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Florence

979

After the death of Otho II., his son, Otho III., was elected Emperor, and crowned by Pope Gregory V., in the year of Christ 979, and this Otho reigned twenty-four years. After that he was crowned, he went into Apulia on pilgrimage to Mount S. Angelo, and afterwards returned by way of France into Germany, leaving Italy in good and peaceful estate. But when he was returned to Germany, Crescentius, the consul and lord of Rome, drave away the said Gregory from the papacy, and set a Greek therein, which was bishop of Piacenza, and very wise; but when the Emperor Otho heard this he was very wrath, and with his army returned to Italy, and besieged in Rome the said Crescentius and his Pope in the castle of S. Angelo, for therein had they taken refuge; and he took the said castle by siege, and caused Crescentius to be beheaded, and Pope John XVI. to have his eyes put out, and his hands cut off; and he restored his Pope Gregory to his chair, which was his kinsman by race; and leaving Rome and Italy in good estate, he returned to his country of Germany, and there-70- died in prosperity. With the said Otho III. there came into Italy the Marquis Hugh; I take it this must have been the marquis of Brandenburg, forasmuch as there is no other marquisate in Germany. His sojourn in Tuscany liked him so well, and especially our city of Florence, that he caused his wife to come thither, and took up his abode in Florence, as vicar of Otho, the Emperor. It came to pass, as it pleased God, that when he was riding to the chase in the country of Bonsollazzo, he lost sight, in the wood, of all his followers, and came out, as he supposed, at a workshop where iron was wont to be wrought. Here he found men, black and deformed, who, in place of iron, seemed to be tormenting men with fire and with hammer, and he asked what this might be: and they answered and said that these were damned souls, and that to similar pains was condemned the soul of the Marquis Hugh by reason of his worldly life, unless he should repent: who, with great fear, commended himself to the Virgin Mary, and when the vision was ended, he remained so pricked in the spirit, that after his return to Florence, he sold all his patrimony in Germany, and commanded that seven monasteries should be founded: the first was the Badia of Florence, to the honour of S. Mary; the second, that of Bonsollazzo, where he beheld the vision; the third was founded at Arezzo; the fourth at Poggibonizzi; the fifth at the Verruca of Pisa; the sixth at the city of Castello; the last was the one at Settimo; and all these abbeys he richly endowed, and lived afterwards with his wife in holy life, and had no son, and died in the city of Florence, on S. Thomas' Day, in the year of Christ 1006, and was buried with great honour in the Badia of Florence. And whilst the said Hugh was-71- living, he made in Florence many knights of the family of the Giandonati, of the Pulci, of the Nerli, of the counts of Gangalandi, and of the family della Bella, which all for love of him, retained and bore his arms, barry, white and red, with divers charges.

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Source: Primary

Villani, Giovanni. Trans. by Rose E. Selfe. "Villani's Chronicle". Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1906: pp 70-1.

1250

271 years, 2 months, 6 days later

Simone dei Conti di Canossa, the first Florentine ancestor of Michelangelo, is made Podestà of Florence.

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1333

83 years, 20 days later

The Florentine historian Giovanni Villani records the disastrous flood of Florence of 1333, and reports on lengthy discussions which arose afterwards about the destructive power of water, presenting the argument almost in the form of a treatise. By the mysterious thread of tradition, the early discussions may have reached Leonardo (...)

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Source: Primary

Pedretti, Carlo. "Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style," p.10

1424

91 years, 21 days later

Masaccio and Masolino are commissioned by the powerful and rich Felice Brancacci to execute a cycle of frescoes for the The Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence.

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Agents

Masaccio (1401-1428), aged 23: painter
Masolino (1383-1447), aged 41: painter

1425

April 16

on Saturday

1 year, 3 months, 16 days later

Lorenzo Ghiberti to Giovanni Turini, goldsmith, of Siena:

Jesus Honourable friend, I received your letter the fourteenth day of April and saw therefrom how dear and faithful a friend I have in you, and also that you are well. Also of your good mind toward me, which you have ever displayed; inasmuch that in case of need you would help me to polish one of these stories (reliefs) and would do it willingly: the which I know I can come only of love to me, for the which may God bless you. You must know, dear friend, that the stories are almost completed; one is in the hands of Giuliano di Ser Andrea, the other I have; and they will be finished at the time I promised Messer Bartolomeo; in sooth they would have been finished long since, but for the thanklessness of those, my past companions, from whom I received not one injury, but many. Thanks be to God, I am out of their hands, for which I ever praise God, considering in what freedom I now find myself. Being quite without company, I intend to remain thus, master in my own workshop and able to receive any friend with a good and cheerful countenance. I thank you for your perfect goodwill towards me. And I heartily beg you to commend me to Messer Bartolomeo. Also I beg you heartily to find, if you may, some means by which I may recover the drawings of the birds I lent to Ghoro (dir Ser Neroccio, a goldsmith of Siena). I know that it will be no pains to you to beg Master Domenico, the wood-carver, that he send them back to me, for I hear say that these and all other things that were in the hands of the said Ghoro are now with Master Domenico. Greet him from me, and likewise Master Francesco di Valdambrina: and if there be aught that I can do here, I am always at your pleasure. There is nothing other to say. May Christ keep you in peace. Writ on the sixteenth day of April 1425. By your Lorenzo di Bartolo, goldsmith of Florence, your dear friend

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Source: Primary

'Letters of the Great Artists', p.14-5

1434

8 years, 8 months, 22 days later

The Medici family seize power in Florence, marking the beginning of a fifty year rule.

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1435

1 year later

Birth

Andrea del Verrocchio is born in Florence.

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1436

March 25

on Friday

1 year, 2 months, 24 days later

The dedication of the cathedral of Florence was celebrated by Pope Eugenius IV and the papal chapel, then resident in Florence. The Pope's magister capellae (master, or leader, of the chapel) was then Guillaume Dufay, a native of the region of Cambrai in northern France.

Attachments

A Dedication by Dufay This isorhythmic motet, "Nuper rosarum flores", was composed by Dufay for the dedication of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Cambrai was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), aged 39: composer

Source: Primary

http://www.slideshare.net/jamesamoore/chapter-15-music-at-the-cathedral-of-florence

1438

December 6

on Thursday

2 years, 8 months, 16 days later

The operai of the Florentine Cathedral stated that in order to improve the level of divine worship there, Ugolino de Giugnis, a canon of the Cathedral, was commissioned to elect "Magister Benotto and his associates who sing at the church of San Giovanni (the Baptistry) to sing Vespers at Santa Maria del Fiore on festive and solemn days." Another document dated the same day mentions writing to Lorenzo de' Medici, "ambassador of Florence to the pope, presently in Ferrara,' so that he could inform the pope of the decision, specifying the number of singers to join Benotto as three.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Source: Primary

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41701491?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

1445

6 years, 28 days later

Giuliano da Sangallo is born in Florence.

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1452

7 years, 1 day later

Davide Ghirlandaio is born in Florence.

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1452

January 1

on Thursday

Luca Landucci enters the shop of the apothecary Francesco, at the sign of the Scala, in the Mercato Vecchio in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 16: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 1

1458

6 years, 2 days later

Benedetto Ghirlandaio is born in Florence.

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1465

April 10

on Monday

7 years, 3 months, 11 days later

There passed through Florence a son of Don Ferante, King of Naples, on his way to Milan to fetch the daughter of the Duke of Milan to be wedded to his brother. This lad was twelve or thirteen years old; he was made much of, and was lodged at Santa Maria Novella. And afterwards he returned through Florence with the bride, accompanied by many signori and dukes, with a large troop of horse; and besides other things, there were so many damsels and matrons in his train that it was magnificent. And at this time a man was found coining false money, and he was beheaded.

Attachments
Portrait of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait bust traditionally identified with Ippolita Maria Sforza, daughter of Francesco I, by Francesco Laurana
Portrait bust of Don Ferante, King of Naples
Alfonso II, brother of Duke Ferante, King of Naples

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1466

January 12

on Friday

9 months, 7 days later

During the night the Arno began to be in flood, although there had not been a drop of rain but the snow had melted suddenly, so that the river entered the town and flooded it as far as the Canto a Monteloro, and benches from the Church of Santa Croce floated across to that point.

And the water went into the Piazza del Grano, reaching more than half-way up the door of the apothecary's shop and past the Palagio del Podesta. The river overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses, and filled the Prato and the Via della Scala. Many mules and horses were drowned in their stables, and all the wine-casks went floating about, mostly towards the Arno. This flood had come suddenly.

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The Arno flood of 1966
The Via della Scala today

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1466

September 1

on Saturday

7 months, 22 days later

On this day a parlamento (assembly) was held in the Piazza, and there was a great commotion in the city; the shops were closed several times, for fear that they might be looted. Niccolo Soderini, Messer Dietisalvi, and Messer Luca Pitti were exiled, for having been the leaders in the plot against Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, when it was attempted to murder him in his way from Careggi. And after the failure of the plot, many citizens connected with it were exiled, about twenty-seven of them being restricted within certain boundaries and made ineligible for office, according to the sentences inscribed on a document inserted in this book; except Messer Luca Pitti, who made an alliance with Giovanni Tornabuoni, giving him his daughter as wife, and in consequence he was reprieved from exile, and they remained friends and at peace.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1466

November 23

on Friday

2 months, 23 days later

Luca Landucci moves his wife into his own house in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 30: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 8.

1467

1 month, 9 days later

Leonardo's apprenticeship

Leonardo da Vinci is sent to Florence to work as apprentice to Andrea del Verrocchio.

Attachments
Leonardo in Verrocchio's studio painting his parts of 'The Baptism of Christ'

Astronomical Events

1468

1 year later

The Palla

Andrea del Verrocchio is contracted to make a golden ball (palla) to be placed on top of the lantern of Brunelleschi's cupola on the Duomo in Florence.

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1468

April 28

on Tuesday

3 months, 28 days later

At about 15 in the morning (11 a.m.) we had the news that peace(1) was concluded. It was celebrated with bonfires, and the shops were closed.

(1) Alamanno Rinuccini (Ricordi, etc. Firenze, 1840), says that the news of the universal peace amongst all the powers of Italy, pronounced by the Pope two days previously, reached Florence at 13 ore (9 a.m.) on the 27th April.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1471

September 23

on Saturday

3 years, 4 months, 28 days later

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1472

June 18

on Tuesday

8 months, 29 days later

A knight came to us (from Volterra) with the olive-branch, and an agreement was made, guaranteeing their property and persons. There was much rejoicing. But when the attacking-party entered, one of their constables, a Venetian, began to cry: "Sack it, sack it!" and our men began plundering, and it was impossible to make them observe their agreement. The count had this Venetian hung and also a Sienese. Nevertheless the unfortunate people fared badly. The count came to Florence on the 27th June, 1472; he was given the Patriarch's house, a banner, two basins, two silver ewers, 180 lire, and a helmet. He went away on the 1st July, 1473.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1472

November 24

on Sunday

5 months, 9 days later

Pietro Torrigiano is born in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

1473

July 18

on Friday

7 months, 26 days later

We heard that our archbishop, who was one of the Neroni of Florence, had died at Rome; and the archbishopric was given to the Cardinal of San Sisti, called Brother Piero.(1)

(1) Piero Riario, nephew of the Pope.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 59: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 11.

1474

September 25

on Friday

1 year, 2 months, 9 days later

We received a letter written by Matteo Palmieri, captain of Volterra, which I saw and read; it related the following marvel, namely, that in these days there had been born in Volterra a boy (that is, a monster) which had the head of a bull, and three teeth, with a lump of skin on the head like a horn, and the top of the head was open like a pomegranate, with fiery rays coming out. Its arms were all hairy, and its feet were like a lion's with lion's claws. Its body was of the nature of a female of the human race, but its legs down to the feet were those of a bull like the head. And it lived about three hours. The mother died the fourth day. The midwives and the other women present half died of fried. And this was shown to the said Matteo as a terrible thing. And the said Matteo, captain of Volterra, wrote here to Florence with his own hand; and I copied the said letter in the actual words, neither omitting nor adding anything. And because the said Matteo was my father's intimate friend and my godfather, the letter itself came into my hands, although it was directed to other citizens.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1476

1 year, 3 months, 8 days later

The Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes arrives in Florence, bringing new painterly techniques from Northern Europe which were to profoundly affect Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and others.

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Agents

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), aged 27: painter
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 30: painter

1476

April 26

on Wednesday

3 months, 26 days later

At about 15 in the forenoon (11 a.m.) in Santa Maria del Fiore, whilst high mass was being celebrated and the Host elevated, Giuliano, son of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and Francesco Nori were killed, near the choir of the said church towards the door which goes to the Servi; and Lorenzo de' Medici was wounded in the neck, and fled into the sacristy and escaped. They were killed in consequence of a certain conspiracy made by Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Franceschino de' Pazzi and Guglielmo de' Pazzi, the which Guglielma was he brother-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici, his wife being a sister of theirs, called Bianca. And the sons of Messer Piero de' Pazzi were also there, that is, Andrea and Renato and Niccolo; and of the house of Salviati, there were Francesco, Bishop of Pisa, and Jacopo Salviati, who was son-in-law to Filippo Tornabuoni, and another Jacopo also a Salviati, and Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, Bracciolini and Bernardo Bandini of the house of Baroncegli, and Amerigo Corsi, and many others. The conspirators brought Cardinal di San Giorgio(1) here, who was a young man; he entered Florence on the day above-mentioned, and they all came together in Santa Maria del Fiore, and, as I have said, at the elevation of the Host seized their swords, and it is said that Francesco de' Pazzi struck Giuliano, and Bandini the other. And having killed Giuliano they wanted to kill Lorenzo, but did not succeed, as he fled into the sacristy. Meantime the Bishop de' Salviati, with Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, and two of his relatives who were both called Jacopo, went to the Palagio, with several priests, feigning to desire to speak to the Signoria, and they spoke to the Gonfaloniere, and became somewhat confused. The Gonfaloniere perceived the treachery, and he and his companions shut themslves up here and there, and ordered the doors to be closed, and the bell run for a parlamento. And what with the rumour which came from Santa Maria del Fiore of Giuliano's death and the bell ringing at the Palagio, the city was immediately in arms. And Lorenzo de' Medici was taken to his house. Meantime Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi rushed on horseback to the Piazza de' Signori, crying "Popolo e liberta!" (The People and Liberty!), wishing to take the Palagio, but the bishop not having succeeded in getting possession of it, Messer Jacopo was not able to enter. He then went towards his own house, and was advised to take to flight; and he fled by the Porta all Croce, together with many men-at-arms, in the Piazza and at Lorenzo de' Medici's house. And numbers of men on the side of the conspirators were killed in the Piazza; amongst others a priest of the bishop's was killed there, his body being quartered and the head cut off, and then the head was stuck on the top of a lance, and carried about Florence the whole day, and one quarter of his body was carried on a spit all through the city, with the cry of: "Death to the traitors!" That same evening the cardinal was taken to the Palagio, barely escaping with his life, all his companions being captured without exception.

And the bishop remained in the Palagio with all the rest. And that evening they hung Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, from the windows of the Palagio de' Signori, and likewise the Bishop of Pisa, and Franceschino de' Pazzi, naked; and about twenty men besides, some at the Palagio de' Signori, and others at the Palagio dell Podesta and at the Casa del Capitano, all at the windows.

The next day (the 27th) they hung Jacopo Salviati, son-in-law of Filippo Tornabuoni, and the other Jacopo, also at the windows, and many others of the households of the cardinals and of the bishop. And the day after that (the 28th April, 1478), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi was captured at Belforte. And that evening of the 28th, about 23 in the evening (7 p.m.), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Renato de' Pazzi were hung at the windows of the Palagio de'' Signori, above the ringhiera(2); and so many of their men with them, that during these three days the number of those killed amounted to more than seventy. The cardinal remained a prisoner of the Palagio, and no harm was done him, except that he was made to write to the Holy Father, with his own hand, all that had happened. And the same day the prisoners in the Stinche(3) managed to break open the prison, and all escaped - with the exception of one unfortunate man who was captured and hung.

(1) Rafaello Riario.

(2) The ringhiera was the platform consisting in three steps and railing, which used to be round the Palagio (Palazzo Vecchio) on the front and on the north. It was used for haranguing the people and was only demolished in 1812, when the present steps and platform replaced it. (Trans.)

(3) The Stinche were the old prisons, which formed a large rectangular mass between the Via del Diluvio (now Via del Fosso), the Via del Palagio (now Via Ghibellina), the Via del Mercatino, and the Via de' Lavatoi. The exterior walls were extremely high, and windowless. The name was derived from that of a fortress which had rebelled against Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and which the Florentines retook, bringing the prisoners back as a trophy. Originally intended for traitors and revels, these prisons were used afterwards for various purposes, even for madmen; whilst later on debtors and bankrupts were confined there, and others with life-sentences. In 1835, under the Grand-duke Leopold, it was decreed that they should be sold, and shops and houses were built on the area; also the large hall, called Filamonica, and riding-school, afterwards replaced by the Pagliani theatre, now called the Verdi. (Trans.)

Attachments
Bianca de' Medici is traditionally presumed to be the woman in the centre
Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici by Botticelli
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio
The skull of Giuliano de' Medici, fractured from the blade that killed him
The Stinche, or old prisons of Florence, as shown in an engraving

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1476

August 15

on Tuesday

3 months, 21 days later

Four of the city gates in Florence were closed; the first was Porta San Miniato, the second was the Porta all Giustizia, the third Porta Pinti(1), and the fourth the Porticciuola della Mulina (of the Mill).(2)

(1) The Porta a Pinti, demolished with the walls in 1866, was at the end of the Borgo Pinti, and was a very picturesque gate, with a group of old cypresses. (Trans.)

(2) The Porticciuola della Mulina was near the Prato, down by the river, leading to the Mulina (Mill) of the Vagaloggia. It was sometimes called Pirticciuola del Prato. The three last gates were taken down when the walls were demolished. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1477

4 months, 19 days later

Buonarrotto Buonarotti is born in Florence.

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1478

March 25

on Monday

1 year, 2 months, 23 days later

The Holy Father gave a plenary indulgence in Santa Maria del Fiore for one day, from vespers on the 24th March till the next vespers, on the 25th March, which people availed themselves of with great devotion. The Cause of this was the preaching of Brother Antonio da Vergiegli in Santa Maria del Fiore during Lent, which bore good fruit.

On this same 25th March, a law was determined upon at the Palagio, which forbade anyone who had killed a man to return to Florence(1).

(1) The provision is of the 16th March, 1478, Old Style, and perhaps the 25th is the day on which it was published. It was made to limit the concession of safe-conducts, and the causes which led to it may be read in the exordium which I have pleasure in publishing as a document which describes the way of thinking at that time. "The high and magnificent Signori having in mind how grave is the sin of homicide, by which man, a creature made and created in the image of God, is destroyed; and seeking the reasons why it is so very frequent under our jurisdiction; find among other things that it is encouraged by the facility of pardon and roper severity not being used in punishing such a detestable and abominable excess, he who commits the homicide being allowed to be continually in the presence of those who have suffered from the offence and of those who desire to live virtuously; none of whom can regard such manslayers without great indignation and perturbation of mind. And although the laws of the Florentine people bitterly avenge and punish such crimes, and give security against them; notwithstanding, whatever may be the reason, either too great humanity (which in reality one ought to call cruelty), or else undisciplined charity, such entirely right and just decrees are not properly observed. And the high Signori and discreet chief citizens wish to remedy these things which are so contrary to honest living and against divine laws, by making the fear of pubishment deter men from committing them, when they are deprived of all hope of pardon, and by adjuring the magistrates not only not to overlook such things, but to enforce the law with severity, hoping firmly that this provision may hav ea good effect" (State Archives of Florence, Consigli maggiori Provv. Reg. ad annum).

The term "Signori e Collegi" used in the decrees meant as follows: the Signori were the eight Priori and the Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, and the Collegi were the sixteen Gonfalonieri della Compagnie and the twelve men (three from each quarter) formerly called the twelve Buonuomini, who were summoned by the Signori to take council on almost every occasion. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1478

May 9

on Thursday

1 month, 15 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 17

on Friday

8 days later

At about 20 in the evening (4 p.m.), some boys disinterred it (the body of Messer Jacopo) a second time, and dragged it through Florence by the piece of rope that was still round its neck; and when they came to the door of his house, they tied the rope to the door-bell, saying: "Knock at the door!" and they made great sport all through the town. And when they grew tired and did not know what more to do with it, they went to the Ponte al Rubiconte and threw it into the river.(1) And they sang a song with certain rhymes, amongst others this line: "Messer Jacopo is floating away down the Arno." And it was considered an extraordinary thing, first because children are usually afraid of dead bodies, and secondly because the stench was so bad that it was impossible to go near it; one may imagine what it was like, from the 27th April till the 17th May! And they must have had to touch with with their hands to throw it into the Arno. And as it floated down the river, always keeping above the surface, the bridges were crowded with people to watch it pass. And another day, down towards Brozzi, the boys pulled it out of the water again, and hung it on a willow, and then the beat it, and threw it back into the Arno. And it is said that it was seen to pass under the bridges of Pisa, always above the surface.

(1) History says that the magistrates had the body thrown into the Arno, to put a stop to the boys' treatment of it. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Brozzi was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

June 7

on Friday

21 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

June 12

on Wednesday

5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) left Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1478

July 2

on Tuesday

20 days later

An ambassador came to Florence from the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

July 13

on Saturday

11 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 19

on Friday

6 days later

The Sienese invaded our territory and took booty and prisoners, and on the 22nd they captured Calciano.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Calciano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 days later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 21

on Wednesday

29 days later

A commissary came to us from Venice, who hired for us 3 thousand soldiers, to be paid by the Venetians.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

3 days later

The people about Rovezzano took fright, and the alarm was sounded and they fled into Florence with all their possessions, by the Porta alla Croce, so that it really seemed as if the territory were lost. Such a terror were never seen, everyone being utterly dismayed. They did not consider themselves safe even in Florence, and suffered much discomfort and misery.

And on the same day we last Radda, which was sacked and burnt.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Rovezzano was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

The enemy (the Sienese) made an incursion as far as Ponte a Grassina, carrying off a smith and many others.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Grassina Ponte was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1478

September 7

on Saturday

14 days later

(Monday). Our Capitano, the Marchese di Ferrara, came to Florence, arriving at about 22 in the evening (6 p.m.), with a great company of crossbowmen on horseback, and musketeers, and we escorted him into the city with great honour, lodging him in the same house which he had before. He had about 50 mules laden with baggage, and remained in Florence till Saturday, the 12th, when he took his baton and went into camp.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1478

October 6

on Sunday

29 days later

Six Sienese were arrested here, one of them being the Podesta of Castelnuovo, which had been regained.

And at this time there were about 100 sick of the plague, at the hospital of La Scala, and in many houses of Florence; amongst others a man was found dead upon one of the benches in Santa Maria Novella.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1479

January 10

on Friday

3 months, 6 days later

Four French ambassadors arrived at Florence, two of whom were going to the Pope and two to the King of Naples. They declared to the Signoria here, that they were going to make peace in Italy amongst Christians, and to settle all differences, giving judgement according to reason, and protested that their king would proceed against anyone who hindered peace; if the Pope were the one to be obdurate, he would be summoned to a Council; and when peace had been made, all the powers would undertake a crusade against the Unbelievers. They left on the 16th January.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1479

April 18

on Friday

3 months, 8 days later

The plague had increased to such an extent that I went away to my villa at Dicomano with all my family; leaving my apprentices to attend to the shop.

At this time Count Carlo came to Florence, and was appointed a Capitano, and two separate camps were formed, he going into the Perugian territory and defeating the papal troops, which departed utterly routed. And after this the ducal forces(1) could have been broken up; but through the fault of our Capitano, the Duke of Ferrara, and through the dissensions amongst the citizens, no action was taken, or else the enemy would certainly have been conquered. The Duke of Calabria pitched his camp before Colle. People continually deceive us, and we cannot be victorious, as God punishes us for our sins.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Perugia was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Colle di Buggiano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1479

November 8

on Saturday

6 months, 24 days later

At midnight the alarm was rung in the Mugello, and everyone was overwhelmed with terror, wanting to rush to Florence. But the enemy came to Piancandoli, and did not enter the Mugello.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1479

December 6

on Saturday

28 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence and went to the king at Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1479

December 23

on Tuesday

17 days later

Bernardo Bandini de' Baroncegli was captured at Constantinople, the Grand Turk having given him up. He had fled from Florence when Giuliano de' Medici was murdered, believing that his life would be safe at Constantinople.

News arrived that the Duke of Calabria had taken possession of Siena, but it was not true. However, to all intents and purposes, he was master of the place, for the Sienese were helpless, having left him come in with all his troops, and he did what he chose.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1480

March 15

on Monday

2 months, 23 days later

He (Lorenzo de' Medici) arrived in Florence at 21 in the afternoon (5 p.m.).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1480

March 22

on Monday

7 days later

The city gates, which had been shut shortly before, were re-opened.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 29

1480

March 25

on Thursday

3 days later

Peace was proclaimed, and the image of Our Lady of Santa Maria Impruneta was brought to Florence for the fete.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1480

April 28

on Wednesday

1 month, 4 days later

Messer Piero Vespucci(1) was liberated from prison, and left Florence, and went to the Duke of Calabria at Siena and stopped there.

At this time it was noised abroad that the Pope had made a league with the Venetians, the Sienese, and the Duke of Urbino.(2) It was not true.

(1) The Duke of Calabria, and his father King Ferdinand, had made urgent solicitations in favour of Vespucci.

(2) Federigo di Montefeltro.

Attachments
Portrait of Federico da Montefeltro, by Piero della Francesca

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

June 2

on Wednesday

1 month, 5 days later

Signor Roberto entered Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

June 3

on Thursday

1 day later

Messer Piero Vespucci was permitted to return to Florence, and was restituted in all his rights, according to the wish of the duke.(1)

At this time the price of grain fell to 15 soldi the bushel, and the like low prices.

(1) He, however, preferred leaving Tuscany, and went to offer his services to the Sforza in Milan, and was appointed Ducal Councillor by Ludovico il Moro. Sent to exercise his authority at the city of Alessandria, he met with a tragic end, being killed in 1485 in a popular rising.

Attachments
Portrait of Ludovico Sforza

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Tuscany was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

August 18

on Wednesday

2 months, 16 days later

A cardinal,(1) one of the king's sons, arrived in Florence, on his way from Hungary to Rome.

(1) Giovanni d'Aragona.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Hungary was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1480

September 2

on Thursday

15 days later

Two silk-mercers' shops in Porta Santa Maria, near Vacchereccia(1) were burnt down; and the other night the whole Canto di Vacchereccia as far as the Chiassolino del Buco was burnt down.(2) And the fire rushed across to the opposite side of the street and burnt down all the other corner of the Vacchereccia, destroying about 20 shops of the silk-mercers and money-changers. There was great loss, many having all their property consumed.

And at this time there was much talk about the loss of Otranto, and Leccio was feared for.

(1) The street still so called, between Via Por San Maria and the Piazza, named after the tower of the Vacca, belonging to the old Casa del Foraboschi, and forming the lower-portion of the present tower of the Palazzo Vecchio. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Leccio was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1480

October 27

on Wednesday

1 month, 25 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici sends a delegation of painters to Rome

Cosimo Rosselli leaves Florence for Rome, together with other Florentine painters, where he has been called as part of the reconciliation project between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, and Pope Sixtus IV. The Florentines start to work in the The Sistine Chapel as early as the Spring of 1481, along with Perugino, who is already there.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 31: patron; poet; ruler
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 66: pope
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 34: painter

1480

December 5

on Sunday

1 month, 9 days later

The Cardinal of Mantua(1) passed through Florence, on his way from Mantua to Rome.

(1) Francesco Gonzaga.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Mantua was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1481

February 6

on Sunday

2 months, 3 days later

There was an earthquake (in Florence) at about half-past 4 (12.30 at night), but not a very severe one.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 31

1481

March 31

on Thursday

1 month, 23 days later

The fortresses of Colle, Poggibonizi, Monte a Sansovino, and Poggio Imperiale were restituted to us, together with other places, except the Castellina, Montedomenici, Piancaldoli, and Sarzana.

The plague was now decreasing.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1481

June 8

on Wednesday

2 months, 9 days later

The Porta a Faenza(1) was closed, because the plague was very bad outside this gate, and was in three or four houses in Florence.

(1) This gate, which was on the Prato, was demolished when the Fortezza di Basso was built, or rather, it was built into the keep of the fort. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1481

August 4

on Thursday

1 month, 27 days later

Twelve men were appointed, and given powers to act for the whole people of Florence. The first thing they did was to decree that whoever owed the commune anything should pay three florins interest on each florin lent.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 32

1482

5 months later

Instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Girolamo Savonarola is assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 30: priest

1482

March 14

on Tuesday

2 months, 12 days later

A chancellor of Count Girolamo was hung at the windows of the Bargello. He had been captured by one of the Altoviti,(1) who was a proscribed rebel, and in order to be pardoned, found out this man, and caught him between Piombino and Pisa; and he won his pardon.

(1) This must have been the famous Cola Montano, a Bolognese; not a chancellor, but maintained by Count Girolamo Riario, and the Pope, and the King of Naples, and all the enemies of Florence, during the war following the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. That he was taken by one of the Altoviti is not mentioned elsewhere. Brought to Florence, he was put in the prison of the Bargello or Captain of the Piazza dei Signori; where he wrote with his own hand a Confessione, which is preserved in the State Archives of Florence, amongst the Carte Strozziane, still unedited, but well worth publishing, as important contributions to the history of that time. The order of the Signori e Collegi to the Otto di Custodia e Balia, of the 12th March, for the execution of Montano, still exist in the said archives amongst the papers of these magistrates. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Piombino was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1482

June 12

on Monday

3 months later

Signor Gostanzo came to Florence, on his return from Ferrara.

At this time there was much talk of the worship of an image of Our Lady at Bibbona, or rather in a tabernacle about a bowshot from Bibbona. It is, namely, a Virgin seated and holding the dead Christ in her arms, after He has been taken down from the Cross; which is called by some a Pieta. This worship began on the 5th April, when it was transfigured: that is, it changed from blue to red, and from red to black and divers colours. And this is said to have happened many times between then and now, and a number of sick persons have been cured, and a number of miracles have been performed, and quarrels reconciled; so that all the world is running there. Nothing else is talked of at this moment; I have spoken to many who tell me that they themselves have seen it transfigured, so that one must perforce believe it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Bibbona was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1482

August 27

on Sunday

2 months, 16 days later

Many people here saw fiery flames in the air above Florence, towards the west, at about one o'clock (9 p.m.); and they were also seen at Dicomano and elsewhere.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

December 24

on Sunday

3 months, 29 days later

The Cardinal of Mantua, papal legate, came to Florence on his way to Ferrara. He was received with all due honour.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1483

January 5

on Friday

12 days later

The Duke of Calabria came to Florence, leaving again on the 8th for Ferrara, and taking 800 horsemen with him; amongst his force were many Turks(1). He was received with great honour.

(1) Taken into his pay after the recapture of Otranto.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

1483

February 6

on Tuesday

1 month, 2 days later

Some of the Turks whom the duke was sending back, passed through. As 400 of them had deserted to the Venetians, he thought it best to send back the remainder; and we raised a Christian brigade for him here in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1483

February 12

on Monday

6 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence, going as ambassador to Ferrara, in very fine array.(1)

(1) To the diet which was held there, to treat of negotiations with regard to the war.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1483

April 1

on Sunday

1 month, 18 days later

At Siena, four men were thrown out of the windows of the Palazzo de' Signori, and six more were hung, who belonged to the Monte de' Nove(1); and many citizens fled into Florentine territory.

(1) A certain political party at Siena.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1483

April 6

on Friday

5 days later

The Turkish ambassador came to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 36

1483

May

25 days later

It rained in Florence for practically the whole month.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

1483

May 30

on Wednesday

29 days later

Our Lady of Impruneta was brought into the city, for the sake of obtaining fine weather, as it had rained for more than a month. And it immediately became fine.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

September 7

on Friday

3 months, 10 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the King of France, on their way to Rome to arrange peace in Italy; and whilst they were here they received the news that their king had died on the 30th May, 1483. And on the 13th September one of these ambassadors died at Santa Maria Novella, and the others set out for Rome.

During these days, for fear of hunger and of the war going on in Lombardy, many families left it, and there passed through Florence on their way into Roman territory 50 to 100 at a time, till they amounted to several thousands. Many also went to Romagna and elsewhere. It was said that there were more than 30 thousand persons altogether. It was a most pitiful sight to see these poor people pass, with a wretched little donkey, and their miserable household possessions: saucepans, frying-pans, etc. One wept to see them barefoot and ragged; and it is the cursed wars which have caused all these. No one went by without receiving some little help from us.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Lombardy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Italy was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

October 23

on Tuesday

1 month, 16 days later

A cardinal-legate came to Florence, who was going to the King of France as ambassador, to confirm to him his father's crown. And this cardinal chanced to be the very man whom the last King of France(1) had kept for many years in prison, in a cage.

(1) Louis XI. The name of the cardinal was Jean Balue, whom Louis XI. had persuaded Pope Paul II. to make a cardinal; and later, for political reasons, he had imprisoned him in an iron cage, from which he was liberated in 1481 through the intercession of Pope Sixtus IV. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 69: pope
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 62: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 60: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1483

November 10

on Saturday

18 days later

Three Florentine ambassadors left Florence, being sent to the King of France; they were Messer Gentile, Bishop of Arezzo, and Antonio Canigiani, and Lorenzo, son of Piero de' Medici.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1484

September 8

on Monday

10 months, 3 days later

The Peace was published in Florence, and there were rejoicings.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 40

1484

November 6

on Thursday

1 month, 29 days later

Antonio Pucci, a commissary of Pietrasanta, was brought back dead to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Antonio Pucci (1418-1484), aged 66: gonfaloniere

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 41

1484

November 7

on Friday

1 day later

We captured Pietrasanta, which capitulated to Lorenzo de' Medici, and on the 11th we took the fortress. Piero, son of Filippo Tornabuoni, was made warden, and Jacopo Acciauoli commissary; Jacopo Acciauoli being put in command of the walls. The news reached here at 14 at night (10 p.m.), and the next day the shops remained closed, and there were great rejoicings and bonfires. And the same day Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, another commissary there, was brought back to Florence dead.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1485

April 18

on Saturday

5 months, 12 days later

A herald came to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 41

1485

December 11

on Friday

7 months, 27 days later

There came a certain hot wind from the south, as if it were July, and all the walls of the houses dripped inside, all over Florence, even in the living-rooms, although they had been quite dry.

And in these days of February and March, soldiers were continually being hired, to send to the Duke (of Calabria), who was fighting against the papal forces; so that everyone in Florence who had taken part against the Church was excommunicated. All intelligent people wondered that anyone should go against the Church, especially as it had nothing to do with us. However, this mistaken conduct was the result of our sins and of our not fearing God.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1486

May 9

on Sunday

4 months, 29 days later

Here in the Piazza de' Tornaquinci, by the house of the Tornabuoni, it happened that a bear of an extraordinary size, bred up in this city, being tormented by some children, seized a little girl of about six years old, a daughter of Giovacchino Berardi, by the throat, and it was with great difficulty that several men freed her, covered with blood and with her throat badly torn. But, thank God! she did not die.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1487

March 28

on Monday

10 months, 23 days later

The following case happened: A man was hung on the gallows here in Florence, and was taken down for dead, but was later found not to be so. He was carried to Santa Maria Nuova (hospital), and remained there till the 11th April. And those in charge at Santa Maria Nuova finding him of a bad nature, and hearing him talk of taking vengeance, etc., the "Eight" decided to have him hung a second time, and their sentence was carried out.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1487

June 22

on Wednesday

2 months, 26 days later

Sarzana was captured at 12 in the morning (8 a.m.). We had the news of it here at 20 in the evening (4 p.m.).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 43

1487

November 11

on Friday

4 months, 22 days later

Certain animals arrived here, which were supposed to have been sent by the sultan; afterwards we heard, however, that they came from some good friends of Florence, who hoped to be duly rewarded. The animals were as follows: A very tall giraffe, beautiful and graceful; her picture can be seen painted in many parts of Florence, as she lived here for many years. Also a large lion, a goat, and some very strange wethers.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1487

November 11

on Friday

Two Venetian ambassadors passed through here on their way to Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1488

1 month, 21 days later

Michelangelo's first Florentine period

Michelangelo's first years in Florence were marked by his apprenticeship to Ghirlandaio and the patronage of the Medici.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), aged 39: painter

1488

April 16

on Monday

3 months, 16 days later

We heard that Count Girolamo, Signore of Imola, had been stabbed to death, in the city of Forli, by some men of the place; and it proved to be true.

A number of soldiers and militia were sent from here to Piancaldoli, men of the Romagnuoli and of the Mugello; so that by the 29th we took it. The commandant of the fortress, who was from Imola, capitulated; and he was given 4 thousand florins and a house, and the right of bearing arms for life, here in Florence, where he remained.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Forli was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Imola was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1489

July 21

on Sunday

1 year, 3 months, 6 days later

They began to build the walls upon the aforesaid foundations.

And at this time the following buildings were erected:

The Osservanza di San Miniato de' Frati di San Francesco(1); the sacristy of Santo Spirito; the house of Giulio Gondi(2); and the church of the Frati di Sant' Agonstino,(3) outside the Porta a San Gallo. And Lorenzo de' Medici began a palace at the Poggio a Caiano, on his property, where so much has been beautifully ordered, the Cascine, etc. Princely things! At Sarrezana a fortress was built; and many other houses were erected in Florence: in the street which goes to Santa Caterina, and towards the Porta a Pinti, and the Via Nuova de' Servi, at Cestello,(4) and from the Porta a Faenza(5) towards San Barnaba, and towards Sant' Ambrogio, and elsewhere. Men were crazy about building at this time, so that there was a scarcity of master-builders and of materials.(6)

(1) The monastery (lately built near San Miniato) of the Osservanza, a Franciscan Order, who already had one at Fiesole. (Trans.)

(2) In our days we have just seen this palace completed on its southern side, thanks to the care of its owner. In finishing this work the remains of the house opposite in Via de' Gondi were demolished; this used to be the Casa della Dogana, and in still older times the Casa delle Prestanze, that Giuliano Gondi bought from the Arte della Lana (Guild of Wool) to use in his building, and in it Leonardo da Vinci lived as a boy, a fact which I was the first to prove in July 1872.

(3) Chiesa di Sant' Agonstino. In the siege of 1529 it was demolished together with the convent which was united to it. They occupied almost the same area as the parterre and oratory of the Madonna delle Tosse. The monks were moved into the city, where they were given the church of S. Jacopo tra' Fossi.

(4) Cestello was at that time the name of the present convent of S. Maria Maddalena in Borgo Pinto, which belonged to the Cistercians. In 1628 they exchanged it for that of the nuns of S. Maria degli Angeli of Borgo S. Frediano, still called S. Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi.

(5) See note to 8th June, 1481.

(6) In May 1489 the Signoria, desirous of providing for the beauty of the city, and for the wants and convenience of those who might wish to inhabit it, granted an exemption for forty years from any tax for those new houses which should be built within five years "in places where there was no house or any beginning of one." In March 1494 this term was prolonged to the end of the year 1497.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Fiesole was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1491

January 17

on Saturday

1 year, 6 months later

This night there began, and continued until the 18th, a certain fine rain, which froze whilst it fell, and made icicles upon the trees. There was such a quantity of it, that the weight bowed the trees down to the ground and broke the branches. Note, by the way, that this was on the hills. For about half a mile near the river it did no injury. It began at Fiesole, and extended to the Mugello; and at San Godenzo and Dicomano it did much harm. On my land at Dicomano it tore from the roots several chestnut-trees and oak-trees, and broke nearly all the branches of the olive-trees and every other kind of wood, so that at one of my farms the branches alone made twenty piles of wood; and some of the broken limbs of the chestnuts were more than two feet thick, such as was never seen before. Those who chanced to be in the woods, thought that the world was coming to an end, when they heard everything cracking, and the deafening noise overhead. There was such a heap of grass that it weighed several pounds; and the stubble of the corn in the fields looked like organ-pipes. The stacks appeared to be roofed with glass, and it was too dangerous for anyone to walk in the country. The farms were ruined for many years, the fruit-trees not bearing fruit, the olives remaining like suckers, and the oak-trees being all spoilt. It was incredible, but true.

The Arno rose very high, and ruined the mill of the Ponte a Rubiconte, next to Santa Maria delle Grazie, and a porter was drowned there. The mill was a spinning-mill. The river overflowed its banks in several places.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Fiesole was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1491

May 1

on Friday

3 months, 14 days later

The coinage was changed: that is, silver coins began to be used; and it was decided that the grossone should be worth 16 quattrini and a half, like the old silver ones. All the taxes were to be paid in silver, which meant a little increase to the people, as a quarter more had to be paid, when there was need, on the contrary, to relieve them. This increase was made by divine permission, on account of our sins; because the poor are generally worse than the rich and great. Praise be to God!

This same day they began a causeway between the Loggia de' Signori and the Palagio, so high that one could walk on a level from the door of the Palagio into the Loggia; with steps leading towards San Piero Scheraggio(1) and towards the Piazza, so that neither horses nor any other animals could pass there any longer. It was also rather inconvenient for people, having to go up and down again. Some persons liked this causeway, and others not; I myself did not care for it much.

(1) This church was one of the oldest in Florence; it was in the form of a basilica, its interior somewhat resembling San Miniato al Monte. Many political meetings were held in it. The Florentines hung the "Caroccio" of Fiesole on the marble facade (afterwards copied in marble, but destroyed with the rest of the church)l and tradition says that the ancient marble pulpit or ambone was also from Fiesole. This pulpit, when the church was suppressed, was given to the little church of San Leonardo in Arcetri, which was connected with San Piero Scheraggio, and it can still be seen there. The north wing of San Piero was demolished first, to widen the street between it and the Palazzo Vecchio (this street is named after the Capella delle Ninne), and the south wing was also closed, the central aisle being still used for service till the year 1560 when the church, chapter-house and loggia were all demolished to make place for the Uffizi. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Fiesole was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Arcetri was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1492

January 5

on Tuesday

8 months, 9 days later

The Spaniards quartered here in Florence made great rejoicings and lighted bonfires, because they heard that their king had conquered the whole of Granada, and had driven out all the Moors who were there. This was not only a beneficial and glorious thing for Spain, but also a beneficial and glorious thing for us and for all Christians, and for the Holy Church. Good and faithful people considered it a great acquisition for the faith of Christ, and the first step towards winning the Levant and Jerusalem from the Unbelievers.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Jerusalem was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Granada was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

1492

March 10

on Thursday

2 months, 5 days later

Lorenzo's son, the cardinal, received the hat from the Pope.(1) It was given him at the Badia on the way to Fiesole (i.e. at San Domenico), and many citizens went out to meet him when he came into Florence to visit the Signoria; and the next day he went to hear mass in Santa Maria del Fiore. And on this day the Signoria presented him with 30 loads of gifts carried by porters, being silver plate, and basins, and ewers, and dishes, and all the silver utensils that can possibly be used by a great lord. According to what was said, they were estimated at more than 20 thousand florins, although that seems impossible to me; but it was public report, and therefore I set it down. It was certainly a rich and magnificent gift. Praise be to God!

(1) When he had been made cardinal in 1488 he had not received the insignia, being only thirteen years old.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Fiesole was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1492

April 8

on Friday

29 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici died on his estate at Careggi; and it was said that when he heard the news of the effects of the thunderbolt, being so ill, he asked where it had fallen, and on which side; and when he was told, he said: "Alas! I shall die, because it fell towards my house." This may not have been so, but it was commonly reported.

And they brought him to Florence the same night, at 5 in the morning (1 a.m.), and put him in the monastery at San Marco; and he remained there the whole of the next day, which was a Monday. And on the 10th April, Tuesday, he was buried at San Lorenzo at about 20 in the evening (4.pm.). Well may we consider what a transitory thing is human life! This man, in the eyes of the world, was the most illustrious, the richest, the most stately, and the most renowned among men. Everyone declared that he ruled Italy; and in very truth he was possessed of great wisdom, and all his undertakings prospered. He had succeeded in doing what no citizen had been able to do for a long time: namely, in getting his son appointed cardinal; which was not only an honour for his house, but for the whole city. In spite of all this, however, he could not live one hour longer when the end came. Then, O man, man, what hast thou to be proud of? True humility is the fit human attribute, and each time that we grow proud, and esteem ourselves above others, failing to recognise that every spiritual, corporal and temporal good comes from God, we exceed the proper limits of humanity. Everything that exceeds its limit is evil, and those things which should be good, turn to ill. The desirable quality for man is true gentleness and humility, and always to esteem God. Man is naught, if not what God has made him; to whom be praise from all creatures, as is His due. May He pardon me my sins! And may He pardon the sins of the dead man, as I trust He may pardon me and all human beings!

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Careggi was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1493

January 20

on Friday

9 months, 17 days later

The Day of San Bastiano (St. Sebastian); there was the severest snowstorm in Florence that the oldest people living could remember. And amongst other extraordinary things, it was accompanied by such a violent wind that for the whole day it was impossible to open the shops, or the doors and windows. It last from the Ave Maria one morning to the Ave Maria the next morning, twenty-four hours, without ceasing for a minute, and without the wind abating, so that there was not the slightest crack or a hole, however small, that did not let a heap of snow into the house. In fact there was not a house so hermetically sealed as not to become so full of snow that it took several days to clear it out. All along the streets one saw heaps of snow, so that in many places neither men nor beasts could pass. There was such a quantity that it took a long time to melt away, as sometimes when boys make a snow-lion. In fact, these mountains lasted a week. It is difficult to believe without having seen it. And the same thing happened in my villa at Dicomano. I sent Benedetto to clear the house, and he found as much snow inside as if it had been roofless; and this was after a week. So it was everywhere alike.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1493

May 20

on Saturday

4 months later

A Sunday; the Cardinal de' Medici returned to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 18: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 54

1493

August 17

on Thursday

2 months, 29 days later

It happened that a certain unbeliever, to spite the Christians, but mostly out of folly, went about Florence disfiguring the images of Our Lady, and amongst others, that which is on the pilaster of Orto San Michele, outside. He scratched the eyes of the Child, and of San Nofri (Onophrius), and threw mud in the face of Our Lady.(1) On this account, the boys began to throw stones at him, and they were joined by grown men, who in their fury stoned him to death with great stones, and then dragged his body about with much vituperation.

(1) This statue of the Virgin is by Mina da Fiesole, who made it for the Doctors and Apothecaries' Guild, whose arms were the Virgin and Child in an archway. After this act of desecration it was removed to the interior of the church for a time, and then placed outside again, when it obtained the reputation of working so many miracles that great crowds used to gather in front of it, till it was taken back into the interior of the church in the time of Cosimo I. Now, in the year 1926, it has one more been placed outside, in a niche on the south side. Formerly it used to stand in the niche now occupied by the copy of Donatello's San Giorgio, and therefor next to the group of Four Saints, one of whom is Saint Onophrius. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1493

December 20

on Wednesday

4 months, 5 days later

This Tommaso Minerbetti returned (to Florence), having been knighted by the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1494

January 20

on Saturday

1 month, 1 day later

There is a heavy fall of snow in Florence, and Pietro de' Medici sends for the young Michelangelo to model a colossal snow-man in the courtyard of his palace.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1494

May 4

on Friday

3 months, 14 days later

Four French ambassadors entered Florence. They were lodged in the house which formerly belonged to Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

May 5

on Saturday

1 day later

They went to the Signoria, and having set forth the matters entrusted to them, receive a reply. On the 7th they left, and went to Rome.(1)

(1) During their sojourn in Florence they were served with the silver plate of the Signoria; and to do them honour, the musicians of the Signoria were sent to play before them.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

May 19

on Saturday