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Draughtstman

1500

November 3

on Saturday

Birth

Benvenuto Cellini is born in Florence.

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The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1503

2 years, 1 month, 29 days later

As a child, Benvenuto Cellini plays with a scorpion he finds near a water-pipe and is narrowly rescued from being stung by his father, who cuts off its head and tail with a pair of scissors.

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1506

3 years, 1 day later

Albrecht Dürer, visiting Venice for a second time, describes Giovanni Bellini as still the best painter in the city, and as full of all courtesy and generosity towards foreign brethren of the brush.

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1514

8 years, 2 days later

Giulio Romano paints The Fire in the Borgo after designs by Raphael.

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Giulio Romano (1499-1546), aged 15: draughtstman; architect; painter
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 31: painter; architect; poet

1516

2 years later

Banished from Florence

Benvenuto Cellini is banished from Florence for six months for his part in a street fight and lives in Siena.

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1519

3 years, 1 day later

Benvenuto Cellini moves to Rome at the age of 19.

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1520s

1 year later

After the death of Raphael in 1520, Giulio Romano helped complete the Vatican frescoes of the life of Constantine as well as Raphael's Coronation of the Virgin and the Transfiguration in the Vatican.

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Giulio Romano (1499-1546), aged 21: draughtstman; architect; painter

1523

January 14

on Sunday

3 years, 14 days later

Fined for sodomy

Benvenuto Cellini is sentenced to pay 12 staia of flour for relations with a boy named Domenico di ser Giuliano da Ripa.

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The moon was waning crescent that night.

1527

May

4 years, 3 months, 18 days later

Cellini wounds the Prince of Orange

Benvenuto Cellini shoots and injures Philibert of Châlon, prince of Orange during the Sack of Rome.

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1527

May 6

on Friday

5 days later

Cellini shoots the Duke of Bourbon

Benvenuto Cellini kills Charles III, Duke of Bourbon during the Sack of Rome.

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The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1527

Late

26 days later

Benvenuto Cellini returns to Florence.

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1528

7 months, 4 days later

Michelangelo praises Benvenuto Cellini

A Sienese gentleman had commissioned Cellini to make him a golden medal, to be worn in the hat. "The subject was to be Hercules wrenching the lion's mouth. While I was working at this piece, Michel Agnolo Buonarroti came oftentimes to see it. I had spent infinite pains upon the design, so that the attitude of the figure and the fierce passion of the beast were executed in quite a different style from that of any other craftsman who had hitherto attempted such groups. This, together with the fact that the special branch of art was totally unknown to Michel Agnolo, made the divine master give such praises to my work that I felt incredibly inspired for further effort. "Just then I met with Federigo Ginori, a young man of very lofty spirit. He had lived some years in Naples and being endowed with great charms of person and presence, had been the lover of a Neopolitan princess. He wanted to have a medal made with Atlas bearing the world upon his shoulders, and applied to Michel Agnolo for a design. Michel Agnolo made this answer: 'Go and find out a young goldsmith named Benvenuto; he will serve you admirably, and certainly he does not stand in need of sketches by me. However, to prevent your thinking that I want to save myself the trouble of so slight a matter, I will gladly sketch you something; but meanwhile speak to Benvenuto and let him also make a model; he can then execute the better of the two designs.' Federigo Ginori came to me and told me that he wanted, adding thereto how Michel Agnolo had praised me, and how he had suggested I should make a waxen model while he undertook to supply a sketch. The words of that great man so heartened me, that I set myself to work at once with eagerness upon the model; and when I had finished it, a painter who was intimate with Michel Agnolo, called Giuliano Bugiardini, brought me the drawing of Atlas. On the same occasion I showed Giuliano my little model in wax, which was very different from Michel Agnolo's drawing; and Federigo, in concert with Bugiardini, agreed that I should work upon my model. So I took it in hand, and when Michel Agnolo saw it, he praised me to the skies."

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Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.259-261

1529

1 year, 1 day later

Cellini avenges the death of his brother

Cecchino Cellini kills a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn is wounded by an arquebusier (rifleman), later dying of his wound. His brother, Benvenuto Cellini, kills his killer, then flees to Naples to escape the consequences of an affray with a notary, Ser Benedetto, whom he had wounded.

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1530

April 2

on Wednesday

1 year, 3 months, 1 day later

Cellini meets Clement VII

Jacopo della Barca conducts Benvenuto Cellini to an audience with Clement VII. The Pope is indisposed in bed with an illness, attended by Jacopo Salviati and the Archbishop of Capua. Benvenuto asks for absolution for a theft he had committed during the Sack of Rome, when he stole some grains of gold worth a hundred and fifty ducats, in recompense for moneys that were not paid him for work he had carried out on behalf of the Pope. The Pope gives his absolution.

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The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1531

9 months, 4 days later

Cellini directs the fusiliers at the Castel Sant'Angelo to fire their cannons at the Duke of Orange during the Sack of Rome, and wounds him.

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1534

3 years, 1 day later

Cellini kills Pompeo

Benvenuto Cellini kills Pompeo of Milan, a rival goldsmith.

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1537

3 years, 1 day later

Cellini is imprisoned at Castel Sant Angelo

Upon returning from a visit to the French court, Benvenuto Cellini is imprisoned on a charge (apparently false) of having embezzled the gems of the pope's tiara during the war. He is confined to the Castel Sant'Angelo, escapes, is recaptured, and treated with great severity; he is in daily expectation of death on the scaffold. The intercession of Pier Luigi's wife, and especially that of the Cardinal d'Este of Ferrara, eventually secures Cellini's release, in gratitude for which he gives d'Este a splendid cup.

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1548

11 years, 2 days later

In Florence, Benvenuto Cellini is accused by a woman named Margherita, for having certain familiarities with her son, Vincenzo.

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1550s

2 years, 1 day later

Passage on Giulio Romano's work in Mantua.

When Charles V came to Mantua, Giulio, by the duke's order, made many fine arches, scenes for comedies and other things, in which he had no peer, no one being like him for masquerades, and making curious costumes for jousts, feasts, tournaments, which excited great wonder in the emperor and in all present. For the city of Mantua at various times he designed temples, chapels, houses, gardens, facades, and was so fond of decorating them that, by his industry, he rendered dry, healthy and pleasant places previously miry, full of stagnant water,and almost uninhabitable.

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1556

February 26

on Sunday

6 years, 1 month, 27 days later

Cellini's apprentice Fernando di Giovanni di Montepulciano accuses his mentor of having sodomised him many times. This time the penalty was a hefty fifty golden scudi fine, and four years of prison, remitted to four years of house arrest thanks to the intercession of the Medicis.

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The moon was a full moon that night.

1558

1 year, 10 months, 10 days later

Benvenuto Cellini begins to write his Autobiography.

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1562

4 years, 1 day later

Benvenuto Cellini marries a servant, Piera Parigi.

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1563

1 year later

Benvenuto Cellini travels to Pisa for the last time.

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1571

May 13

on Thursday

8 years, 4 months, 14 days later

Benvenuto Cellini dies in Florence and is buried with great pomp in the church of the Santissima Annunziata.

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The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1846

274 years, 10 months later

The Cock Fight

Jean-Léon Gérôme paints The Cock Fight.

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1846

Prix de Rome attempt

Jean-Léon Gérôme tries to enter the prestigious Prix de Rome, but fails in the final stage because his figure drawing is inadequate.

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1847

1 year later

Success at the Salon of 1847

Jean-Léon Gérôme sends The Cock Fight to the The Salon of 1847, where it gains him a third-class medal.

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1850s

Late

3 years, 5 months, 2 days later

By now William Bouguereau has made strong connections with art dealers, particularly Paul Durand-Ruel (later the champion of the Impressionists), who helped clients buy paintings from artists who exhibited at the Salons.

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1855

4 years, 7 months, 5 days later

Frederic Leighton lives in Paris.

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1855

Frederick Leighton's Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna is shown at the Royal Academy exhibition, where concerns about its size are expressed by the Hanging Committee.

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1857

2 years, 1 day later

Frederic Leighton makes his first trip to Africa, visiting Algeria.

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1860

3 years later

Frederic Leighton moves to London.

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1860

October 5

on Friday

9 months, 8 days later

Frederic Leighton enrols with the first group to join the 38th Middlesex (Artists) Rifle volunteers (later to be known as The Artists Rifles).

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The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1860

December 12

on Wednesday

2 months, 8 days later

Frederic Leighton writes to his mother: "though Ruskin stayed about three hours and was altogether very pleasant, he did not say anything that I could quote about my paintings. He was immensely struck by my drawing of a lemon-tree, and was generally complementary, or rather, respectful, that is more his genre." ('Life, Letters and Work of Frederic Leighton', p55-6)

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The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

John Ruskin (1819-1900), aged 41: poet; draughtstman; art critic

1861

20 days later

Frederic Leighton designs Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb for Robert Browning in the English Cemetery, Florence.

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1864

3 years later

Frederic Leighton purchases a plot of land near Holland Park and begins work on his house.

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1864

Frederic Leighton becomes an Associate of the Royal Academy.

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1868

4 years, 1 day later

Frederic Leightonbecomes a Royal Academy Academician.

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1868

Frederic Leighton makes a further visit to Egypt, followed by a tour of the country in the company of Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-1894) the originator, and the prime mover in the construction of the Suez Canal.

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1869

1 year, 1 day later

Frederic Leighton is promoted to Major in The Artist's Rifles.

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1869

January 6

on Wednesday

5 days later

Captain Leighton is elected to command The Artists Rifles by a general meeting of the Corps.

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The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1873

3 years, 12 months, 1 day later

Frederic Leighton again travels to Egypt.

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1874

1 year later

When Lord Leighton took over the Royal Academy it was a tumultuous period as they had been evicted from their former residence in Trafalgar Square and they were moving into their new one in London. The old Royal Academy was in the process of becoming the one we know today.

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Source: Primary

From a conversation

1875

1 year later

Frederic Leighton is promoted Lieutenant Colonel of The Artist's Rifles.

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1876

1 year later

William Bouguereau becomes a Life Member of the French Academy.

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1877

1 year, 1 day later

The Arab Hall of the house of Frederic Leighton is constructed. It is inspired by a twelfth century Arab-Norman palace called La Zisa in Palermo, Sicily.

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1878

1 year later

Frederic Leighton is made a Knight Bachelor.

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1878

Frederic Leighton is made an Officer of the Légion d'honneur.

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1878

Frederic Leighton is elected President of the Royal Academy.

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1885

7 years, 2 days later

William Bouguereau is awarded the Commander of the Legion of Honor and Grand Medal of Honor.

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Agents

William Bouguereau (1825-1905), aged 60: painter; draughtstman; man

1886

1 year later

Frederic Leighton is created a baronet in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom.

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1889

3 years, 1 day later

Frederic Leighton is made an Associate member of the Institute of France.

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1896

January 24

on Friday

7 years, 24 days later

Frederic Leighton is created a baron in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1896

February 3

on Monday

10 days later

The funeral of Frederic Leighton is held. His coffin is carried into St Paul's Cathedral, past a guard of honour formed by The Artists Rifles.

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The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1905

Spring

8 years, 11 months, 4 days later

William Bouguereau's house and studio in Paris are burgled.

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Agents

William Bouguereau (1825-1905), aged 80: painter; draughtstman; man

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