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Emilia-Romagna

1369

May 28

on Sunday

Muzio Sforza is born in Cotignola.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Cotignola was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1474

April 25

on Saturday

104 years, 11 months, 27 days later

Girolamo Savonarola goes to Bologna where he knocks on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, and asks to be admitted. As he tells his father in his farewell letter, he wants to become a knight of Christ.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 22: priest

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 years, 3 months later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 19

on Monday

27 days later

A peasant was tried and hung, and was taken down as dead and placed on a bier; but having reached the Tempio,(1) he recovered consciousness, not being dead. He was taken to (the hospital of) Santa Maria Nuova, where he died a few days after. All Florence saw him.

And on the same day the enemy (the Sienese) encamped before Radda and Panzano.

(1) The Oratory of the Company of Santa Maria del Tempio, which consoled those condemned to death, and buried their bodies. It was beyond the Porta alla Giustizia, near the Porta alla Croce, outside the walls.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1478

August 27

on Tuesday

8 days later

We lost Meletuzzo and San Polo, the constable there having been guilty of treachery.

And on the same day, Pretone and his brother the constable of Radda, and Jacopo Vecchietti who was a commissary there, were arrested, and they were imprisoned in the Stinche, as it was said that they had been guilty of treachery. A man of San Polo was also taken, and was put to the rack.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in San Polo was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

3 years, 4 months, 8 days later

Instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Girolamo Savonarola is assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 30: priest

1482

September 10

on Sunday

8 months, 12 days later

The Count of Urbino died at Bologna.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1483

June 14

on Thursday

9 months, 7 days later

A league was made with the Sienese for twenty-five years, and our fortresses were restored to us. At this time there died at Faenza a Brother of the Order of the Servi di Maria,(1) who had performed many miracles; the bells having rung of their own accord when anyone died, and sick persons being healed. People went to him from all the country round. I spoke to a trustworthy man, who said that he had witnessed these facts. Miracles were constantly happening; sometimes down by the river and sometimes up in the mountains; and sometimes he was seen speaking with a woman, who was the Virgin. I mention this to show that people were in the mood to expect great things from God.

(1) From the Historie di Faenza by Giulio Cesare Tonduzzi, and the Annali dell' Ordine de' Serviti by Arcangelo Giani, we find that this was the Beato Jacopo Filippo Bertoni, who died on the 25th May, 1483. These writers also testify to the prodigies referred to by Landucci, which so moved the Faentini that they wished honours to be conferred upon Misserino Bertoni dalla Cella di Monte Chiaro, father of the defunct, by a public decree.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Faenza was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1483

September 7

on Friday

2 months, 25 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the King of France, on their way to Rome to arrange peace in Italy; and whilst they were here they received the news that their king had died on the 30th May, 1483. And on the 13th September one of these ambassadors died at Santa Maria Novella, and the others set out for Rome.

During these days, for fear of hunger and of the war going on in Lombardy, many families left it, and there passed through Florence on their way into Roman territory 50 to 100 at a time, till they amounted to several thousands. Many also went to Romagna and elsewhere. It was said that there were more than 30 thousand persons altogether. It was a most pitiful sight to see these poor people pass, with a wretched little donkey, and their miserable household possessions: saucepans, frying-pans, etc. One wept to see them barefoot and ragged; and it is the cursed wars which have caused all these. No one went by without receiving some little help from us.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Lombardy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Italy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1488

April 16

on Monday

4 years, 7 months, 13 days later

We heard that Count Girolamo, Signore of Imola, had been stabbed to death, in the city of Forli, by some men of the place; and it proved to be true.

A number of soldiers and militia were sent from here to Piancaldoli, men of the Romagnuoli and of the Mugello; so that by the 29th we took it. The commandant of the fortress, who was from Imola, capitulated; and he was given 4 thousand florins and a house, and the right of bearing arms for life, here in Florence, where he remained.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Forli was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Imola was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1488

May 1

on Tuesday

15 days later

We heard that the Duke of Milan had entered Forli, and had had several men put to death.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Forli was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1488

June 1

on Friday

1 month, 1 day later

We heard that the Signore of Faenza had been stabbed to death, with the consent of the wife of the Messer Giovanni Bentivogli, who was the mother-in-law of the said Signore of Faenza. This was confirmed.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Faenza was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1488

June 5

on Tuesday

4 days later

We heard that Messer Giovanni Bentivogli had been arrested by the men of Faenza, at the instance of the Florentines, and there were cries of "Marzocco" through the city; and all this was true.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Faenza was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1488

June 12

on Tuesday

7 days later

Messer Giovanni Bentivogli was liberated by the Florentines. Lorenzo de' Medici went into Mugello, where Messer Giovanni had been brought, and having conferred with him courteously, sent him back to Bologna with an escort and his mind set at rest.(1)

(1) This was not exactly the case, for Bentivoglio always bore a grudge against Lorenzo de' Medici afterwards. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1488

June 17

on Sunday

5 days later

The Bolognese, out of spite, being ungrateful, made certain marzocchi of straw, and certain coats of arms of our citizens, and burnt them on the Piazza of Bologna in disdain.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Piazza Maggiore was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1494

5 years, 6 months, 19 days later

Michelangelo working in Bologna.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

1494

November 13

on Tuesday

10 months, 16 days later

We heard that the Pisans had risen and taken possession of the city; and pulling down a certain marble marzocco, had dragged it all over Pisa, and then thrown it into the Arno, crying, "Liberta!" We also heard that Piero and his brothers were at Bologna; and such a crowd of French and Swiss were coming into Florence, that there was great confusion and alarm and suspicion amongst all classes. You may think what it was to have all this crowd in our houses, and everything left as usual, with the women about, and to have to serve them with whatever they needed, at the greatest inconvenience.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1494

November 24

on Saturday

11 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

There was much whispering amongst the people, who said suspiciously: "This king doesn't know what he wishes; he has not yet signed the agreement." And many declared that some of his counsellors were endeavouring to hinder it, as there was a certain Signore di Bre,(1) lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, who said that he had promised some people to get Piero reinstated, and to persuade the king to ask for this, but perhaps it was not true. This was, as I say, the opinion of many of the citizens, and therefore they were in great dread; still more so when it was said that the king was going this morning to dine in the Palagio with the Signori and that he had caused all the armed men to be removed from the Palagio, and he was going there with many armed men, so that everyone suspected him of evil designs. There was no one who did not take pains this morning to fill his house with bread and with weapons and with stones, and to strengthen his house as much as possible, everyone being of the mind and intention to die fighting, and to slay anyone if needful, in the manner of the Sicilian Vespers. And fear was so widespread(2) that when at the dinner hour people began to say Serra, serra! (Shut everything!), it came about that the whole of Florence locked itself in, one fleeing here and another there, without any fresh cause or disturbance, the consequence being that many of the French rushed to the Porta a San Friano and took possession of the Ponte alia Carraia. And in Borgo Ognissanti and in Via Palazzuolo, and in Borgo San Friano, so many stones were thrown from the windows that they were not able to get to the gates; and when they asked the reason of it, no one knew. Therefore the king did not go to dine in the Palagio; and, by divine permission, the French became so uneasy that it caused them to change their evil intentions towards us who only had good ones. Anyone can see that God does not abandon Florence, but we are not sufficiently grateful. At this time we heard that the French troops which had been in Romagna were passing by in the neighbourhood of Dicomano.

(1) Some Florentines historians call him di Bles, and it was Philippe de Bresse, afterwards Duke of Savoy.

(2) The greatest confusion seems to have been caused by the Swiss, who were quartered near the Porta al Prato inside and out, and who tried to force their way through Borgo Ognissanti, in order to approach the king's quarters.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1494

November 27

on Tuesday

3 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king went out to see certain tents which had been set up on the Prato d'Ognissanti, and which had been presented to him by the Duke of Ferrara; there being one for the king himself that was really magnificent, with a sitting-room, a bedroom, and a chapel, and many other things besides. He was to have left this morning, but did not do so; the joy-bells were rung and bonfires were made. This morning more of the troops from Romagna reached Dicomano, and were quartered there, about 20 horses being put into my place even. I left my young son Benedetto there, and they nearly slew him several times, although he paid them proper respect, as I had impressed upon him. It was at a great cost to us. They were quartered everywhere, in the Val di Sieve, as far as the Ponte a Sieve and the Sieci, and then they went on along the upper valley of the Arno.(1)

(1) The king having proclaimed that all those who were with him should pay, on leaving, for everything that they had had, the Signoria, with a proclamation on this date, ordered the Florentines to be lenient in their demands, and requested anybody who thought himself overcharged to have recourse to them, threatening to cut off the hand of anyone who should offend the French. The following day they imposed the punishment of six blows of the lash upon anyone who should molest or strike the French.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

November 28

on Wednesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king left Florence after having dined, and went for the night to the Certosa, and all his men went before or after him, so that few remained here. It was said that Fra Girolamo of Ferrara, our famous preacher, had gone to the king and declared that he was not doing the will of God in stopping, and that he ought to leave. It was even said that he went a second time, when he saw that the king did not leave, and declared again that he was not following God's will, and that whatever evil should befall others would return on his head. It was thought that this was the cause of his leaving more speedily, because at that time the said Fra Girolamo was held to be a prophet and a man of holy life, both in Florence and throughout Italy. At the same time there came to Florence the captain of the French troops in Romagna, whose name was Begni,(1) and he told the king rather dictatorially that he ought to leave on every account, as the weather was favourable, and he declared that it would be ill to delay the advance. And in fact the king did leave, for he put more faith in this seigneur than in all the rest, and deservedly, as he was an extremely intelligent and worthy man, according to what was said; and this was in reality the strongest reason which induced him to leave.(2)

(1) Robert Stuart, Comte de Beaumont le Roger, Seigneur of Aubigny-sur-Nerre.

(2) On this day the Signori designed Guglielmo d'Antonio Pazzi, Braccio di Domenico Martelli, Niccolo Antinori, and Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici to go the following morning and accompany the king as far as Siena. Afterwards they substituted Francesco de' Rossi for the Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

November 29

on Thursday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The rest of the king's troops which were in Romagna went past here, coming from San Godenzo to Dicomano and to the Ponte a Sieve, and then going along the upper valley of the Arno, doing much damage. At Corella they slew about eleven men, and took others prisoners and placed ransoms upon them; ruining all the country like a flame of fire. The wall of my house at Dicomano was broken, and also all the locks, whilst my farm was entered forcibly, and suffered not a little, the wine and corn being consumed, and any household goods to which they took a fancy being carried off. Those whom they slew at Corella were certain old men who had come to receive them, but there was a misunderstanding. It is true that at first certain young men had come out and tried to force them back, but these old men caused the others to desist; these brutes of Frenchmen, however, struck them on the head and left them lying dead in the fields; and they committed cruelties on all sides.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Corella was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

December 1

on Saturday

2 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

These things continued. The rest of the troops from Romagna were passing along the Val di Sieve.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:46 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 58: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 73

1502

7 years, 1 month, 2 days later

Leonardo da Vinci creates a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage.

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Astronomical Events

1502

In Cesena, Leonardo da Vinci begins work as senior military architect and general engineer for Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI.

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1502

August 8

on Friday

7 months, 9 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

8 August - "make harmonies out of the different falls of water as you saw in the fountain at Rimini on the 8th day of August".

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rimini was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 10

on Sunday

2 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

"At the Feast of San Lorenzo at Cesena."

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Cesena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1502

August 15

on Friday

5 days later

Itinerary jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's notebook:

15 August - "On St Mary's day in the middle of August at Cesena."

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Cesena was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1506

November 6

on Tuesday

4 years, 2 months, 24 days later

Pope Julius II personally leads his troops into Bologna, retaking the city from the excommunicated tyrant Giovanni II Bentivoglio.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

December 19

on Wednesday

1 month, 13 days later

p25 From Bologna, December 19th, (1506) To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni in Florence.

Buonarroto, -- To-day, this 19th day of December, I have received a letter from thee in which thou recommendest to me Pietro Orlandini (Aldobrandini), asking me to perform what he requires of me. Know that he has written asking me to have a dagger blade made for him, and that he wants it to be of admirable workmanship. However, I do not know how I can serve him quickly and well ; one reason being that it is not my craft, and the other that I have no time to attend to it. I will endeavour, nevertheless, to secure that before a month has passed he shall be served to the best of my ability. I received thy tidings concerning your daily life, and especially the news about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter the same shop as thyself and that he is eager to improve, for I desire to assist him as well as you others ; and if God help me, as He has ever done, I hope before Lent is over to p26 have finished what I have to do here, when I will return to Florence and will assuredly do for you as I promised. With reference to the money which, as thou sayest, Giovansimone wishes to invest in a shop, it seems to me better that he should wait for another four months so that the "flash and the report" may take place simultaneously. I know thou wilt understand my meaning, so I will say no more. Tell him from me to strive towards improvement, and that if, after all, he should want the money of which thou speakest in thy letter, it will have to be withdrawn from my account in Florence, for I have none here to send, as I am receiving but a low price for the work I am doing ; moreover, it is very uncertain, and something might easily happen to throw me upon my beam ends. For these reasons I exhort you all to be patient and to wait these few months until I return.

As to Giovansimone's coming here, I do not advise him to come yet, for I live here in a poor room and have bought only one bed, in which four persons have to sleep, so that I have not the means to receive him as he asks. But if he still wishes to come here, let him wait until I have cast the figure I am modelling, when I will send off Lapo and Lodovico, who are helping me, and will despatch a horse for him, so that he may not arrive here like a beast of burden. No more. Pray to God for me that my affairs may go well.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Bolognia.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 29

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", p25-6

1507

January 22

on Tuesday

1 month, 4 days later

p27 From Bologna, January 22nd, 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, opposite to the Apothecary, della Palla, near the Porta Rossa.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee, from which I learn that Lodovico has arranged with Francesco about Mona Zanobia's farm. Thou tellest me also that Giovansimone has begun to attend the same shop as thyself, and that he wants to come here to Bolognia. I have not replied before because I have not had time until to-day. With regard to the above-mentioned farm, thou sayest that Lodovico has entered into an agreement, and that he is going to write to me on the subject. Please understand that if he has written to me I have never received any letter which deals with the matter please tell him this, therefore, so that he may not p28 be surprised at receiving no reply to his letter, if he has written one.

I will tell thee my views about Giovansimone, so that thou mayest impart them to him on my behalf. I do not wish him to come here before I have cast the figure I have in hand, and for this I have a sufficient reason, though do not ask me what it is. Enough that as soon as I have cast the figure I will see that he shall come here without fail. It will then be less inconvenient, as I shall be released from the expenses which I have now to bear.

I expect that by the middle of Lent my figure will be ready for casting, and I pray God that it may turn out well ; for if it be successful I hope to stand well with this Pope and to receive his favour. If I should cast it at mid-Lent and it should turn out well I hope to be in Florence for the Easter festival, and then I will assuredly do by you as I promised, if ye continue to be diligent.

Tell Piero Aldobrandini that I have entrusted his blade to the best worker in such things I can find, and that he promises to let me have it during the coming week. As soon as I receive it I will send it on, if I consider it satisfactory : if not, I will have another made. Tell him also not to be surprised if I have not served him as quickly as I ought, for I have so little time to spare that I could not do otherwise than I have done.

This twenty-second day of January, 1506.

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1507

February 1

on Friday

10 days later

p32 Bologna, February 1st, 1507. To Buonarroto di Lodovico Simone, in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I learn from thy letters how matters have gone with regard to the small farm : it has given me the greatest satisfaction and I am well pleased, provided it is a sure thing.

I have made careful enquiries about this Baronciello business, and from what I have heard it is a far more serious thing than ye make it out to be : and for my part, seeing that it is unfair, I would not ask it of him. We are all of us under considerable obligation to Baronciello, and we will do our best to fulfil those obligations, especially such as lie in our power. Thou must know that on Friday evening, at the twenty-first hour. Pope Julius came to my house where I am at work, and remained for about half an hour while I was working. Then he gave me his blessing p33 and went away, showing himself well satisfied with what I am doing. For all this it seems to me we ought to thank God very heartily ; and so I beg you to do, and to pray for me.

I have to inform thee further that on Friday morning I sent away Lapo and Lodovico, who were with me. I turned Lapo away because he was conspiringagainst me and is a rogue, and would not do as he was bid. Lodovico is better, and I would have kept him on for another two months ; but Lapo, in order not to be the only one blamed, corrupted him in such a way that both have been sent off. I tell thee this not because I am troubled by them — for they are not worth three quattrini the two together — but so that, if they come to talk to Lodovico, he should not be surprised. Tell him on no account to listen to them: if thou desirest to know more go to Messer Agniolo, Herald of the Signoria, for I have sent him a full account of the matter, and he of his kindness will give thee all information.

I note what thou sayest about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter thy master's shop and endeavour to make progress : encourage him to do his best, for if this matter turns out well I have hopes of placing you in a good position, if ye are prudent. With reference to that other land beside Mona Zanobia's, if Lodovico likes it tell him to enquire into the matter and let me know. I believe, and it is said here, that the Pope will go hence about Carnival.

On the first day of February, 1506 (1507).

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO DI BUONARROTA SIMONI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 30
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 64: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; p. 32-3

1507

February 8

on Friday

7 days later

p34 From Bologna. To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrotta Simoni, in Florence. The 8th day of February, 1506 (1507).

Most Revered Father, — I have to-day received a letter from you, from which I learn that Lapo and Lodovico have been talking to you. I am content that you should rebuke me, because I deserve to be rebuked as a wretch and a transgressor quite as much as anyone else, and perhaps more. But you must understand that I have not transgressed in any wise in the matter for which you rebuke me, either against them or against anyone else, unless it be that I have done more than I ought. All the men with whom I have ever had dealings know very well what I give them ; and if anyone knows it, Lapo and Lodovico are the two who know it best of all, for in a month and a half one of them has had twenty-seven broad ducats and the other eighteen broad ducats, each with their expenses. Therefore I beg of you not to be carried away by their story. When they complained about me you ought to have asked how long they were with me and how much they had received from me then you would have had to ask them what cause they had for complaint. But the reason of their great anger, particularly of that rascal Lapo, is this they had given it out on all sides that they were the men who were doing this work, or rather, that they were in partnership with me ; and they never realised — Lapo in particular — that he was not the master until I sent him off. Only then did he understand that he was in my service ; and having already given p35 a great deal of trouble and caused the Pope's favour to show signs of declining, it appeared a strange thing to him that I should drive him away like a beast. I am sorry that he should still have seven ducats of mine, but when I return to Florence he shall most assuredly pay me back, though if he has any conscience he would also feel obliged to give me back the other money he has received. But enough. I shall say no more about it as I have written a sufficiently full account of their performances to Messer Agniolo (the Herald). I beg you to go to him, and if you can take Granaccio with you, do so, and let him read the letter I have written so that he may understand what abject creatures they are. But I beg of you to keep silent as to what I have written about Lodovico, for if I cannot find anyone else to come here and cast the metal I shall endeavour to get him back, because as a matter of fact I have not dismissed him ; only Lapo, who received more blame than he cared to support alone, lightened his own load by corrupting Lodovico. You will learn the whole matter from the Herald, and also how you are to act. Do not have any dealings with Lapo, for he is too great a scoundrel, and we have nothing to do with either of them.

With reference to Giovansimone, it does not seem to me advisable that he should come here, as the Pope is leaving during Carnival ; I believe he will visit Florence on the way, and he does not leave affairs here in good order. According to rumour, there is a want of confidence prevalent here which it is wise neither to inquire into nor to write about : but enough that, even if nothing were to happen — and I believe p36 nothing will — I do not want to have the care of brothers on my shoulders. Do not be surprised at this and do not breathe a word of it to anyone, because I have need of assistants, and I should find none willing to come if this were known. And besides, I still think things may turn out well. I shall soon be back in Florence and I will behave in such a manner as to satisfy Giovansimone and the others, if it please God ! To-morrow I will write you another letter with reference to certain moneys I wish to send to Florence, telling you what to do with them. I understand about Piero ; he will answer on my behalf, for he is a good fellow, as he has always been.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

P.S. I have something else to add in reply to the curious behaviour Lapo attributes to me. I want to tell you one thing, and it is this. I bought seven hundred and twenty pounds of wax, and before I bought it I told Lapo to find out where it could be got, and to settle the price, saying that I would give him the money so that he could buy it. Lapo went, and came back again, and told me that it could not be got for a farthing less than nine broad ducats and twenty bolognini the hundred (pounds), which is equal to nine ducats forty soldi. He added that I ought to take the opportunity without delay because I had been very fortunate. I replied that he was to go and find out whether he could get the odd forty soldi per hundred knocked off and that I would then buy it. He answered that the Bolognesi were of such a nature that they would not abate one farthing of the price p37 they had asked. This raised my suspicions, and I let the matter drop. Later in the same day I called Piero aside and told him secretly to go and ask the price of the wax per hundred. Piero went to the same man as Lapo and bargained with him for eight and a half ducats, to which price I agreed, and afterwards I sent Piero to receive his commission, and he got that also. This is one of my strange performances. Of a truth I know it seemed strange to him that I was able to see through his deceit. It was not enough for him to receive eight broad ducats a month and his expenses, but in addition he tried to swindle me ; and he may have swindled me on many occasions of which I know nothing, for I trusted him. I have never met a man who appeared more honest, so I suppose his straightforward look must have misled many another person. Therefore do not trust him in anything, and pretend not to see him.

Notes

The Francesco Granaccio mentioned here was a painter and a fellow-student with Michelangelo in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied also with Michelangelo in the Medici Garden at San Marco.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 13

on Wednesday

5 days later

p37 From Bologna, February 13th, 1507.
To Buonarroto di Lodovico Buonarrota Simony in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — I send this as cover to two letters one is to go to Piero Aldobrandini, and the other to Giovanni Balducci in Rome. The latter I wish thee to hand to Bonifazio Fazi so that he may send it on, the other give to the aforesaid Piero. p38 Concerning those two scoundrels, I have no time to tell the whole story of their knavery, and I beg all of you — and tell Lodovico the same — not to refer to their behaviour in any way, for we have not to deal with them in this matter. Let this suffice.

The thirteenth day of February, 1506.
MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 24

on Sunday

11 days later

p38 From Bologna, February 24th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — It is already fifteen days since I sent certain moneys to Lodovico in Florence with certain instructions, and I have never had a reply. I am much surprised at it. Tell Lodovico, therefore, to let me know if he has received them, and if he has done as I asked ; tell him to let me know without fail, because I am annoyed about it and marvel at his want of perception. He is the sort of man that one would entrust with important business again ! I should have expected him to write a hundred letters, to make sure that at least one should reach me. See to it that he informs me without fail as to what steps he has taken and that the letter is sent in such a way as to reach me.

Yesterday I sent to see if Piero's dagger was finished and found that it had still to be gilt. The man has kept me waiting for a month, but the truth is that he was not able to do otherwise, for owing to the departure of the Court he has had to supply weapons to all the courtiers and has had a very great deal to do. It p39 is for this reason he has kept me waiting. Tell Piero not to be anxious, for in any case he shall have it in a few days. The Pope went away on Monday morning at the sixteenth hour, and if thou desirest to learn in what state he has left my affairs, go to the Herald and he will tell thee. I have no time to write.

The twenty-fourth day of February.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Source: Primary

p.38-9

1507

March 6

on Wednesday

10 days later

p39 From Bologna, March 6th, 1507.
To Buonarroto di Lodovico Buonarroti
in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I did not reply to thy letter or to Piero Aldobrandini's because I had decided not to write until I had received the said Piero's dagger. It is now two months ago that I entrusted this work to a man who has the reputation of being he most skilful master to be found in his particular craft, and although he has kept me waiting until now I did not wish to have it made by anyone else, nor to annul the agreement : wherefore, the aforesaid Piero has some excuse if he considers I have treated him badly, but I could not do otherwise.

Now I have got the dagger back again, or rather, I have got it ; but only this morning, and with much difficulty, for my lad Piero had been obliged to go for it so many times that he was ready to beat the maker over the head with it. Please note that the gold-beater, Chiaro di Bartolomeo, will be the bearer of this and that he will also bring the dagger. See that Chiaro is paid what is due for bringing it, and give it p40 to Piero. If it does not please him, tell him to send me word, and I will have another one made ; and tell him also that since the Court came here every craftsman and all the arts have risen to great dignity and esteem, wherefore he must not marvel if I have so long delayed sending it, for I, too, have had much to think of. This one workman alone has more on his hands since the Court was here than the whole of Bolognia had previously. I have no time for writing. I wrote to Lodovico saying I had received his letters and telling him how I had been deceived, as he will now be able to understand.

On the sixth day of March, 1506.
MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1507

March 26

on Tuesday

20 days later

p40 From Bologna, March 26th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni,
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee acquainting me with the whole story of Piero Aldobrandini and the dagger. I may tell thee that if it were not for love of thee I would leave him to babble on as long as he liked. Thou must know that the blade I sent, and thou hast received, was made according to his — that is to say, Piero's measurements, for he sent me a drawing in a letter and told me that I was to get it made exactly like that. I did so. However, if he wanted a dagger he should not have sent me measurements for a rapier : but I wish to tell thee in this letter what I would not say before, and that is, that thou hadst better not have p41 dealings with him because it is not thy business. If he should come to thee for the aforesaid blade, by no means let him have it ; put a good face on the matter and tell him I gave it to one of my friends that will be enough. I may tell thee that it cost me nineteen carlini here, with thirteen quattrini for the tax.

My affairs here are proceeding favourably, by the grace of God, and I hope to cast my figure before a month is past. Pray God, therefore, that it may turn out well, so that I may return quickly to you, for I am minded to do for you all as I promised. Be kind to Giovansimone and tell him to write to me sometimes, and say to Lodovico that I am well and that I will certainly let him know before I cast my figure. Commend me to Granaccio when thou seest him. I have nothing more to tell thee. The plague is beginning here, and is of a virulent type, for wherever it enters it carries off all within the house, although at present it has not claimed many victims — forty households, perhaps, so they tell me.

This twenty-sixth day of March.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Bolognia.

P.S. — If thou hast given the dagger to Piero say no more about it, but if thou hast not done so do not give it him at all.

Note

Much to Michelangelo's satisfaction, Piero refused the dagger, which enabled the artist to give it to Filippo Strozzi, who had admired it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1507

April 20

on Saturday

25 days later

p43 From Bologna, April 20th, (1507). To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — I have not replied to a letter received from thee several days ago because I have not had the time. In this letter I have to tell thee that up to the present my work goes well, and accordingly I have hopes that it will finish satisfactorily — please God it may be so ! And if it should be so — that is to say, if I come out of this affair well — I will come, or rather, return, to you immediately, and I will do all that I have promised each one of you ; that is to say, I will help you with all I have — in what way you and our father will be able to judge for yourselves. Therefore be of good cheer, and be diligent in thy shop, making the most of every opportunity ; for I hope that before long ye will be keeping a shop by yourselves and for yourselves. If ye understand the business and know how to trade it will be of very great assistance. Wherefore attend to thy work with diligence. Thou writest of a certain friend of thine, a doctor, who has told thee that the plague is a dangerous disease and that people die of it. I am very glad to know of this because it is very prevalent here and these Bolognesi have not yet learnt that it is fatal. Wherefore it would be a good thing if he were to come p44 here, because then he would perhaps teach them by experience, and they would greatly benefit thereby. I have nothing more to tell thee. I am well and getting on satisfactorily : I hope soon to be back in Florence.

On the 20th day of April. I had no more paper. MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

Note

Giovan Simone Buonarroti was born on March 9th, 1479. He was four years younger than Michelangelo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1507

April 20

on Saturday

p42 From Bologna, April 20th, (1507). To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni, in Florence.

Buonarroto,—To-day I have received thy letter of the 17th of April, from which I learn the long journey my letters have to make before reaching Florence. I cannot alter it, because the arrange- ments are bad. I have learnt many things from thy letter, but I do not reply to them because there is no need. I am sorry thou hast behaved to Filippo Strozzi in so miserly a fashion over so small a matter (i.e.^ the dagger), but since it is done it cannot be undone.

With regard to my own affairs, I am writing to Giovansimone and he will tell thee how I prosper : say the same to Lodovico.

I would like thee to go to the Herald and tell him that as I have never received a reply from him with reference to Messer Bernardino I have concluded that the said Messer Bernardino is unwilling to come here for fear of the pestilence ; wherefore I have engaged a Frenchman to take his place, who will serve me well. I did this because I could not wait any longer. Please let this be known, that is to say, tell Messer Agniolo (the Herald). Commend me to him, and tell him to commend me to his lordship the Gonfaloniere (Piero Soderini). Commend me to Giovanni da Ricasoli when thou seest him. The twentieth day of April.

MiCHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

NOTE p47 The Messer Bernardino is Bernardino d'Antonio dal Ponte di Milano, superintendent of artillery to the Florentine Republic from 1504 to 1512. He took Lodovico di GugHelmo del Buono's place with Michelangelo, and cast the figure of Julius.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1507

April 28

on Sunday

8 days later

p44 From Bologna, April 28th, (1507). To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Sinioni, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, in Porta Rossa.

Giovan Simone, — I have already replied to a letter from thee some days ago. By this time I believe thou wilt have received mine and wilt have learnt my views. If thou hast not received it, thou wilt learn from this letter all that I wrote to thee in the last. I expect Buonarroto will have told thee of my intentions, and thou mayst take it all for settled, for directly I reach Florence, I intend, with God's permission, to set you up in business either by yourselves or in partnership, whichever ye desire, and in whatever manner may appear to us the most secure. Wherefore be of good courage and rely upon what I have told thee as being a certainty. I have no time now for writing ; therefore I will write again more fully later on. I am well and have finished my figure in p45 wax. This coming week I shall begin to make the outer mould, and expect to have it complete in from twenty to twenty-five days. After that I shall prepare for the casting, and if it comes out well I shall be in Florence shortly after.

On the 28th day of April. MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1507

May 2

on Thursday

4 days later

p. 45 From Bologna, May 2nd, (1507).
To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee which gave me much pleasure. Since then I have written thee two letters, and I suppose I have had the same good fortune with respect to them that I usually have, that is to say, I suppose they have not arrived.

I may tell thee that, please God, two months will not pass before I return to Florence : and all that I have promised to do for Buonarroto and for thee I am prepared to carry out. I do not write to thee of my intentions at full length, nor do I say how eager I am to help you, because I am loath that others should get to know of our affairs : be of good cheer, however, for greater — or rather, better — things are in store for thee than thou thinkest. I have no more to tell thee on this head. Thou must know that here everyone is preparing for war, and this is the fourth day that the whole district has been under arms and a prey to rumoured dangers, with which the Church in especial is threatened : the cause of it being the Bentivogli, p46 who have made an attempt to enter the city with a great following of people. The high courage and prudence of his lordship the Legate, however, and the admirable precautions he has taken have, I believe, saved the patrimony from them once more, since at the twenty-third hour this evening we had news from their forces that they were turning back again with small honour to themselves, No more. Pray God for me : and live in happy expectation, because soon I shall be back in Florence.

The 2nd day of May.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

Note

The Bentivogli, sometime lords of Bologna, had been driven out by the Papal forces, and it was as a result of this reoccupation that Julius visited the city, as related in Michelangelo's letters. Shortly after the Pope's departure, however, Annibale Bentivoglio made the attempt to which this letter refers, but was repulsed by the Papal Legate, the Cardinal di Pavia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1507

July 6

on Saturday

2 months, 5 days later

p. 46 Bologna, July 6th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Buonarroto, — Learn that we have cast my statue, and that I was not over fortunate with it, the reason being that Maestro Bernardino, either through ignorance or misfortune, failed to melt the metal sufficiently. It would take too long to explain how it happened : enough that my figure has come out up to the waist, the remainder of the metal — half the p. 47 bronze, that is to say — having caked in the furnace, as it had not melted ; and to get it out the furnace must be taken to pieces. I am having this done, and! this week I shall have it built up again. Next week I shall recast the upper portion and finish filling the mould, and I believe it will turn out tolerably well after so bad a beginning, though only as the result of the greatest labour, worry and expense. I was ready to believe that Maestro Bernardino could melt his metal without fire, so great was my confidence in him : but all the same it is not that he is not a skilled master, or that he did not work with a will. But he who tries may fail. His failure has been costly to him as well as to me, for he has disgraced himself to such an extent that he dare not raise his eyes in Bologna.

If thou shouldst meet Baccio d'Agnolo, read this letter to him and beg him to inform San Gallo in Rome, and commend me to him. Commend me also to Giovanni da Ricasoli and to Granaccio. If this turns out satisfactorily I hope to be finished with it in from fifteen to twenty days, when I will return to you. If it is not successful I should perhaps have to do it again, but I will keep you informed.

Let me know how Giovansimone is.
On the 6th day of July.

P.S. With this I shall enclose a letter for Giuliano da San Gallo in Rome. Send it as securely and as quickly as thou canst : if he should be in Florence, give it into his hands.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1507

October 16

on Wednesday

3 months, 12 days later

p.48

From Bologna, October (16th), 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonaryota Simoni,

in Florence.

Buonarroto,—

I have no time to reply to thy last letter as it deserves, but thou mayst learn that I am well and shall soon have finished, and expect to win very great honour ; all of which proceedeth from the grace of God. Directly I have completed my work I shall come to Florence, and then I will deal in such a way with all the matters of which thou writest that ye shall be satisfied, and Lodovico and Giovansimone as well. I pray thee go and seek out the Herald and the Commandant Tommaso (Balducci) : tell them I have not time to write, or rather, to reply to their very welcome letters ; but that by the next post I will assuredly write something to them by way of reply. Also I beg thee to seek out San Gallo, and to tell him that I expect to have finished soon. Find out how he is, and tell him that by the next post I will write and inform him how the work is going on. No more.

The — day of October.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1507

November 10

on Sunday

25 days later

From Bologna, November 10th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoni,

Buonarroto, — I marvel that thou writest to me so seldom. I am sure thou hast more leisure for writing to me than I have for writing to thee, so let me have news from thee frequently.

Thy last letter informed me that thou hadst good 49 reason to wish for my speedy return, with the result that for several days I was uneasy in my mind. Therefore, when thou writest, write boldly and explain matters clearly so that I may understand them. Let this suffice.

Know that I look forward to my early return far more eagerly than ye could possibly do, for I live here in the greatest discomfort, subject to the greatest anxieties, and do nothing but labour day and night. I have undergone and am undergoing so much strain that, if I were obliged to make another figure, I do not believe my life would suffice for it, as the undertaking has been one of enormous difficulty ; had it been entrusted to anyone else it would have turned out a failure. But I believe the intercessions of somebody or other have assisted me and kept me in health, for all Bologna was of opinion that I should never complete it : both since it was cast and before, when there was no one who believed the casting would ever take place. However, it is now well on the way to completion, though it will not be finished by the end of this month as I had expected ; but next month it will certainly be off my hands, and I will return to Florence. So be of good cheer, all of ye, for I will do as I promised, whatever happens. Cheer Lodovico and Giovansimone in my name and let me know how Giovansimone is getting on : strive to learn and acquire a knowledge of the business, so that when the time comes ye may know how to trade for yourselves, which will be before long.

On the tenth day of November.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1509

April 27

on Tuesday

1 year, 5 months, 19 days later

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1511

January 20

on Friday

1 year, 8 months, 28 days later

Pope Julius II braves the inclemency of the weather and marches against Mirandola and takes it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Mirandola was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

May 23

on Tuesday

4 months, 3 days later

The French army makes a descent upon Bologna which Pope Julius II had left nine days previously, drive out the papal troops and reinstate the Bentivogli.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1512

April 11

on Thursday

10 months, 24 days later

The French are defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna against Pope Julius II's League of Cambrai and are driven beyond the Alps.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ravenna was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 69: pope; cardinal

1515

December 19

on Sunday

3 years, 8 months, 12 days later

Leonardo da Vinci is present at the meeting of King Francoise I and Pope Leo X, which takes place in Bologna.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 40: pope
King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 21: king

Source: Primary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

1530

February 24

on Monday

14 years, 2 months, 11 days later

Charles V is crowned in Bologna by Pope Clement VII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 52: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1530

1532

1 year, 10 months, 11 days later

After painting a portrait of the emperor Charles V in Bologna Titian is made a Count Palatine and knight of the Golden Spur. His children are also made nobles of the Empire, which for a painter at the time is an exceptional honour.

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Agents

Titian (1488-1576), aged 44: painter

Agents

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