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France

1436

March 25

on Friday

The dedication of the cathedral of Florence was celebrated by Pope Eugenius IV and the papal chapel, then resident in Florence. The Pope's magister capellae (master, or leader, of the chapel) was then Guillaume Dufay, a native of the region of Cambrai in northern France.

Attachments

A Dedication by Dufay This isorhythmic motet, "Nuper rosarum flores", was composed by Dufay for the dedication of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Cambrai was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), aged 39: composer

Source: Primary

http://www.slideshare.net/jamesamoore/chapter-15-music-at-the-cathedral-of-florence

1452

October

16 years, 6 months, 14 days later

English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight.

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Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1471

18 years, 3 months, 6 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1476

5 years, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1478

July 2

on Tuesday

2 years, 6 months, 3 days later

An ambassador came to Florence from the King of France.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1484

January 1

on Tuesday

5 years, 6 months, 4 days later

The new Signoria(1) entered into office, and were stricter than the last. They sent for the citizens and required everyone to pay his debts; and they imprisoned them in the Bargello and the Stinche. Many were afflicted and worn out by so many wars.

In addition to other hardships, corn was sold at 50 soldi a bushel, beans at 46 soldi a bushel, white bread at 1 soldo 8 denari a pound, and flour rose to 3 lire a bushel.

On this 1st March our ambassadors returned from France, and Antonio Canigiani had been knighted by the French king. We did him honour, sending an escort to meet him.

The price of crushed beans now increased to 4 lire a bushel, peas to 5 lire, corn to 49 soldi, and everything dearer; and a little later corn rose to 3 lire 8 soldi a bushel.

(1) Alamanno Rinuccino in his Ricordi Storici also speaks ill of this Signoria.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1491

December 6

on Sunday

7 years, 11 months, 11 days later

King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Brittany was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 21: king
Anne of Brittany (1477-1514), aged 14: queen
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 32: king

Source: Primary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1491

1495

February 5

on Tuesday

3 years, 2 months, 2 days later

5th February. The French Cardinal Sammalò,(1) who had just been made cardinal by the Pope, entered Florence. He had come here with the King of France as a bishop; and now he was returning to France. He had many horsemen with him. He was lodged in Santa Maria Novella in the papal apartments. All this time it was said that the King of France was in a bad situation, and there was cause for fear.

(1) Guillaume Briconnet, Bishop of Saint-Malo. From the 25th January, the Pisan ambassadors had written that the Reverandissimo of Saint-Malo, a man, they said, "of great intellect and authority," was going to be sent to Florence by the King of France, not on his way to France, but to remain in Tuscany or the neighbourhood, in order to preserve peace during the stay of the king in the kingdom of Naples; and in case of his going to Pisa begged the Signori to receive him and his suite with honour, "going to meet him outside, and with as many men" as was possible. He had left Rome the morning of the 27th January (Lettere, quoted i. 38).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1509

May 14

on Friday

14 years, 3 months, 11 days later

French forces defeat the Venetians in the Battle of Agnadello.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1510

September

1 year, 3 months, 20 days later

King Louis XII convokes a synod of French bishops at Tours, where it is decreed that the pope, Julius II, has no right to make war upon a foreign prince, and, in case he should undertake such a war, the foreign prince had the right to invade the Ecclesiastical States and to withdraw his subjects from their obedience to the pope.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 67: pope; cardinal

1517

6 years, 4 months, 4 days later

Leonardo da Vinci moves to France at the invitation of King Francoise I. He is granted the post of First Painter, Engineer and Architect of the King. Leonardo, and his pupils, Francesco Melzi and Giocomo Salai move into the chateau of Cloux near Amboise.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 23: king
Francesco Melzi (1491-1568), aged 26: painter
Giocomo Salai (1480-1524), aged 37: painter

1517

Leonardo da Vinci takes the Mona Lisa with him on his journey to his final residence at a chateaux in Amboise.

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Astronomical Events

1519

May 3

on Saturday

2 years, 4 months, 2 days later

Leonardo da Vinci dies at Château du Clos Lucé. He is originally buried in the Church of St Valentine at Amboise.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Château du Clos Lucé was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1522

June 19

on Monday

3 years, 1 month, 18 days later

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England and signs the Treaty of Windsor pledging a joint invasion of France, bringing England into the Italian War of 1521–1526.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in England was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1522

July

12 days later

The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais, burning and looting the countryside.

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Astronomical Events

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No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1522

1525

2 years, 6 months, 5 days later

The first French ambassador arrives in Istanbul.

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Astronomical Events

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No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1525

The Bubonic Plague spreads in southern France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1525

1529

September 21

on Saturday

4 years, 8 months, 24 days later

Michelangelo abandons his post

Michelangelo flees Florence, abandoning his post as military engineer in charge of the city's fortifications. A letter from Michelangelo to his friend Battista della Palla on the 25th of September 1529 makes clear his reasons:

Battista, dearest friend, I left Florence, as I think you know, meaning to go to France. When I reached Venice, I inquired about the road, and they told me I should have pass through German territory, and that he journey is both perilous and difficult. Therefore I thought it well to ask you, at your pleasure, whether you are still inclined to go, and to beg you; and so I entreat you, let me know, and say where you want me to wait for you, and we will travel together. I left home without speaking to any of my friends, and in great confusion. You know that I wanted in any case to go to France, and often asked for leave, but did not get it. Nevertheless I was quite resolved, and without any sort of fear, to see the end of the war out first. But on Tuesday morning, September 21, a certain person came out by the gate at S. Niccolo, where I was attending to the bastions, and whispered in my ear that, if I meant to save my life, I must not stay at Florence. He accompanied me home, dined there, brought me horses, and never left my side till he got me outside the city, declaring that this was my salvation. Whether God or the devil was the man, I do not know.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.267-8

1530

3 months, 12 days later

Giovanni Battista della Palla buys the statue of Hercules from the steward of Filippo Strozzi and sends it into France as a present to the king.

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Astronomical Events

1544

14 years, 3 days later

Constanza Cellini is born in France.

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1855

311 years, 2 months, 16 days later

Frederic Leighton lives in Paris.

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1905

Spring

50 years, 12 days later

William Bouguereau's house and studio in Paris are burgled.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

William Bouguereau (1825-1905), aged 80: painter; draughtstman; man

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