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Cardinal

1443

December 5

on Tuesday

Giuliano della Rovere is born in Albisola.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Albisola was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1460s

16 years, 1 month, 1 day later

Giuliano della Rovere serves as altar boy to Pope Sixtus IV.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 17: pope; cardinal
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 46: pope

1471

11 years, 3 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1471

December 15

on Friday

11 months, 18 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro In Vincoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in San Pietro In Vincoli was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1472

17 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Lausanne.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 29: pope; cardinal

1473

1 year, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Catania.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 30: pope; cardinal

1476

3 years later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1476

April 26

on Wednesday

3 months, 26 days later

At about 15 in the forenoon (11 a.m.) in Santa Maria del Fiore, whilst high mass was being celebrated and the Host elevated, Giuliano, son of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and Francesco Nori were killed, near the choir of the said church towards the door which goes to the Servi; and Lorenzo de' Medici was wounded in the neck, and fled into the sacristy and escaped. They were killed in consequence of a certain conspiracy made by Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Franceschino de' Pazzi and Guglielmo de' Pazzi, the which Guglielma was he brother-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici, his wife being a sister of theirs, called Bianca. And the sons of Messer Piero de' Pazzi were also there, that is, Andrea and Renato and Niccolo; and of the house of Salviati, there were Francesco, Bishop of Pisa, and Jacopo Salviati, who was son-in-law to Filippo Tornabuoni, and another Jacopo also a Salviati, and Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, Bracciolini and Bernardo Bandini of the house of Baroncegli, and Amerigo Corsi, and many others. The conspirators brought Cardinal di San Giorgio(1) here, who was a young man; he entered Florence on the day above-mentioned, and they all came together in Santa Maria del Fiore, and, as I have said, at the elevation of the Host seized their swords, and it is said that Francesco de' Pazzi struck Giuliano, and Bandini the other. And having killed Giuliano they wanted to kill Lorenzo, but did not succeed, as he fled into the sacristy. Meantime the Bishop de' Salviati, with Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, and two of his relatives who were both called Jacopo, went to the Palagio, with several priests, feigning to desire to speak to the Signoria, and they spoke to the Gonfaloniere, and became somewhat confused. The Gonfaloniere perceived the treachery, and he and his companions shut themslves up here and there, and ordered the doors to be closed, and the bell run for a parlamento. And what with the rumour which came from Santa Maria del Fiore of Giuliano's death and the bell ringing at the Palagio, the city was immediately in arms. And Lorenzo de' Medici was taken to his house. Meantime Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi rushed on horseback to the Piazza de' Signori, crying "Popolo e liberta!" (The People and Liberty!), wishing to take the Palagio, but the bishop not having succeeded in getting possession of it, Messer Jacopo was not able to enter. He then went towards his own house, and was advised to take to flight; and he fled by the Porta all Croce, together with many men-at-arms, in the Piazza and at Lorenzo de' Medici's house. And numbers of men on the side of the conspirators were killed in the Piazza; amongst others a priest of the bishop's was killed there, his body being quartered and the head cut off, and then the head was stuck on the top of a lance, and carried about Florence the whole day, and one quarter of his body was carried on a spit all through the city, with the cry of: "Death to the traitors!" That same evening the cardinal was taken to the Palagio, barely escaping with his life, all his companions being captured without exception.

And the bishop remained in the Palagio with all the rest. And that evening they hung Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, from the windows of the Palagio de' Signori, and likewise the Bishop of Pisa, and Franceschino de' Pazzi, naked; and about twenty men besides, some at the Palagio de' Signori, and others at the Palagio dell Podesta and at the Casa del Capitano, all at the windows.

The next day (the 27th) they hung Jacopo Salviati, son-in-law of Filippo Tornabuoni, and the other Jacopo, also at the windows, and many others of the households of the cardinals and of the bishop. And the day after that (the 28th April, 1478), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi was captured at Belforte. And that evening of the 28th, about 23 in the evening (7 p.m.), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Renato de' Pazzi were hung at the windows of the Palagio de'' Signori, above the ringhiera(2); and so many of their men with them, that during these three days the number of those killed amounted to more than seventy. The cardinal remained a prisoner of the Palagio, and no harm was done him, except that he was made to write to the Holy Father, with his own hand, all that had happened. And the same day the prisoners in the Stinche(3) managed to break open the prison, and all escaped - with the exception of one unfortunate man who was captured and hung.

(1) Rafaello Riario.

(2) The ringhiera was the platform consisting in three steps and railing, which used to be round the Palagio (Palazzo Vecchio) on the front and on the north. It was used for haranguing the people and was only demolished in 1812, when the present steps and platform replaced it. (Trans.)

(3) The Stinche were the old prisons, which formed a large rectangular mass between the Via del Diluvio (now Via del Fosso), the Via del Palagio (now Via Ghibellina), the Via del Mercatino, and the Via de' Lavatoi. The exterior walls were extremely high, and windowless. The name was derived from that of a fortress which had rebelled against Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and which the Florentines retook, bringing the prisoners back as a trophy. Originally intended for traitors and revels, these prisons were used afterwards for various purposes, even for madmen; whilst later on debtors and bankrupts were confined there, and others with life-sentences. In 1835, under the Grand-duke Leopold, it was decreed that they should be sold, and shops and houses were built on the area; also the large hall, called Filamonica, and riding-school, afterwards replaced by the Pagliani theatre, now called the Verdi. (Trans.)

Attachments
Bianca de' Medici is traditionally presumed to be the woman in the centre
Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici by Botticelli
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio
The skull of Giuliano de' Medici, fractured from the blade that killed him
The Stinche, or old prisons of Florence, as shown in an engraving

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1478

1 year, 8 months, 10 days later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Mende.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 35: pope; cardinal

1478

June 5

on Wednesday

5 months, 5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was set free.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

June 7

on Friday

2 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

June 12

on Wednesday

5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) left Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1480

1 year, 6 months, 23 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is sent as legate to the Netherlands and France to settle the quarrel concerning the Burgundian inheritance between Louis XI and Maximilian of Austria, to obtain the help of France against the Turks, and to effect the liberation of Cardinal Balue whom Louis had held in strict custody since 1469 on account of treasonable acts.

Attachments
Giuliano della Rovere, as cardinal (left), with uncle and patron Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV (right)
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1519)
"Louis XI visiting the Cardinal La Balue", by Jean-Leon Gerome

Astronomical Events

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 21: king
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 37: pope; cardinal
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 59: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 57: king

1482

December 24

on Sunday

2 years, 11 months, 28 days later

The Cardinal of Mantua, papal legate, came to Florence on his way to Ferrara. He was received with all due honour.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

Winter

Cardinal della Rovere returns to Rome with Cardinal Balue, who he has liberated from the custody of Louis XI.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 39: pope; cardinal
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 61: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 59: king

1483

9 months, 5 days later

Cardinal della Rovere's mistress gives birth their illegitimate daughter, Felice della Rovere.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 40: pope; cardinal

1483

October 23

on Tuesday

9 months, 25 days later

A cardinal-legate came to Florence, who was going to the King of France as ambassador, to confirm to him his father's crown. And this cardinal chanced to be the very man whom the last King of France(1) had kept for many years in prison, in a cage.

(1) Louis XI. The name of the cardinal was Jean Balue, whom Louis XI. had persuaded Pope Paul II. to make a cardinal; and later, for political reasons, he had imprisoned him in an iron cage, from which he was liberated in 1481 through the intercession of Pope Sixtus IV. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 69: pope
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 62: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 60: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1484

2 months, 10 days later

Cardinal della Rovere protects the Colonna family against the cruel persecutions of Cardinal Girolamo Riario.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 41: pope; cardinal

1492

8 years, 2 days later

Cardinal della Rovere, jealous and angry over Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's election to pope, accuses Borgia of being elected over him by means of simony and a secret agreement with Ascanio Sforza.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 49: pope; cardinal
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 61: pope

1495

February 5

on Tuesday

3 years, 1 month, 6 days later

5th February. The French Cardinal Sammalò,(1) who had just been made cardinal by the Pope, entered Florence. He had come here with the King of France as a bishop; and now he was returning to France. He had many horsemen with him. He was lodged in Santa Maria Novella in the papal apartments. All this time it was said that the King of France was in a bad situation, and there was cause for fear.

(1) Guillaume Briconnet, Bishop of Saint-Malo. From the 25th January, the Pisan ambassadors had written that the Reverandissimo of Saint-Malo, a man, they said, "of great intellect and authority," was going to be sent to Florence by the King of France, not on his way to France, but to remain in Tuscany or the neighbourhood, in order to preserve peace during the stay of the king in the kingdom of Naples; and in case of his going to Pisa begged the Signori to receive him and his suite with honour, "going to meet him outside, and with as many men" as was possible. He had left Rome the morning of the 27th January (Lettere, quoted i. 38).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

February 6

on Wednesday

1 day later

6th February. Costly presents were sent to him (i.e. to the cardinal).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1495

February 8

on Friday

2 days later

8th February. The Signoria went to visit him, and later, after having dined, sent eight(1) of the chief citizens to hear what he desired. And he asked for the money which had been promised to the king, and the loan of 40 thousand florins besides.

(1) Ammirato and the documents published in vol. i. of the Negotiations diplomatiques de la France avec la Toscane give five, and the names are as follows: Guidantonio Vespucci, Tanai de' Nerli, Guglielmo de' Pazzi, Francesco Valori, and Lorenzo de' Medici, who had changed his family name, taking that of Popolani.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1495

February 11

on Monday

3 days later

11th February. There were negotiations with the cardinal concerning giving Pisa over to us, and he wanted 70 thousand florins.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

February 17

on Sunday

6 days later

17th February. The Cardinal Sa' Malò left here, and went to Pisa in order to give it over to us. And some of our citizens went with him, amongst others Francesco Valori and Pagolantonio Soderini.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

February 24

on Sunday

7 days later

24th February. The Cardinal di Sa' Malo returned from Pisa without giving it over to us. And it was said that we should have to take it by assault. It was also said that the king had a hand in it, for he held both the new and the old citadels.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1495

February 26

on Tuesday

2 days later

26th February. A great procession was made, and the cardinal joined in it, and it took place three days running.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1495

February 27

on Wednesday

1 day later

27th February. The Cardinal Sa' Malò left here, who had come to deliver Pisa over to us, and had not done so; but he carried away with him 22 thousand florins, and returned to the king at Naples.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1496

July 2

on Thursday

1 year, 4 months, 6 days later

From Rome. Christus. On the 2nd day of July, 1496.

Magnificent Lorenzo, etc., — I write this merely to inform you that on Saturday last we arrived here in safety, and went immediately to visit the Cardinal di San Giorgio, to whom I presented your letter. I believe he was glad at my arrival, and he straightway expressed a desire that I would go and inspect certain statues, which detained me for the remainder of that day, so that I was unable to deliver your other letters. On the Sunday the Cardinal went to his new house(1) and there caused me to be summoned. I went to him accordingly, and he asked my opinion of the statues I had seen. I told him what I thought ; and certainly I consider that some of them are very beautiful. He then asked me if I had sufficient courage to undertake a beautiful work on my own account. I replied that I should not be able to produce any work equal to those I had been shown, but that I was willing he should see for himself what I could do. We have bought a piece of marble sufficiently large for a life-size figure, and on Monday I shall begin to work upon it.

Last Monday I delivered your other letters to Pagolo Rucellai,(2) who offered to place the money at my disposal, and to Cavalcanti. Afterwards I gave the letter to Baldassarre, and asked him to give me back the Cupid (banbino), saying that I was willing to refund the money. But he answered me only with rough words, saying he would rather break it into a hundred pieces : he had bought the banbino he said, and it was therefore his: he had letters from the person to whom he sold it showing that its new owner was well satisfied with his bargain : and he did not think he would be compelled to return it. He complained bitterly of you, saying you had spoken ill of him.

Some of our Florentines took the matter up, hoping to get it settled, but they were unable to do anything. I am now hoping to arrange the matter through the medium of the Cardinal's good offices, for so I have been advised to proceed by Baldassarre Balducci.(3) I will keep you informed as to how the business proceeds. I have nothing more to add. I commend myself to you. May God guard you from evil.

MICHELAGNIOLO, in Rome.

(1) The Palazzo della Cancelleria.

(2) Paolo di Pandolfo Rucellai, who died in 1509. The Baldassare mentioned in the letter is Baldassare del Milanese, the vendor of the Cupid, already referred to.

(3) A Florentine engaged in the banking house of Iacopo Gallo, the latter a Roman. Both were on terms of considerable intimacy with Michelangelo,

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", p. 2-4

1497

July 1

on Thursday

12 months, 4 days later

Domino Lodovico Buonarroti in Florence.

In the name of God, this First day of July, 1497.

Most Revered and Dear Father, — You must not be surprised that I have not yet returned to you, for I have failed in all my attempts to settle my business with the Cardinal, and I have no wish to leave Rome until I have received satisfaction and have been paid for my work. With these exalted personages one has to go slowly, for they cannot be forced into action. I believe, however, that the end of the coming week will certainly see all my affairs arranged.

I must tell you that Fra Lionardo(1) has returned here to Rome, and says he was obliged to flee from Viterbo and that his frock has been taken away from him. He wished to return to you: wherefore I gave him a gold ducat for his journey, which he asked of me. I think you must already know of this, for by now he ought to be with you.

I know of nothing else I have to tell you, for I am surrounded by uncertainties and know not as yet which way matters will turn : but I hope soon to be with you once more. I am well, and trust that you are the same. Commend me to my friends.

MICHELAGNIOLO, Sculptor, in Rome.

(1) Lionardo Buonarroti, already mentioned as having entered Savonarola's order of Dominicans.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", p. 6-7

1498

August 7

on Sunday

1 year, 1 month, 7 days later

The contract between Michelangelo and the Cardinal di San Dionisio for the Pieta.(1)

Die VII mensis augusti, 1498.

Be it known and manifest to all who shall read this present writing that the Most Reverend Cardinal di San Dionisio has agreed with Maestro Michelangelo, statuary of Florence, that the said Maestro shall at his own proper costs make a Pieta of marble ; that is to say, a draped figure of the Virgin Mary with the dead Christ in her arms, the figures being life-size, for the sum of four hundred and fifty gold ducats in papal gold (in oro papali), to be finished within the term of one year from the beginning of the work. And the said Most Reverend Cardinal promises to pay the money in the manner following: that is to say, imprimis he promises to pay the sum of one hundred and fifty gold ducats in papal gold before ever the work shall be begun, and thereafter while the work is in progress he promises to pay to the aforesaid Michelangelo one hundred ducats of the same value every four months, in such wise that the whole of the said sum of four hundred and fifty gold ducats in papal gold shall be paid within a twelvemonth, provided that the work shall be finished within that period: and if it shall be finished before the stipulated term his Most Reverend Lordship shall be called upon to pay the whole of the sum outstanding.

And I, Iacopo Gallo, do promise the Most Reverend Monsignore, that the said Michelangelo will complete the said work within one year, and that it shall be more beautiful than any work in marble to be seen in Rome to-day, and such that no master of our own time shall be able to produce a better. And I do promise the aforesaid Michelangelo on the other hand, that the Most Reverend Cardinal will observe the conditions of payment as herein set forth in writing. And in token of good faith I, lacopo Gallo, have drawn up the present agreement with my own hand the year month and day aforesaid. Furthermore be it understood that all previous agreements between the parties drawn up by my hand, or rather, by the hand of the aforesaid Michelangelo are by this present declared null and void, and only this present agreement shall have effect.

The said Most Reverend Cardinal gave to me, Iacopo Gallo, one hundred gold ducats of the chamber in gold (ducati d'oro in oro di Camera) some time ago, and on the aforesaid day as above set forth I received from him a further sum of fifty gold ducats in Papal gold.

Ita est IOANNES, CARDINALIS S. DYONISII. Idem Iacobus Gallus, manu proprio.

(1) This Madonna della Pieta was carved for Jean de la Groslaye, Cardinal di San Dionigi, and seems to have been contemplated, though not actually begun, some months before the drawing up of the final contract under which the work was executed.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", Constable & Company Ltd, 1913: p. 10-12

1502

3 years, 4 months, 27 days later

An anecdote from Luca Pacioli's De viribus quantitatis relates an incident with Leonardo da Vinci in his capacity as military engineer on campaign with Cesare Borgia.

One day Cesare Valentino, Duke of Romagna and present Lord of Piombino, found himself and his army at a river which was 24 paces wide, and could find no bridge, nor any material to make one except for a stack of wood all cut to a length of 16 paces. And from this wood, using neither iron nor rope nor any other construction, his noble engineer made a bridge sufficiently strong for the army to pass over.

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Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Charles Nicholl; Nicholl, Charles. "Leonardo da Vinci. Flights of the Mind." E-book, p. 602.

1502

In Cesena, Leonardo da Vinci begins work as senior military architect and general engineer for Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI.

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Astronomical Events

1502

Leonardo da Vinci creates a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage.

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Astronomical Events

1502

Leonardo da Vinci gifts to his pupil Salai a precious garment given to him by Cesare Borgia.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke
Giocomo Salai (1480-1524), aged 22: painter

Source: Primary

Pedretti, Carlo. "Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style", p.142.

1502

June 26

on Thursday

5 months, 26 days later

Extract from a dispatch of Machiavelli to the Signoria of Florence concerning Cesare Borgia:

This Duke is so enterprising that nothing is too great to be discounted by him. For the sake of glory and the enlarging of his dominions, he deprives himself of rest, yielding to no fatigue, no danger. He arrives in one place before anyone knows he has left the other, he gains the good will of his soldiers, he attracts to him the best men in Italy, and he has constant good luck. For all these reasons he is victorious and formidable.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke
Machiavelli (1469-1527), aged 33: historian

Source: Primary

Machiavelli; "Leonardo da Vinci. The Flights of the Mind"; E-book, p. 595.

1502

August 18

on Monday

1 month, 23 days later

Passport drawn up in Pavia granting Leonardo da Vinci free access to the dominions of Cesare Borgia as his chief military architect:

Cesare Borgia of France, by the grace of God Duke of Romagna and Valence, Prince of the Adriatic, Lord of Piombino etc., also Gonfalonier and Captain General of the Holy Roman Church: to all our lieutenants, castellans, captains, condottieri, officials, soldiers and subjects to whom this notice is presented. We order and command that the bearer thereof, our most excellent and well-beloved architect and general engineer Leonardo Vinci, who by our commission is to survey the places and fortresses of our states, should be provided with all such assistance as the occasion demands and his judgement deems fit.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pavia was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1502

December 26

on Friday

4 months, 10 days later

Cesare Borgia kills Ramiro D'Orco; this incident is referenced in Machiavelli's The Prince.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Machiavelli (1469-1527), aged 33: historian
Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1502

December 26

on Friday

Extract from a dispatch of Machiavelli to the Signoria of Florence while in the service of Cesare Borgia:

This morning Messer Rimino was found lying in the piazza cut into two pieces; he still lies there, so that everyone has had an opportunity to see him ... The reason for his death is not yet clear, except that such was the pleasure of the Prince, who shows is that he can make and unmake men according to their deserts.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1502

December 31

on Wednesday

5 days later

Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupies Urbino, where he imprisons two potentially treacherous allies, Vitellozzo and Oliveretto; he executes them the next morning.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Urbino was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Cesare Borgia (1475-1507), aged 27: condottiero; cardinal; duke

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1502

1503

November 1

on Sunday

10 months, 5 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elected to the papacy, and is known as Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 60: pope; cardinal

1505

1 year, 2 months, 2 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II, commissioned to create the tomb for the pope, and spends eight months in the quarries of Carrara selecting marble for the tomb.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 62: pope; cardinal

1506

1 year later

Pope Julius II gives his illegitimate daughter, Felice, in marriage to Giovanni Giordano Orsini.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

January 14

on Sunday

13 days later

The classical statue of Laocoön and His Sons is unearthed in Rome. On the recommendation of Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo, Pope Julius II purchases it and places it on public display in the Vatican a month later.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 22

on Monday

8 days later

The Swiss Guard arrives at the Vatican, to serve as permanent ceremonial and palace guards under Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 24

on Wednesday

2 days later

Pope Julius II confirms papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations and approves the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

April 18

on Wednesday

2 months, 24 days later

Pope Julius II lays the cornerstone of the Basilica of St. Peter's.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

14 days later

Michelangelo to Giuliano da Sangallo

Florence, 2 May 1506

To Master Giuliano da Sangallo, Florentine, the Pope's architect in Rome

Giuliano, I learn from your letter that the Pope took my departure very ill, but that His Holiness is ready to pay down the money and do the things whereon we agreed; and that I should return, with no misgivings. As to my departure, it is true that on Saturday in Holy Week I heard the Pope say at table, talking with a jeweller and with the Master of the Ceremonies, that he was resolved not to spend a groat more, either on small stones or on large; the which astonished me mightily. Nevertheless, before leaving, I enquired of him concerning that which I needed for the pursuit of the work. His Holiness replied, that I should return on the Monday: and I did return, on Monday and Tuesday and Wednesday and Thursday, as he saw. At last, on Friday morning, I was sent out, or rather driven away; and then man who sent me away said he knew me, but that such were his orders. (...)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

p22 From Florence, May 2nd, 1506.
To the Florentine Maestro Guliano da San Gallo Architect to the Pope, in Rome.

Guliano (sic), I learn from a letter sent by you that the Pope was angry at my departure, that he is willing to place the money at my disposal and to carry out what was agreed upon between us ; also, that I am to come back and fear nothing. As far as my departure is concerned, the truth is that on Holy Saturday I heard the Pope, speaking at table with a jeweller and the Master of the Ceremonies, say that he did not want to spend another baiocco on stones, whether small or large, which surprised me very much. However, before I set out I asked him for some of the money required for the continuance of my work. His Holiness replied that I was to come back again on Monday: and I went on Monday, and on Tuesday, and on Wednesday, and on Thursday as His Holiness saw. At last, on the Friday morning, I was turned out, that is to say, I was driven away : and the person who turned me away said he knew who I was, but that such were his orders. Thereupon, having heard those words on the Saturday and seeing them afterwards put into execution, I lost all hope. But this alone was not the whole reason of my departure. There was also another cause, but I do not wish to write about it ; enough that it made me think that, if I were to remain in Rome, my own tomb would be prepared before that of the Pope. This is the reason for my sudden departure. Now you write to me on behalf of the Pope, and in similar manner you will read this letter to the Pope. Give His HoHness to understand that I am more eager to proceed with the work than ever I was before, and that if he really wishes to have this tomb erected it would be well for him not to vex me as to where the work is to be done, provided that within the agreed period of five years it be erected in St. Peter's, on the site he shall choose, and that it be a beautiful work, as I have promised : for I am persuaded that it will be a work without an equal in all the world if it be carried out.

p24 If His Holiness now wishes to proceed, let him deposit the said money here in Florence with a person whose name I will communicate to you. I have a quantity of marble in preparation at Carrara, which I will have sent here, and I will do the same with the marble I have in Rome, although it will entail a considerable loss to me : but I should disregard that if by this means I could obtain permission to carry out the work here. From time to time I would despatch the pieces as they are finished, in such a manner that His Holiness would be as well content as if I were working in Rome — more, indeed, because he would see the completed works without having any anxiety. With regard to the aforesaid money and work, I will bind myself in any way His Holiness may direct, and I will furnish whatever security here in Florence he may require. Let it be what it may, I will give him full security, even though it be the whole of Florence. There is yet one thing I have to add : it is this, that the said work could not possibly be done for the price in Rome, but it could be done here because of the many conveniences which are available, such as could not be had in Rome. Moreover, I should do better work and take more interest in it, because I should not have to think about a number of other things. However, Guliano mio carissimo I beg of you to let me have an answer, and quickly. I have nothing further to add. This 2nd day of May, 1506.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

November 6

on Tuesday

6 months, 8 days later

Pope Julius II personally leads his troops into Bologna, retaking the city from the excommunicated tyrant Giovanni II Bentivoglio.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1507

January 22

on Tuesday

2 months, 17 days later

p27 From Bologna, January 22nd, 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, opposite to the Apothecary, della Palla, near the Porta Rossa.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee, from which I learn that Lodovico has arranged with Francesco about Mona Zanobia's farm. Thou tellest me also that Giovansimone has begun to attend the same shop as thyself, and that he wants to come here to Bolognia. I have not replied before because I have not had time until to-day. With regard to the above-mentioned farm, thou sayest that Lodovico has entered into an agreement, and that he is going to write to me on the subject. Please understand that if he has written to me I have never received any letter which deals with the matter please tell him this, therefore, so that he may not p28 be surprised at receiving no reply to his letter, if he has written one.

I will tell thee my views about Giovansimone, so that thou mayest impart them to him on my behalf. I do not wish him to come here before I have cast the figure I have in hand, and for this I have a sufficient reason, though do not ask me what it is. Enough that as soon as I have cast the figure I will see that he shall come here without fail. It will then be less inconvenient, as I shall be released from the expenses which I have now to bear.

I expect that by the middle of Lent my figure will be ready for casting, and I pray God that it may turn out well ; for if it be successful I hope to stand well with this Pope and to receive his favour. If I should cast it at mid-Lent and it should turn out well I hope to be in Florence for the Easter festival, and then I will assuredly do by you as I promised, if ye continue to be diligent.

Tell Piero Aldobrandini that I have entrusted his blade to the best worker in such things I can find, and that he promises to let me have it during the coming week. As soon as I receive it I will send it on, if I consider it satisfactory : if not, I will have another made. Tell him also not to be surprised if I have not served him as quickly as I ought, for I have so little time to spare that I could not do otherwise than I have done.

This twenty-second day of January, 1506.

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1507

February 1

on Friday

10 days later

p32 Bologna, February 1st, 1507. To Buonarroto di Lodovico Simone, in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I learn from thy letters how matters have gone with regard to the small farm : it has given me the greatest satisfaction and I am well pleased, provided it is a sure thing.

I have made careful enquiries about this Baronciello business, and from what I have heard it is a far more serious thing than ye make it out to be : and for my part, seeing that it is unfair, I would not ask it of him. We are all of us under considerable obligation to Baronciello, and we will do our best to fulfil those obligations, especially such as lie in our power. Thou must know that on Friday evening, at the twenty-first hour. Pope Julius came to my house where I am at work, and remained for about half an hour while I was working. Then he gave me his blessing p33 and went away, showing himself well satisfied with what I am doing. For all this it seems to me we ought to thank God very heartily ; and so I beg you to do, and to pray for me.

I have to inform thee further that on Friday morning I sent away Lapo and Lodovico, who were with me. I turned Lapo away because he was conspiringagainst me and is a rogue, and would not do as he was bid. Lodovico is better, and I would have kept him on for another two months ; but Lapo, in order not to be the only one blamed, corrupted him in such a way that both have been sent off. I tell thee this not because I am troubled by them — for they are not worth three quattrini the two together — but so that, if they come to talk to Lodovico, he should not be surprised. Tell him on no account to listen to them: if thou desirest to know more go to Messer Agniolo, Herald of the Signoria, for I have sent him a full account of the matter, and he of his kindness will give thee all information.

I note what thou sayest about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter thy master's shop and endeavour to make progress : encourage him to do his best, for if this matter turns out well I have hopes of placing you in a good position, if ye are prudent. With reference to that other land beside Mona Zanobia's, if Lodovico likes it tell him to enquire into the matter and let me know. I believe, and it is said here, that the Pope will go hence about Carnival.

On the first day of February, 1506 (1507).

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO DI BUONARROTA SIMONI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 30
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 64: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; p. 32-3

1507

February 8

on Friday

7 days later

p34 From Bologna. To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrotta Simoni, in Florence. The 8th day of February, 1506 (1507).

Most Revered Father, — I have to-day received a letter from you, from which I learn that Lapo and Lodovico have been talking to you. I am content that you should rebuke me, because I deserve to be rebuked as a wretch and a transgressor quite as much as anyone else, and perhaps more. But you must understand that I have not transgressed in any wise in the matter for which you rebuke me, either against them or against anyone else, unless it be that I have done more than I ought. All the men with whom I have ever had dealings know very well what I give them ; and if anyone knows it, Lapo and Lodovico are the two who know it best of all, for in a month and a half one of them has had twenty-seven broad ducats and the other eighteen broad ducats, each with their expenses. Therefore I beg of you not to be carried away by their story. When they complained about me you ought to have asked how long they were with me and how much they had received from me then you would have had to ask them what cause they had for complaint. But the reason of their great anger, particularly of that rascal Lapo, is this they had given it out on all sides that they were the men who were doing this work, or rather, that they were in partnership with me ; and they never realised — Lapo in particular — that he was not the master until I sent him off. Only then did he understand that he was in my service ; and having already given p35 a great deal of trouble and caused the Pope's favour to show signs of declining, it appeared a strange thing to him that I should drive him away like a beast. I am sorry that he should still have seven ducats of mine, but when I return to Florence he shall most assuredly pay me back, though if he has any conscience he would also feel obliged to give me back the other money he has received. But enough. I shall say no more about it as I have written a sufficiently full account of their performances to Messer Agniolo (the Herald). I beg you to go to him, and if you can take Granaccio with you, do so, and let him read the letter I have written so that he may understand what abject creatures they are. But I beg of you to keep silent as to what I have written about Lodovico, for if I cannot find anyone else to come here and cast the metal I shall endeavour to get him back, because as a matter of fact I have not dismissed him ; only Lapo, who received more blame than he cared to support alone, lightened his own load by corrupting Lodovico. You will learn the whole matter from the Herald, and also how you are to act. Do not have any dealings with Lapo, for he is too great a scoundrel, and we have nothing to do with either of them.

With reference to Giovansimone, it does not seem to me advisable that he should come here, as the Pope is leaving during Carnival ; I believe he will visit Florence on the way, and he does not leave affairs here in good order. According to rumour, there is a want of confidence prevalent here which it is wise neither to inquire into nor to write about : but enough that, even if nothing were to happen — and I believe p36 nothing will — I do not want to have the care of brothers on my shoulders. Do not be surprised at this and do not breathe a word of it to anyone, because I have need of assistants, and I should find none willing to come if this were known. And besides, I still think things may turn out well. I shall soon be back in Florence and I will behave in such a manner as to satisfy Giovansimone and the others, if it please God ! To-morrow I will write you another letter with reference to certain moneys I wish to send to Florence, telling you what to do with them. I understand about Piero ; he will answer on my behalf, for he is a good fellow, as he has always been.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

P.S. I have something else to add in reply to the curious behaviour Lapo attributes to me. I want to tell you one thing, and it is this. I bought seven hundred and twenty pounds of wax, and before I bought it I told Lapo to find out where it could be got, and to settle the price, saying that I would give him the money so that he could buy it. Lapo went, and came back again, and told me that it could not be got for a farthing less than nine broad ducats and twenty bolognini the hundred (pounds), which is equal to nine ducats forty soldi. He added that I ought to take the opportunity without delay because I had been very fortunate. I replied that he was to go and find out whether he could get the odd forty soldi per hundred knocked off and that I would then buy it. He answered that the Bolognesi were of such a nature that they would not abate one farthing of the price p37 they had asked. This raised my suspicions, and I let the matter drop. Later in the same day I called Piero aside and told him secretly to go and ask the price of the wax per hundred. Piero went to the same man as Lapo and bargained with him for eight and a half ducats, to which price I agreed, and afterwards I sent Piero to receive his commission, and he got that also. This is one of my strange performances. Of a truth I know it seemed strange to him that I was able to see through his deceit. It was not enough for him to receive eight broad ducats a month and his expenses, but in addition he tried to swindle me ; and he may have swindled me on many occasions of which I know nothing, for I trusted him. I have never met a man who appeared more honest, so I suppose his straightforward look must have misled many another person. Therefore do not trust him in anything, and pretend not to see him.

Notes

The Francesco Granaccio mentioned here was a painter and a fellow-student with Michelangelo in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied also with Michelangelo in the Medici Garden at San Marco.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 24

on Sunday

16 days later

p38 From Bologna, February 24th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — It is already fifteen days since I sent certain moneys to Lodovico in Florence with certain instructions, and I have never had a reply. I am much surprised at it. Tell Lodovico, therefore, to let me know if he has received them, and if he has done as I asked ; tell him to let me know without fail, because I am annoyed about it and marvel at his want of perception. He is the sort of man that one would entrust with important business again ! I should have expected him to write a hundred letters, to make sure that at least one should reach me. See to it that he informs me without fail as to what steps he has taken and that the letter is sent in such a way as to reach me.

Yesterday I sent to see if Piero's dagger was finished and found that it had still to be gilt. The man has kept me waiting for a month, but the truth is that he was not able to do otherwise, for owing to the departure of the Court he has had to supply weapons to all the courtiers and has had a very great deal to do. It p39 is for this reason he has kept me waiting. Tell Piero not to be anxious, for in any case he shall have it in a few days. The Pope went away on Monday morning at the sixteenth hour, and if thou desirest to learn in what state he has left my affairs, go to the Herald and he will tell thee. I have no time to write.

The twenty-fourth day of February.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Source: Primary

p.38-9

1507

May 2

on Thursday

2 months, 7 days later

p. 45 From Bologna, May 2nd, (1507).
To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee which gave me much pleasure. Since then I have written thee two letters, and I suppose I have had the same good fortune with respect to them that I usually have, that is to say, I suppose they have not arrived.

I may tell thee that, please God, two months will not pass before I return to Florence : and all that I have promised to do for Buonarroto and for thee I am prepared to carry out. I do not write to thee of my intentions at full length, nor do I say how eager I am to help you, because I am loath that others should get to know of our affairs : be of good cheer, however, for greater — or rather, better — things are in store for thee than thou thinkest. I have no more to tell thee on this head. Thou must know that here everyone is preparing for war, and this is the fourth day that the whole district has been under arms and a prey to rumoured dangers, with which the Church in especial is threatened : the cause of it being the Bentivogli, p46 who have made an attempt to enter the city with a great following of people. The high courage and prudence of his lordship the Legate, however, and the admirable precautions he has taken have, I believe, saved the patrimony from them once more, since at the twenty-third hour this evening we had news from their forces that they were turning back again with small honour to themselves, No more. Pray God for me : and live in happy expectation, because soon I shall be back in Florence.

The 2nd day of May.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

Note

The Bentivogli, sometime lords of Bologna, had been driven out by the Papal forces, and it was as a result of this reoccupation that Julius visited the city, as related in Michelangelo's letters. Shortly after the Pope's departure, however, Annibale Bentivoglio made the attempt to which this letter refers, but was repulsed by the Papal Legate, the Cardinal di Pavia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

8 months, 4 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II and asked to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

May 10

on Sunday

4 months, 10 days later

p. 50

May 10th, 1508 :

"I record that on this tenth day of May, in the year one thousand five hundred and eight, I, Michelagniolo, sculptor, have received from his Holiness, our p.51lord Pope Julius the Second, five hundred ducats of the Camera, which were paid to me by Messer Carlino, Chamberlain, and by Messer Carlo degli Albizzi, on account of the paintings in the vault of the Chapel of Pope Sixtus, on which I begin to work this day, under the conditions and stipulations set forth in the document prepared by His Most Reverend Lordship of Pa(via) and subscribed by my hand.

"For the assistant painters who are to come from Florence, who will be five in number, twenty gold ducats of the Camera each, with this proviso : that is to say, when they have arrived and have entered into an agreement with us, the aforesaid twenty ducats which each will have received shall be reckoned as part of their wages, these wages to be due as from the day of their departure from Florence. And if they shall not enter into an agreement with us, they are to retain one-half of the said sum for the expenses of their journey and for their time."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

December 10

on Thursday

7 months, 4 days later

The League of Cambrai is formed as an alliance against the Republic of Venice between Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

Winter

Raphael is commissioned by Pope Julius II to fresco his private library at the Vatican Palace.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

Winter

Raphael is invited to Rome by the new pope, Julius II, perhaps at the instigation of the papal architect, Bramante. Raphael dwells in Rome until his death.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal
Bramante (1444-1514), aged 64: architect
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet

1509

April 27

on Tuesday

1 year, 26 days later

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

Spring

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

1510

September

1 year, 8 months, 3 days later

King Louis XII convokes a synod of French bishops at Tours, where it is decreed that the pope, Julius II, has no right to make war upon a foreign prince, and, in case he should undertake such a war, the foreign prince had the right to invade the Ecclesiastical States and to withdraw his subjects from their obedience to the pope.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 67: pope; cardinal

1511

January 20

on Friday

4 months, 21 days later

Pope Julius II braves the inclemency of the weather and marches against Mirandola and takes it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Mirandola was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

May 23

on Tuesday

4 months, 3 days later

The French army makes a descent upon Bologna which Pope Julius II had left nine days previously, drive out the papal troops and reinstate the Bentivogli.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 25

on Friday

3 months, 4 days later

Pope Julius II falls dangerously ill and for a time his life is despaired of.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 28

on Monday

3 days later

Pope Julius II recovers from a near mortal illness.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 1

on Friday

4 days later

Some of the cardinals are displeased with the pope's anti-French policy, and five of them go so far as to convoke a schismatic council at Pisa.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 7

on Thursday

6 days later

Pope Julius II condemns the heresy of Piero de Lucca concerning the Incarnation.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

October 4

on Wednesday

27 days later

Pope Julius II forms the so-called Holy League or League of Cambrai, which includes only the pope, the Venetians, and Spain.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

November 17

on Friday

1 month, 14 days later

England joins the Holy League of Pope Julius II and is soon followed by the emperor and by Switzerland.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in England was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1512

April 11

on Thursday

4 months, 26 days later

The French are defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna against Pope Julius II's League of Cambrai and are driven beyond the Alps.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ravenna was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 69: pope; cardinal

1513

February 21

on Friday

10 months, 16 days later

Pope Julius II dies of fever in Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 70: pope; cardinal

1516

2 years, 10 months, 14 days later

While Michelangelo is in Rome a reduced plan for The Tomb of Pope Julius II is adopted by him and the executors of the estate of Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1521

April 9

on Saturday

5 years, 3 months, 10 days later

Michelangelo says that (...) he received money from the Cardinal de' Medici for a journey to Carrara, whither he went and stayed about three weeks, ordering marbles for "the tombs which are to be placed in the new sacristy at S. Lorenzo. And there I made out drawings to scale, and measured models in clay for the said tombs." He left his assistant Scipione of Settignano at Carrara as overseer of the work, and returned to Florence.

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The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington. "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarotti", Modern Library (New York), p. 230

1523

1 year, 8 months, 27 days later

Cardinal Grimani, who was a famous collector of art-objects, wrote Michelangelo begging for some specimen of his craft. Grimani left it open to him "to choose material and subject; painting, bronze, or marble, according to his fancy." Michelangelo must have promised to fulfill the commission, for we have a letter from Grimani thanking him effusively. He ofers to pay fifty ducats at the commencement of the work, and what Michelangelo thinks fit to demand at its conclusion: "for such is the excellence of your ability, that we shall take no thought of money-value." Grimani was Patriarch of Aquileja.

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Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.237

1524

March 24

on Monday

1 year, 2 months, 23 days later

Michelangelo's friend Cardinal Leonardo Grosso writes to him from Rome, on Michelangelo's depression at the course of the suit against him by the heirs of Pope Julius II regarding the incompletion of the Pope's tomb:

I am also told that you have declined your pension, which seems to me mere madness, and that you have thrown the house up, and do not work. Friend and gossip, let me tell you that you have plenty of enemies, who speak their worst; also that the Pope and Pucci and Jacopo Salviati are your friends, and have plighted their troth to you. It is unworthy of you to break your word to them, especially in an affair of honour. Leave the matter of the tomb to those who wish you well, and who are able to set you free without the least encumbrance, and take care you do not come short in the Pope's work. Die first. And take the pension, for they give it with willing heart.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci (1458-1531), aged 66: cardinal
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 46: pope
Jacopo Salviati (1461-1533), aged 63: politician
Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Cardinal Leonardo Grosso; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.242

1527

May 17

on Tuesday

3 years, 1 month, 24 days later

The Medici flee Florence

The Cardinal of Cortona, with the young princes Ippolito and Alessandro de' Medici, flee Florence due to an uprising.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.258

1620

92 years, 8 months, 12 days later

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was commissioned by Scipione Borghese to making the buttoned mattress upon which the Hermaphroditus reclines, and was paid sixty scudi.

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Agents

Scipione Borghese (1577-1633), aged 43: patron; cardinal

1633

13 years, 4 days later

Scipione Borghese dies in Rome and is buried in the Borghese chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore.

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Agents

Scipione Borghese (1577-1633), aged 56: patron; cardinal

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