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Germany

1504

April 23

on Saturday

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, routes troops to Bavaria.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bavaria was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 45: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1504

1505

July 2

on Sunday

1 year, 2 months, 10 days later

Martin Luther vows to become a monk in a moment of terror, due to a near lightning strike during a thunderstorm, near the village of Stotternheim.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Stotternheim was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1505

1505

July 17

on Monday

15 days later

Martin Luther enters the monastic life at an Augustinian cloister in Erfurt.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Erfurt was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1505

1509

3 years, 5 months, 19 days later

Earliest known pocket watch made at Nuremberg, Germany by Peter Henlein.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1521

April 16

on Saturday

12 years, 3 months, 18 days later

Martin Luther is examined before Emperor Charles V and the German Diet of Worms.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Worms was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1521

April 26

on Tuesday

10 days later

Martin Luther leaves Worms and disappears for a year – he is rumored to be murdered, but is actually in hiding at the Wartburg Castle.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Worms was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1522

September

1 year, 4 months, 8 days later

Martin Luther's translation of the Bible's New Testament into Early New High German from Greek, Das newe Testament Deutzsch, is published in Germany, selling thousands in the first few weeks.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1527

May 6

on Friday

4 years, 8 months, 8 days later

In the Sack of Rome, Spanish and German troops led by the Duke of Bourbon sack Rome, forcing Pope Clement VII to make peace with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marking the end of the High Renaissance. The Pope grows a beard in mourning.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Spain was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1527

1529

September 21

on Saturday

2 years, 4 months, 19 days later

Michelangelo abandons his post

Michelangelo flees Florence, abandoning his post as military engineer in charge of the city's fortifications. A letter from Michelangelo to his friend Battista della Palla on the 25th of September 1529 makes clear his reasons:

Battista, dearest friend, I left Florence, as I think you know, meaning to go to France. When I reached Venice, I inquired about the road, and they told me I should have pass through German territory, and that he journey is both perilous and difficult. Therefore I thought it well to ask you, at your pleasure, whether you are still inclined to go, and to beg you; and so I entreat you, let me know, and say where you want me to wait for you, and we will travel together. I left home without speaking to any of my friends, and in great confusion. You know that I wanted in any case to go to France, and often asked for leave, but did not get it. Nevertheless I was quite resolved, and without any sort of fear, to see the end of the war out first. But on Tuesday morning, September 21, a certain person came out by the gate at S. Niccolo, where I was attending to the bastions, and whispered in my ear that, if I meant to save my life, I must not stay at Florence. He accompanied me home, dined there, brought me horses, and never left my side till he got me outside the city, declaring that this was my salvation. Whether God or the devil was the man, I do not know.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.267-8

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