(1) They were, in fact, playing us such tricks that the people thought that the king was making fools of us, which was considered a bad prospect, as indeed it was.

(1) On the 13th November the Signoria had elected Capponi, together with two other citizens, as Proveditori for the guardianship and care of the city of Pisa. On the 24th December the Dieci di Liberia e Balia deputed Capponi and Valori "General Commissioners with full authority in every place outside Florence"; and the same day they ordered that forty gold florins should be paid to them, as "elected commissaries to go with the ambassador of the Most Christian King, to Pisa." According to Portoveneri, they were not allowed to enter the city.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1495

March 5

on Tuesday

2 months, 5 days later

5th March. Four ambassadors were chosen to go to the King of France and Naples, who were: Messer Guido Antonio, Pagolo Antonio Soderini, the Bishop de' Pazzi, and Lorenzo son of Piero Francesco de' Medici.(1)

(1) Landucci is not correct in the names of these ambassadors the work already quoted, Negotiations, etc., we read the instruction given to them and their names, but instead of Soderini and Pazzi are Bernardo Rucellai and Lorenzo Morelli. Ammirato, however, gives Soderini instead of Morelli; the truth is that the latter was appointed to replace the former, who was prevented from leaving on account of illness.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

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