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Europe

979

After the death of Otho II., his son, Otho III., was elected Emperor, and crowned by Pope Gregory V., in the year of Christ 979, and this Otho reigned twenty-four years. After that he was crowned, he went into Apulia on pilgrimage to Mount S. Angelo, and afterwards returned by way of France into Germany, leaving Italy in good and peaceful estate. But when he was returned to Germany, Crescentius, the consul and lord of Rome, drave away the said Gregory from the papacy, and set a Greek therein, which was bishop of Piacenza, and very wise; but when the Emperor Otho heard this he was very wrath, and with his army returned to Italy, and besieged in Rome the said Crescentius and his Pope in the castle of S. Angelo, for therein had they taken refuge; and he took the said castle by siege, and caused Crescentius to be beheaded, and Pope John XVI. to have his eyes put out, and his hands cut off; and he restored his Pope Gregory to his chair, which was his kinsman by race; and leaving Rome and Italy in good estate, he returned to his country of Germany, and there-70- died in prosperity. With the said Otho III. there came into Italy the Marquis Hugh; I take it this must have been the marquis of Brandenburg, forasmuch as there is no other marquisate in Germany. His sojourn in Tuscany liked him so well, and especially our city of Florence, that he caused his wife to come thither, and took up his abode in Florence, as vicar of Otho, the Emperor. It came to pass, as it pleased God, that when he was riding to the chase in the country of Bonsollazzo, he lost sight, in the wood, of all his followers, and came out, as he supposed, at a workshop where iron was wont to be wrought. Here he found men, black and deformed, who, in place of iron, seemed to be tormenting men with fire and with hammer, and he asked what this might be: and they answered and said that these were damned souls, and that to similar pains was condemned the soul of the Marquis Hugh by reason of his worldly life, unless he should repent: who, with great fear, commended himself to the Virgin Mary, and when the vision was ended, he remained so pricked in the spirit, that after his return to Florence, he sold all his patrimony in Germany, and commanded that seven monasteries should be founded: the first was the Badia of Florence, to the honour of S. Mary; the second, that of Bonsollazzo, where he beheld the vision; the third was founded at Arezzo; the fourth at Poggibonizzi; the fifth at the Verruca of Pisa; the sixth at the city of Castello; the last was the one at Settimo; and all these abbeys he richly endowed, and lived afterwards with his wife in holy life, and had no son, and died in the city of Florence, on S. Thomas' Day, in the year of Christ 1006, and was buried with great honour in the Badia of Florence. And whilst the said Hugh was-71- living, he made in Florence many knights of the family of the Giandonati, of the Pulci, of the Nerli, of the counts of Gangalandi, and of the family della Bella, which all for love of him, retained and bore his arms, barry, white and red, with divers charges.

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Source: Primary

Villani, Giovanni. Trans. by Rose E. Selfe. "Villani's Chronicle". Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1906: pp 70-1.

1220

241 years, 1 month, 28 days later

Nicola Pisano is born in Apulia.

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1250

30 years, 8 days later

Simone dei Conti di Canossa, the first Florentine ancestor of Michelangelo, is made Podestà of Florence.

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1296

46 years, 11 days later

Giovanni Pisano abruptly leaves Siena, abandoning management of work on the lower stage of the facade of Siena Cathedral, reportedly over creative differences with the Opera del Duomo.

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1333

37 years, 9 days later

The Florentine historian Giovanni Villani records the disastrous flood of Florence of 1333, and reports on lengthy discussions which arose afterwards about the destructive power of water, presenting the argument almost in the form of a treatise. By the mysterious thread of tradition, the early discussions may have reached Leonardo (...)

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Pedretti, Carlo. "Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style," p.10

1348

15 years, 3 days later

Construction is halted on the new nave of Siena Cathedral by the Black Death. Basic errors in the construction are already evident by now, however, and the work is never resumed. The outer walls, remains of this extension, can still be seen to the south of the Duomo. The floor of the uncompleted nave now serves as a parking lot and museum.

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Agents

1369

May 28

on Sunday

21 years, 5 months, 3 days later

Muzio Sforza is born in Cotignola.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Cotignola was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1400

30 years, 7 months, 15 days later

Jacopo Bellini is born in Venice.

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Astronomical Events

1401

July 23

on Thursday

1 year, 6 months, 23 days later

Francesco I Sforza is born in San Miniato.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in San Miniato was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1401

December 21

on Monday

5 months, 1 day later

Masaccio is born in San Giovanni Valdarno.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in San Giovanni Valdarno was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Agents

Masaccio (1401-1428): painter

1406

4 years, 12 days later

Muzio Sforza captures Pisa and is subsequently hired by Niccolò III d'Este of Ferrara, who is being menaced by Ottobono Terzi of Parma.

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1411

5 years, 1 day later

Jacopo Bellini is in Foligno, where with Gentile da Fabriano he worked at the The Palazzo Trinci frescoes.

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1423

12 years, 3 days later

Masaccio travels to Rome with Masolino.

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Agents

Masolino (1383-1447), aged 40: painter
Masaccio (1401-1428), aged 22: painter

1424

1 year later

Masaccio and Masolino are commissioned by the powerful and rich Felice Brancacci to execute a cycle of frescoes for the The Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence.

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Agents

Masaccio (1401-1428), aged 23: painter
Masolino (1383-1447), aged 41: painter

1425

April 14

on Thursday

1 year, 3 months, 14 days later

Lorenzo Ghiberti receives a letter from Giovanni Turini, a goldsmith of Siena.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

'Letters of the Great Artists', p. 14

1425

April 16

on Saturday

2 days later

Lorenzo Ghiberti to Giovanni Turini, goldsmith, of Siena:

Jesus Honourable friend, I received your letter the fourteenth day of April and saw therefrom how dear and faithful a friend I have in you, and also that you are well. Also of your good mind toward me, which you have ever displayed; inasmuch that in case of need you would help me to polish one of these stories (reliefs) and would do it willingly: the which I know I can come only of love to me, for the which may God bless you. You must know, dear friend, that the stories are almost completed; one is in the hands of Giuliano di Ser Andrea, the other I have; and they will be finished at the time I promised Messer Bartolomeo; in sooth they would have been finished long since, but for the thanklessness of those, my past companions, from whom I received not one injury, but many. Thanks be to God, I am out of their hands, for which I ever praise God, considering in what freedom I now find myself. Being quite without company, I intend to remain thus, master in my own workshop and able to receive any friend with a good and cheerful countenance. I thank you for your perfect goodwill towards me. And I heartily beg you to commend me to Messer Bartolomeo. Also I beg you heartily to find, if you may, some means by which I may recover the drawings of the birds I lent to Ghoro (dir Ser Neroccio, a goldsmith of Siena). I know that it will be no pains to you to beg Master Domenico, the wood-carver, that he send them back to me, for I hear say that these and all other things that were in the hands of the said Ghoro are now with Master Domenico. Greet him from me, and likewise Master Francesco di Valdambrina: and if there be aught that I can do here, I am always at your pleasure. There is nothing other to say. May Christ keep you in peace. Writ on the sixteenth day of April 1425. By your Lorenzo di Bartolo, goldsmith of Florence, your dear friend

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Source: Primary

'Letters of the Great Artists', p.14-5

1425

September

4 months, 18 days later

Masolino leaves work on the The Brancacci Chapel and goes to Hungary.

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Agents

Masolino (1383-1447), aged 42: painter

1426

February 19

on Sunday

5 months, 21 days later

Masaccio is commissioned by Giuliano di Colino degli Scarsi da San Giusto, for the sum of 80 florins, to paint a major altarpiece, the Pisa Altarpiece, for his chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pisa.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1428

Autumn

2 years, 11 days later

Masaccio dies in Rome; according to a legend, he is poisoned by a jealous rival painter.

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Agents

Masaccio (1401-1428), aged 27: painter

1430

1 year, 10 months, 6 days later

Giovanni Bellini born in Venice.

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Agents

Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516): painter

1431

1 year later

Andrea Mantegna is born in Isola di Carturo.

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1431

Francesco I Sforza leads the Milanese army against Venice.

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1433

2 years, 1 day later

Francesco I Sforza leads the Milanese attack on the Papal States, but when he conquers Ancona, in the Marche, he changes sides, obtaining the title of vicar of the city directly from Pope Eugene IV.

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1434

1 year later

The Medici family seize power in Florence, marking the beginning of a fifty year rule.

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Agents

1435

1 year later

Birth

Andrea del Verrocchio is born in Florence.

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Agents

1436

March 25

on Friday

1 year, 2 months, 24 days later

The dedication of the cathedral of Florence was celebrated by Pope Eugenius IV and the papal chapel, then resident in Florence. The Pope's magister capellae (master, or leader, of the chapel) was then Guillaume Dufay, a native of the region of Cambrai in northern France.

Attachments

A Dedication by Dufay This isorhythmic motet, "Nuper rosarum flores", was composed by Dufay for the dedication of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Cambrai was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), aged 39: composer

Source: Primary

http://www.slideshare.net/jamesamoore/chapter-15-music-at-the-cathedral-of-florence

1438

December 6

on Thursday

2 years, 8 months, 16 days later

The operai of the Florentine Cathedral stated that in order to improve the level of divine worship there, Ugolino de Giugnis, a canon of the Cathedral, was commissioned to elect "Magister Benotto and his associates who sing at the church of San Giovanni (the Baptistry) to sing Vespers at Santa Maria del Fiore on festive and solemn days." Another document dated the same day mentions writing to Lorenzo de' Medici, "ambassador of Florence to the pope, presently in Ferrara,' so that he could inform the pope of the decision, specifying the number of singers to join Benotto as three.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Source: Primary

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41701491?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

1440

1 year, 26 days later

King Alfonso I occupies Francesco Sforza's fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples and, to recover the situation, Sforza reconciles himself with Filippo Visconti.

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1443

December 5

on Tuesday

3 years, 11 months, 9 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is born in Albisola.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Albisola was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1445

1 year, 28 days later

Giuliano da Sangallo is born in Florence.

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1452

7 years, 1 day later

Davide Ghirlandaio is born in Florence.

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1452

Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers the islands of Corvo and Flores in the Azores.

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Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1452

January 1

on Thursday

Luca Landucci enters the shop of the apothecary Francesco, at the sign of the Scala, in the Mercato Vecchio in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 16: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 1

1452

March 19

on Friday

2 months, 18 days later

Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor becomes the last to be crowned in Rome.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:04 AM and sunset was at 6:11 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1452

April 15

on Thursday

27 days later

Leonardo da Vinci is born out of wedlock to a notary, Ser Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, in Vinci.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Vinci was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1452

May 31

on Monday

1 month, 16 days later

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, officially declares war on Ghent.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Ghent was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1452

July 27

on Tuesday

1 month, 27 days later

Lucrezia Crivelli was born in Milan.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1452

October

2 months, 6 days later

English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1456

August 24

on Sunday

3 years, 10 months, 28 days later

A Storm over Tuscany

On 24 August, an hour before daybreak, a whirlwind of dense black vapour spreading for about two miles in all directions issued from the upper sea near Ancona, and traversing Italy passed into the lower sea near Pisa. This vapour driven by resistless forces, whether natural or supernatural I know not, and rent and driven in struggles with itself, split off into clouds which, now rising to heaven now descending to earth, dashed one against another, or whirling round with inconceivable velocity before them a wind of measureless violence, and sent forth as they strove together frequent lightnings and dazzling flames. From these clouds thus broken and embroiled, from this furious wind, and these quick-succeeding sheets of flame, came a sound louder than the roar of thunder or earthquake, and so terrible that whosoever heard it thought the end of the world had come, and that land and sea, and all that was left of earth and sky, were returning mingled together to ancient Chaos. Wherever this dreadful whirlwind passed it wrought the most astonishing and unheard-of effects, but more notably than elsewhere near the walled village of San Casciano, situated about eight miles from Florence, on the hill separating the Val di Pesa from the Val di Grieve. Between this town and the village of Sant'Andrea, standing on the same hill, the hurricane swept, not touching Sant'Andrea, and merely grazing the outskirts of San Casciano so as to strike some of the battlements of the walls, and the chimneys of a few houses. But outside, in the space between the two places named, many buildings were levelled with the ground; the roofs of the churches of San Martino at Bagnuolo, and of Santa Maria della Pace, were borne bodily to a distance of more than a mile; and a carrier and his mules were found dead, some way from the road, in the neighbouring valley. The strongest oaks and the sturdier trees which would not stoop before the fury of the blast, were not merely uprooted but carried far away from the places where they grew. When the tempest had passed and morning broke, men remained stunned and stupfied. They saw their fields devastated and destroyed, their houses and churches laid in ruins, and heard the lamentations of those who looked on shattered homesteads under which their kinsmen or their cattle lay dead. Which sights and sounds filled all who say or heard of them with the profoundest pity and fear. But doubtless it was God's will rather to threaten than to chastise Tuscany; for had a hurricane like this, instead of coming among oaks, and alders, and thinly scattered dwellings, burst upon the close-packed houses and crowded population of a great city, it would assuredly have wrought the most terrible ruin and destruction that the mind of man can conceive.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Val di Greve was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Val di Pesa was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in San Casciano was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1458

1 year, 4 months, 10 days later

Benedetto Ghirlandaio is born in Florence.

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1460

2 years later

Bastiano Mainardi was born in San Gimignano.

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Astronomical Events

1465

April 10

on Monday

5 years, 3 months, 11 days later

There passed through Florence a son of Don Ferante, King of Naples, on his way to Milan to fetch the daughter of the Duke of Milan to be wedded to his brother. This lad was twelve or thirteen years old; he was made much of, and was lodged at Santa Maria Novella. And afterwards he returned through Florence with the bride, accompanied by many signori and dukes, with a large troop of horse; and besides other things, there were so many damsels and matrons in his train that it was magnificent. And at this time a man was found coining false money, and he was beheaded.

Attachments
Portrait of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait bust traditionally identified with Ippolita Maria Sforza, daughter of Francesco I, by Francesco Laurana
Portrait bust of Don Ferante, King of Naples
Alfonso II, brother of Duke Ferante, King of Naples

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1466

January 12

on Friday

9 months, 7 days later

During the night the Arno began to be in flood, although there had not been a drop of rain but the snow had melted suddenly, so that the river entered the town and flooded it as far as the Canto a Monteloro, and benches from the Church of Santa Croce floated across to that point.

And the water went into the Piazza del Grano, reaching more than half-way up the door of the apothecary's shop and past the Palagio del Podesta. The river overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses, and filled the Prato and the Via della Scala. Many mules and horses were drowned in their stables, and all the wine-casks went floating about, mostly towards the Arno. This flood had come suddenly.

Attachments
The Arno flood of 1966
The Via della Scala today

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1466

March 8

on Thursday

1 month, 25 days later

Francesco I Sforza dies in Milan, leaving the throne to his first-born son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1466

September 1

on Saturday

5 months, 27 days later

On this day a parlamento (assembly) was held in the Piazza, and there was a great commotion in the city; the shops were closed several times, for fear that they might be looted. Niccolo Soderini, Messer Dietisalvi, and Messer Luca Pitti were exiled, for having been the leaders in the plot against Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, when it was attempted to murder him in his way from Careggi. And after the failure of the plot, many citizens connected with it were exiled, about twenty-seven of them being restricted within certain boundaries and made ineligible for office, according to the sentences inscribed on a document inserted in this book; except Messer Luca Pitti, who made an alliance with Giovanni Tornabuoni, giving him his daughter as wife, and in consequence he was reprieved from exile, and they remained friends and at peace.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1466

November 23

on Friday

2 months, 23 days later

Luca Landucci moves his wife into his own house in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 30: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 8.

1467

1 month, 9 days later

Leonardo's apprenticeship

Leonardo da Vinci is sent to Florence to work as apprentice to Andrea del Verrocchio.

Attachments
Leonardo in Verrocchio's studio painting his parts of 'The Baptism of Christ'

Astronomical Events

1468

1 year later

The Palla

Andrea del Verrocchio is contracted to make a golden ball (palla) to be placed on top of the lantern of Brunelleschi's cupola on the Duomo in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

1468

April 28

on Tuesday

3 months, 28 days later

At about 15 in the morning (11 a.m.) we had the news that peace(1) was concluded. It was celebrated with bonfires, and the shops were closed.

(1) Alamanno Rinuccini (Ricordi, etc. Firenze, 1840), says that the news of the universal peace amongst all the powers of Italy, pronounced by the Pope two days previously, reached Florence at 13 ore (9 a.m.) on the 27th April.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1470

1 year, 8 months, 8 days later

Jacopo Bellini dies in Venice.

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Astronomical Events

1470

Journey to Rome

Andrea del Verrocchio makes a voyage to Rome in the early 1470s.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), aged 35: painter; sculptor

1470

April 15

on Friday

3 months, 14 days later

Fifteen men were brought from Prato, who had intended to give over the place, and they were hung(1).

(1) This was the plot of Bernardo Nardi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Prato was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 9.

1471

8 months, 21 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1471

May 26

on Friday

4 months, 25 days later

I bought some of the first sugar that came here from Madeira; which island had been subdued a few years before by the King of Portugal, and sugar had begun to be grown there; and I had some of the first.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Madeira was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1471

August 9

on Wednesday

2 months, 15 days later

Sisto IV. was elected Pope. He was from Savona; a Franciscan monk, and general of the Order; then he had been made cardinal by Pope Pagolo, and now Pope. he was elected on Friday, the even of San Lorenzo, and was crowned on San Sisto's day.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Savona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 57: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 10.

1471

September 23

on Saturday

1 month, 15 days later

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1471

December 15

on Friday

2 months, 23 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro In Vincoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in San Pietro In Vincoli was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1472

17 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Lausanne.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 29: pope; cardinal

1472

April 27

on Saturday

3 months, 27 days later

We heard that Volterra had suddenly revolted; and troops were sent there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1472

May 6

on Monday

9 days later

The Bishop of Volterra came as ambassador, but settled nothing. And on the 7th two mortars were loaded to go there. And on the 10th the Count of Urbino went there with men-at-arms; and by the 19th he took all their castles; and on the 24th he took many prisoners and captured their bastion. And on the 1st June their ambassadors arrived here to demand terms, and almost came to agreement, but everything was upset when they returned there. And so far two mortars had been used. And on the 8th June, the attacking party beheaded one of the Bartolini; and on the 9th they used another mortar.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1472

June 18

on Tuesday

1 month, 13 days later

A knight came to us (from Volterra) with the olive-branch, and an agreement was made, guaranteeing their property and persons. There was much rejoicing. But when the attacking-party entered, one of their constables, a Venetian, began to cry: "Sack it, sack it!" and our men began plundering, and it was impossible to make them observe their agreement. The count had this Venetian hung and also a Sienese. Nevertheless the unfortunate people fared badly. The count came to Florence on the 27th June, 1472; he was given the Patriarch's house, a banner, two basins, two silver ewers, 180 lire, and a helmet. He went away on the 1st July, 1473.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1472

November 24

on Sunday

5 months, 9 days later

Pietro Torrigiano is born in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

1473

1 month, 8 days later

Antonello da Messina introduces the new medium of oil paint into Venice.

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Astronomical Events

1473

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Catania.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 30: pope; cardinal

1473

July 18

on Friday

6 months, 18 days later

We heard that our archbishop, who was one of the Neroni of Florence, had died at Rome; and the archbishopric was given to the Cardinal of San Sisti, called Brother Piero.(1)

(1) Piero Riario, nephew of the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 59: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 11.

1473

August 5

on Tuesday

18 days later

Leonardo da Vinci produces a pen and ink drawing of the Arno valley that is dated to this day. It is said to be one of the earliest Italian landscape drawings that focuses on the particular character of the location.

The drawing is said by some scholars to be a study intended for the 'Baptism of Christ', which Leonardo painted with Andrea del Verrocchio around this time.

Attachments
Drawing of the Arno valley by Leonardo da Vinci
Landscape from 'Baptism of Christ'

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

1473

December 11

on Thursday

4 months, 8 days later

A poor woman in Camaldoli,(1) who had several grown-up daughters, was praying to the crucifix in their house, when they saw it break into sweat, and speaking of it in the neighbourhood, people began to go and pray to it. When the Carmelite friars heard of it, they went and fetched it reverently and placed it in a tabernacle of the Cappella della Croce,(2) and it was worshiped there.

(1) A portion of the city near the gate of San Frediano, which received its name from an old monastery of the Camaldolensi. It is the abode of the roughest and poorest of the people, and the name was extended to a district near San Lorenzo (the Camaldoli of San Frediano, and the Camaldoli of San Lorenzo), the appellation now signifying "rough people." (Trans.)

(2) This is doubtless the crucifix known as La Providenza, and concerning which a certain G. F. B. published the Notizie (Florence, 1852).

Attachments
The village of Camaldoli today
The monastery of Camaldoli

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Camaldoli was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1474

April 25

on Saturday

4 months, 15 days later

Girolamo Savonarola goes to Bologna where he knocks on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, and asks to be admitted. As he tells his father in his farewell letter, he wants to become a knight of Christ.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 22: priest

1474

September 25

on Friday

5 months, 3 days later

We received a letter written by Matteo Palmieri, captain of Volterra, which I saw and read; it related the following marvel, namely, that in these days there had been born in Volterra a boy (that is, a monster) which had the head of a bull, and three teeth, with a lump of skin on the head like a horn, and the top of the head was open like a pomegranate, with fiery rays coming out. Its arms were all hairy, and its feet were like a lion's with lion's claws. Its body was of the nature of a female of the human race, but its legs down to the feet were those of a bull like the head. And it lived about three hours. The mother died the fourth day. The midwives and the other women present half died of fried. And this was shown to the said Matteo as a terrible thing. And the said Matteo, captain of Volterra, wrote here to Florence with his own hand; and I copied the said letter in the actual words, neither omitting nor adding anything. And because the said Matteo was my father's intimate friend and my godfather, the letter itself came into my hands, although it was directed to other citizens.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1475

March 6

on Saturday

5 months, 12 days later

Michelangelo is born in Caprese Michelangelo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Caprese Michelangelo was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1475

May 1

on Saturday

1 month, 26 days later

I, Luca Landucci, went to Rome for the Jubilee, and took with me my mother-in-law; and we travelled for fifteen days going and coming.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 39: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 12.

1476

8 months, 5 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1476

The Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes arrives in Florence, bringing new painterly techniques from Northern Europe which were to profoundly affect Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and others.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), aged 27: painter
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 30: painter

1476

April 26

on Wednesday

3 months, 26 days later

At about 15 in the forenoon (11 a.m.) in Santa Maria del Fiore, whilst high mass was being celebrated and the Host elevated, Giuliano, son of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and Francesco Nori were killed, near the choir of the said church towards the door which goes to the Servi; and Lorenzo de' Medici was wounded in the neck, and fled into the sacristy and escaped. They were killed in consequence of a certain conspiracy made by Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Franceschino de' Pazzi and Guglielmo de' Pazzi, the which Guglielma was he brother-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici, his wife being a sister of theirs, called Bianca. And the sons of Messer Piero de' Pazzi were also there, that is, Andrea and Renato and Niccolo; and of the house of Salviati, there were Francesco, Bishop of Pisa, and Jacopo Salviati, who was son-in-law to Filippo Tornabuoni, and another Jacopo also a Salviati, and Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, Bracciolini and Bernardo Bandini of the house of Baroncegli, and Amerigo Corsi, and many others. The conspirators brought Cardinal di San Giorgio(1) here, who was a young man; he entered Florence on the day above-mentioned, and they all came together in Santa Maria del Fiore, and, as I have said, at the elevation of the Host seized their swords, and it is said that Francesco de' Pazzi struck Giuliano, and Bandini the other. And having killed Giuliano they wanted to kill Lorenzo, but did not succeed, as he fled into the sacristy. Meantime the Bishop de' Salviati, with Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, and two of his relatives who were both called Jacopo, went to the Palagio, with several priests, feigning to desire to speak to the Signoria, and they spoke to the Gonfaloniere, and became somewhat confused. The Gonfaloniere perceived the treachery, and he and his companions shut themslves up here and there, and ordered the doors to be closed, and the bell run for a parlamento. And what with the rumour which came from Santa Maria del Fiore of Giuliano's death and the bell ringing at the Palagio, the city was immediately in arms. And Lorenzo de' Medici was taken to his house. Meantime Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi rushed on horseback to the Piazza de' Signori, crying "Popolo e liberta!" (The People and Liberty!), wishing to take the Palagio, but the bishop not having succeeded in getting possession of it, Messer Jacopo was not able to enter. He then went towards his own house, and was advised to take to flight; and he fled by the Porta all Croce, together with many men-at-arms, in the Piazza and at Lorenzo de' Medici's house. And numbers of men on the side of the conspirators were killed in the Piazza; amongst others a priest of the bishop's was killed there, his body being quartered and the head cut off, and then the head was stuck on the top of a lance, and carried about Florence the whole day, and one quarter of his body was carried on a spit all through the city, with the cry of: "Death to the traitors!" That same evening the cardinal was taken to the Palagio, barely escaping with his life, all his companions being captured without exception.

And the bishop remained in the Palagio with all the rest. And that evening they hung Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, from the windows of the Palagio de' Signori, and likewise the Bishop of Pisa, and Franceschino de' Pazzi, naked; and about twenty men besides, some at the Palagio de' Signori, and others at the Palagio dell Podesta and at the Casa del Capitano, all at the windows.

The next day (the 27th) they hung Jacopo Salviati, son-in-law of Filippo Tornabuoni, and the other Jacopo, also at the windows, and many others of the households of the cardinals and of the bishop. And the day after that (the 28th April, 1478), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi was captured at Belforte. And that evening of the 28th, about 23 in the evening (7 p.m.), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Renato de' Pazzi were hung at the windows of the Palagio de'' Signori, above the ringhiera(2); and so many of their men with them, that during these three days the number of those killed amounted to more than seventy. The cardinal remained a prisoner of the Palagio, and no harm was done him, except that he was made to write to the Holy Father, with his own hand, all that had happened. And the same day the prisoners in the Stinche(3) managed to break open the prison, and all escaped - with the exception of one unfortunate man who was captured and hung.

(1) Rafaello Riario.

(2) The ringhiera was the platform consisting in three steps and railing, which used to be round the Palagio (Palazzo Vecchio) on the front and on the north. It was used for haranguing the people and was only demolished in 1812, when the present steps and platform replaced it. (Trans.)

(3) The Stinche were the old prisons, which formed a large rectangular mass between the Via del Diluvio (now Via del Fosso), the Via del Palagio (now Via Ghibellina), the Via del Mercatino, and the Via de' Lavatoi. The exterior walls were extremely high, and windowless. The name was derived from that of a fortress which had rebelled against Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and which the Florentines retook, bringing the prisoners back as a trophy. Originally intended for traitors and revels, these prisons were used afterwards for various purposes, even for madmen; whilst later on debtors and bankrupts were confined there, and others with life-sentences. In 1835, under the Grand-duke Leopold, it was decreed that they should be sold, and shops and houses were built on the area; also the large hall, called Filamonica, and riding-school, afterwards replaced by the Pagliani theatre, now called the Verdi. (Trans.)

Attachments
Bianca de' Medici is traditionally presumed to be the woman in the centre
Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici by Botticelli
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio
The skull of Giuliano de' Medici, fractured from the blade that killed him
The Stinche, or old prisons of Florence, as shown in an engraving

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1476

August 15

on Tuesday

3 months, 21 days later

Four of the city gates in Florence were closed; the first was Porta San Miniato, the second was the Porta all Giustizia, the third Porta Pinti(1), and the fourth the Porticciuola della Mulina (of the Mill).(2)

(1) The Porta a Pinti, demolished with the walls in 1866, was at the end of the Borgo Pinti, and was a very picturesque gate, with a group of old cypresses. (Trans.)

(2) The Porticciuola della Mulina was near the Prato, down by the river, leading to the Mulina (Mill) of the Vagaloggia. It was sometimes called Pirticciuola del Prato. The three last gates were taken down when the walls were demolished. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1476

November 26

on Sunday

3 months, 13 days later

Vlad the Impaler declares himself reigning Prince of Wallachia for the third and last time. He was killed on the march to Bucharest, probably before the end of December. His head was sent to his old enemy Sultan Mehmed of the Ottomans.

Attachments
A copy of a contemporary portrait of Vlad Tepes, the Impaler

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bucharest was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1476

1477

1 month, 6 days later

Buonarrotto Buonarotti is born in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1478

1 year later

Girolamo Savonarola's studies are interrupted when he is sent to the Dominican priory of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Ferrara as assistant master of novices.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 26: priest

1478

First printing (in Padua) of Mondino de Liuzzi's Anathomia corporis humani, the first complete published anatomical text.

Attachments
Dissection of Heart, from Mondino Dei Luzzi's "Anathomia corporis humani"
Mondino de Luzzi, "Lesson in Anatomy"

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478

1478

March 25

on Monday

2 months, 23 days later

The Holy Father gave a plenary indulgence in Santa Maria del Fiore for one day, from vespers on the 24th March till the next vespers, on the 25th March, which people availed themselves of with great devotion. The Cause of this was the preaching of Brother Antonio da Vergiegli in Santa Maria del Fiore during Lent, which bore good fruit.

On this same 25th March, a law was determined upon at the Palagio, which forbade anyone who had killed a man to return to Florence(1).

(1) The provision is of the 16th March, 1478, Old Style, and perhaps the 25th is the day on which it was published. It was made to limit the concession of safe-conducts, and the causes which led to it may be read in the exordium which I have pleasure in publishing as a document which describes the way of thinking at that time. "The high and magnificent Signori having in mind how grave is the sin of homicide, by which man, a creature made and created in the image of God, is destroyed; and seeking the reasons why it is so very frequent under our jurisdiction; find among other things that it is encouraged by the facility of pardon and roper severity not being used in punishing such a detestable and abominable excess, he who commits the homicide being allowed to be continually in the presence of those who have suffered from the offence and of those who desire to live virtuously; none of whom can regard such manslayers without great indignation and perturbation of mind. And although the laws of the Florentine people bitterly avenge and punish such crimes, and give security against them; notwithstanding, whatever may be the reason, either too great humanity (which in reality one ought to call cruelty), or else undisciplined charity, such entirely right and just decrees are not properly observed. And the high Signori and discreet chief citizens wish to remedy these things which are so contrary to honest living and against divine laws, by making the fear of pubishment deter men from committing them, when they are deprived of all hope of pardon, and by adjuring the magistrates not only not to overlook such things, but to enforce the law with severity, hoping firmly that this provision may hav ea good effect" (State Archives of Florence, Consigli maggiori Provv. Reg. ad annum).

The term "Signori e Collegi" used in the decrees meant as follows: the Signori were the eight Priori and the Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, and the Collegi were the sixteen Gonfalonieri della Compagnie and the twelve men (three from each quarter) formerly called the twelve Buonuomini, who were summoned by the Signori to take council on almost every occasion. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1478

May 1

on Wednesday

1 month, 7 days later

The new Signoria entered into office. That evening Andrea de' Pazzi and Brigliaino(1) were captured. And also, the same evening, returning from Pisa, Messer Piero Vespucci was captured and taken to the Palagio, as it was said that he had aided the escape of a man concerned in the plot.

(1) Giovanni di Domenico, called Brigliaino, a hanger-on of the house of Pazzi, and a worthless man.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 3

on Friday

2 days later

At about 18 in the afternoon (2 p.m.), a priest(1) was captured in the Badia of Florence, who was a chancellor (secretary) of Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi, and another at the same time, from Volterra(2); they had remained hidden there from the day of the murder till now. And that evening Brigliaino and one of the cardinal's chancellors were hung at the windows of the Palagio, and when the ropes were cut, they fell down on the platform. The soldiers quarreled over robbing the dead bodies of doublets and hose.

(1) Stefano di Ser Niccolo of Bagnone, a priest in San Procolo at Florence.

(2) Antonio di Gherardo Maffei of Volterra, scribe of the Camera Apostolica, or notary of the Ruota (a society of Doctors of Law).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 9

on Thursday

6 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 10

on Friday

1 day later

They sent Andrea de' Pazzi and two of his younger brothers into a new prison, in the vault of a tower at Volterra.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 17

on Friday

7 days later

At about 20 in the evening (4 p.m.), some boys disinterred it (the body of Messer Jacopo) a second time, and dragged it through Florence by the piece of rope that was still round its neck; and when they came to the door of his house, they tied the rope to the door-bell, saying: "Knock at the door!" and they made great sport all through the town. And when they grew tired and did not know what more to do with it, they went to the Ponte al Rubiconte and threw it into the river.(1) And they sang a song with certain rhymes, amongst others this line: "Messer Jacopo is floating away down the Arno." And it was considered an extraordinary thing, first because children are usually afraid of dead bodies, and secondly because the stench was so bad that it was impossible to go near it; one may imagine what it was like, from the 27th April till the 17th May! And they must have had to touch with with their hands to throw it into the Arno. And as it floated down the river, always keeping above the surface, the bridges were crowded with people to watch it pass. And another day, down towards Brozzi, the boys pulled it out of the water again, and hung it on a willow, and then the beat it, and threw it back into the Arno. And it is said that it was seen to pass under the bridges of Pisa, always above the surface.

(1) History says that the magistrates had the body thrown into the Arno, to put a stop to the boys' treatment of it. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Brozzi was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

June 7

on Friday

21 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

June 12

on Wednesday

5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) left Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1478

July 2

on Tuesday

20 days later

An ambassador came to Florence from the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

July 10

on Wednesday

8 days later

Another ambassador came from the King of France; he was going to the Pope, and was lodged in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni.

And at this time the horsemen of the Duke of Milan came by the Pisan road, and passed near Poggibonizi, and the troops of the king continued to approach.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 9: duke

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 21

1478

July 13

on Saturday

3 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 19

on Friday

6 days later

The Sienese invaded our territory and took booty and prisoners, and on the 22nd they captured Calciano.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Calciano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 days later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

8 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 1

on Thursday

1 day later

The enemy took Lamole, and captured more than 100 persons, and also continued to bombard the Castellina. The rule for our Italian soldiers seems to be this: "You pillage there, and we will pillage here; there is no need for us to approach too close to one another." They often let a fort be bombarded for several days, without attempting to succour it. We require to be taught by the northern soldiers how to make war.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Lamole was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 10

on Saturday

9 days later

The French ambassador and the Florentine ambassador(1) returned from Rome, without having arrived at anything satisfactory.

(1) Guidantonio Vespucci.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 15

on Thursday

5 days later

The French ambassador left; and at this time we lost the Castellina. And Messer Niccolo Vitelozzi(1) was going about sacking certain forts of Citta di Castello, and burning men, women, and children, with every sort of cruetly. After that, Messer Lorenzo of Citta di Castello(2) burnt some of our fortresses in the district of Arezzo, and committed atrocities, burning people. They were both cruel men. Such generally come to a bad end. Godly people, as we read in Holy Scripture, never come to a bad end.

(1) Or rather, Vitelli, ally of the Florentines and of Lorenzo de' Medici.

(2) Lorenzo Giustini, who held that city for the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Città di Castello was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 19

on Monday

4 days later

A peasant was tried and hung, and was taken down as dead and placed on a bier; but having reached the Tempio,(1) he recovered consciousness, not being dead. He was taken to (the hospital of) Santa Maria Nuova, where he died a few days after. All Florence saw him.

And on the same day the enemy (the Sienese) encamped before Radda and Panzano.

(1) The Oratory of the Company of Santa Maria del Tempio, which consoled those condemned to death, and buried their bodies. It was beyond the Porta alla Giustizia, near the Porta alla Croce, outside the walls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1478

August 21

on Wednesday

2 days later

A commissary came to us from Venice, who hired for us 3 thousand soldiers, to be paid by the Venetians.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

3 days later

The people about Rovezzano took fright, and the alarm was sounded and they fled into Florence with all their possessions, by the Porta alla Croce, so that it really seemed as if the territory were lost. Such a terror were never seen, everyone being utterly dismayed. They did not consider themselves safe even in Florence, and suffered much discomfort and misery.

And on the same day we last Radda, which was sacked and burnt.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Rovezzano was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

The enemy (the Sienese) made an incursion as far as Ponte a Grassina, carrying off a smith and many others.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Grassina Ponte was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1478

August 27

on Tuesday

3 days later

We lost Meletuzzo and San Polo, the constable there having been guilty of treachery.

And on the same day, Pretone and his brother the constable of Radda, and Jacopo Vecchietti who was a commissary there, were arrested, and they were imprisoned in the Stinche, as it was said that they had been guilty of treachery. A man of San Polo was also taken, and was put to the rack.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in San Polo was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1478

September 2

on Monday

6 days later

We heard that a conspiracy had been discovered at Venice, and that several persons had been beheaded or imprisoned.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

September 7

on Saturday

5 days later

(Monday). Our Capitano, the Marchese di Ferrara, came to Florence, arriving at about 22 in the evening (6 p.m.), with a great company of crossbowmen on horseback, and musketeers, and we escorted him into the city with great honour, lodging him in the same house which he had before. He had about 50 mules laden with baggage, and remained in Florence till Saturday, the 12th, when he took his baton and went into camp.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1478

September 14

on Saturday

7 days later

Brolio was taken by assault. And on the same day a man died of plague, in the Casa del Capitano(1), in prison, to which he had been condemned for life; and another man who was sick of the plague was taken out of prison and carried to the hospital of La Scala,(2) where all those sick of the plague were carried. At this time the plague had increased so much, that 40 or more were sick at the hospital, and 7 or 8 died every day, and some days even 11; besides others in the district who did not go to the hospital.

(1) THe house of the Capitano del Popolo, which was behind the Palazzo Vecchio.

(2) The hospital of the Scala was in the street of that name, at the corner of the Via Polverosa (now Via degli Oricellari), and where the convent of San Martino was afterwards built.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Brolio was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1478

September 25

on Wednesday

11 days later

Cacchiano was lost and was given over to the flames.

And on the same day, mortars were sent to Casoli di Volterra, and our camp was set up before it; but our troops never went to succour those who were losing.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Cacchiano was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

1478

September 29

on Sunday

4 days later

We regained Castelnuovo. At this time there were between 60 and 70 sick of the plague in the hospital and district together, and it was spreading to the camp also.

On this same day the enemy's camp was moved to the Monte a Sansovino. They were beginning to go a little further away.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.

1478

October 5

on Saturday

6 days later

Our forces began to besiege Casoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Casoli was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

Tags

1478

October 6

on Sunday

1 day later

Six Sienese were arrested here, one of them being the Podesta of Castelnuovo, which had been regained.

And at this time there were about 100 sick of the plague, at the hospital of La Scala, and in many houses of Florence; amongst others a man was found dead upon one of the benches in Santa Maria Novella.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1478

October 11

on Friday

5 days later

A boy was found sick of the plague at the gate of the hospital of San Pagolo,(1) and no one could be found to carry him to the hospital of La Scala.

At this time the enemy were bombarding the Monte a Sansovino.(2)

(1) On the Piazza Nuova di Santa Maria Novella, under the Loggie. This building, diminished in size, remained a hospital for many years. Lately, however, it has been changed into an educational institution for poor girls. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1478

October 31

on Thursday

20 days later

Notice was given, and the enemy pressed hard on the Monte a Sansovino. And there was a plot in our camp; and the Capitano hung one of the chief men under him.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 1

on Friday

1 day later

The "Eight," who were in office, and their notary, were deposed, for having burnt certain books.

And on the same day, the Monte a Sansovino was lost; the garrison capitulating on condition that their persons and property should be respected. And everyone said that if the truce had not been made, the enemy would have had to break up their camp, as they were so short of provisions that they could not have held out more than three days. Our forces never chose to make a sortie. Hence came the evil; and everyone marvelled that the enemy were not completely victorious after this, for they won much glory.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 14

on Thursday

13 days later

A father and son from Pistoia were arrested for treason. They were scourged.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 3

on Tuesday

19 days later

The traitor from Pistoia, called Piero Baldinotti,(1) was taken in the executioner's cart and hung, and the son was imprisoned for life in the Stinche.

And at this time our soldiers went into quarters in the Pisan territory and elsewhere, and also the Capitano.

(1) He had wished to deliver Pistoia from the yoke of the Florentines, and give it to the King of Naples.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1478

December 7

on Saturday

4 days later

Messer Tommaso Soderini went as ambassador to Venice.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 24

on Tuesday

17 days later

A peasant of the neighbourhood, belonging to the Popoleschi, was found dead in his house, having hung himself with a towel.

And during these days the Arno was very high and overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses. It caused great damage.

And the plague was also causing much mortality; it pleased God to chastise us.

And at this Christmas-time, what with terror of the war, the plague, and the papal excommunication, the citizens were in sorry plight. They lived in dread, and no one had any heart to work. The poor creatures could not procure silk or wool, or only very little, so that all classes suffered.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1478

December 28

on Saturday

4 days later

Battle of Giornico: Swiss troops defeat the Milanese.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Switzerland was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1478

1479

January 10

on Friday

13 days later

Four French ambassadors arrived at Florence, two of whom were going to the Pope and two to the King of Naples. They declared to the Signoria here, that they were going to make peace in Italy amongst Christians, and to settle all differences, giving judgement according to reason, and protested that their king would proceed against anyone who hindered peace; if the Pope were the one to be obdurate, he would be summoned to a Council; and when peace had been made, all the powers would undertake a crusade against the Unbelievers. They left on the 16th January.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1479

January 17

on Friday

7 days later

A certain hermit came here to preach and threatened many ills. He had been at Volterra, serving at a leper hospital. He was a lad of twenty-four, barefoot, with a wallet on his back; and he declared that St. John and the Angel Raphael had appeared to him. And one morning he went up on to the ringhierra of the Signori to preach, but the "Eight" sent him away. And each day some incident happened.

And at this time, a son of the Duke of Milan,(1) who was confined within certain boundaries in the territory of Pisa, fled from there, and went to Genoa to the Signor Roberto,(2) and joined him.

(1) This was Ludovico Sforza, called Il Moro, uncle to the reigning duke, and at that moment exiled.

(2) Roberto da Sanseverino.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1479

February 4

on Tuesday

18 days later

Chianti was pillaged.

And now the plague had lessened considerably. God be praised!

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Val di Pesa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 26

1479

February 8

on Saturday

4 days later

Four galleys reached the Port of Pisa, two from the West and two from Barbary, which had joined forces. They came in great terror, for fear of the fleet of the king and the Genoese. It was considered a great piece of news.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1479

March 9

on Sunday

29 days later

A man who was said to be a Venetian was hung in the Mercato Nuovo, for having stolen some florns off a money-changer's table the evening before, in broad daylight; and he had been caught and taken to the rector,(1) and was condemned to be hung.

At this time Signor Roberto made an incursion into the Pisan district with many men, and came as far as the Port of Pisa and set it on fire, but did not do it much harm; and then he advanced into the Val di Calci, and burnt the mills and took much booty, after which he retired beyond the Serchio. And in this direction the Duke of Calabria(2) penetrated as far as the Poggio Imperiale, with the design of capturing it, but he did not succeed.

And meanwhile our troops advanced as far as Siena, and pillaged the country, and took a certain fort called Selvoli and held it for some time, that is to say, till the 4th April.

And the plague was making now great ravages, having increased again.

And we were continually raising fresh bands of infantry; and the Venetians sent us a number of soldiers, that were all despatched to the Pisan territory.

And the Capitano now went into the Pisan territory, awaiting Count Carlo(3) and a large body of cavalry.

(1) The rector of the Arte del Cambio (Money-chamber's Guild).

(2) Alfonso d'Aragona, son of Ferdinando, King of Naples.

(3) Count Carlo da Montone, son of the famous Braccio, sent by the Venetians to aid the Florentines.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Serchio was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Val di Calci was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1479

April 12

on Saturday

1 month, 4 days later