/>

Pope

979

After the death of Otho II., his son, Otho III., was elected Emperor, and crowned by Pope Gregory V., in the year of Christ 979, and this Otho reigned twenty-four years. After that he was crowned, he went into Apulia on pilgrimage to Mount S. Angelo, and afterwards returned by way of France into Germany, leaving Italy in good and peaceful estate. But when he was returned to Germany, Crescentius, the consul and lord of Rome, drave away the said Gregory from the papacy, and set a Greek therein, which was bishop of Piacenza, and very wise; but when the Emperor Otho heard this he was very wrath, and with his army returned to Italy, and besieged in Rome the said Crescentius and his Pope in the castle of S. Angelo, for therein had they taken refuge; and he took the said castle by siege, and caused Crescentius to be beheaded, and Pope John XVI. to have his eyes put out, and his hands cut off; and he restored his Pope Gregory to his chair, which was his kinsman by race; and leaving Rome and Italy in good estate, he returned to his country of Germany, and there-70- died in prosperity. With the said Otho III. there came into Italy the Marquis Hugh; I take it this must have been the marquis of Brandenburg, forasmuch as there is no other marquisate in Germany. His sojourn in Tuscany liked him so well, and especially our city of Florence, that he caused his wife to come thither, and took up his abode in Florence, as vicar of Otho, the Emperor. It came to pass, as it pleased God, that when he was riding to the chase in the country of Bonsollazzo, he lost sight, in the wood, of all his followers, and came out, as he supposed, at a workshop where iron was wont to be wrought. Here he found men, black and deformed, who, in place of iron, seemed to be tormenting men with fire and with hammer, and he asked what this might be: and they answered and said that these were damned souls, and that to similar pains was condemned the soul of the Marquis Hugh by reason of his worldly life, unless he should repent: who, with great fear, commended himself to the Virgin Mary, and when the vision was ended, he remained so pricked in the spirit, that after his return to Florence, he sold all his patrimony in Germany, and commanded that seven monasteries should be founded: the first was the Badia of Florence, to the honour of S. Mary; the second, that of Bonsollazzo, where he beheld the vision; the third was founded at Arezzo; the fourth at Poggibonizzi; the fifth at the Verruca of Pisa; the sixth at the city of Castello; the last was the one at Settimo; and all these abbeys he richly endowed, and lived afterwards with his wife in holy life, and had no son, and died in the city of Florence, on S. Thomas' Day, in the year of Christ 1006, and was buried with great honour in the Badia of Florence. And whilst the said Hugh was-71- living, he made in Florence many knights of the family of the Giandonati, of the Pulci, of the Nerli, of the counts of Gangalandi, and of the family della Bella, which all for love of him, retained and bore his arms, barry, white and red, with divers charges.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Source: Primary

Villani, Giovanni. Trans. by Rose E. Selfe. "Villani's Chronicle". Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1906: pp 70-1.

1436

March 25

on Friday

457 years, 6 months, 14 days later

The dedication of the cathedral of Florence was celebrated by Pope Eugenius IV and the papal chapel, then resident in Florence. The Pope's magister capellae (master, or leader, of the chapel) was then Guillaume Dufay, a native of the region of Cambrai in northern France.

Attachments

A Dedication by Dufay This isorhythmic motet, "Nuper rosarum flores", was composed by Dufay for the dedication of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Cambrai was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), aged 39: composer

Source: Primary

http://www.slideshare.net/jamesamoore/chapter-15-music-at-the-cathedral-of-florence

1443

December 5

on Tuesday

7 years, 8 months, 16 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is born in Albisola.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Albisola was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1452

June 18

on Friday

8 years, 6 months, 18 days later

Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, legitimising the colonial slave trade.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1452

1460s

7 years, 6 months, 18 days later

Giuliano della Rovere serves as altar boy to Pope Sixtus IV.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 17: pope; cardinal
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 46: pope

1471

11 years, 3 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1471

July 28

on Friday

6 months, 28 days later

We had the news that Pope Pagolo was dead; he died on the 26th, Friday night, a little before dawn.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1471

August 9

on Wednesday

12 days later

Sisto IV. was elected Pope. He was from Savona; a Franciscan monk, and general of the Order; then he had been made cardinal by Pope Pagolo, and now Pope. he was elected on Friday, the even of San Lorenzo, and was crowned on San Sisto's day.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Savona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 57: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 10.

1471

September 23

on Saturday

1 month, 15 days later

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1471

December 15

on Friday

2 months, 23 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro In Vincoli.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in San Pietro In Vincoli was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1472

17 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Lausanne.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 29: pope; cardinal

1473

1 year, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Catania.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 30: pope; cardinal

1473

July 18

on Friday

6 months, 18 days later

We heard that our archbishop, who was one of the Neroni of Florence, had died at Rome; and the archbishopric was given to the Cardinal of San Sisti, called Brother Piero.(1)

(1) Piero Riario, nephew of the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 59: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 11.

1476

2 years, 5 months, 17 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1477

January 15

on Monday

1 year, 15 days later

Pope Sisto nominated several cardinals; one he nominated for the emperor. And he ordered that the feast of San Francesco should be observed like the other feasts which are enjoined.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 63: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1478

11 months, 21 days later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Mende.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 35: pope; cardinal

1478

March 25

on Monday

2 months, 23 days later

The Holy Father gave a plenary indulgence in Santa Maria del Fiore for one day, from vespers on the 24th March till the next vespers, on the 25th March, which people availed themselves of with great devotion. The Cause of this was the preaching of Brother Antonio da Vergiegli in Santa Maria del Fiore during Lent, which bore good fruit.

On this same 25th March, a law was determined upon at the Palagio, which forbade anyone who had killed a man to return to Florence(1).

(1) The provision is of the 16th March, 1478, Old Style, and perhaps the 25th is the day on which it was published. It was made to limit the concession of safe-conducts, and the causes which led to it may be read in the exordium which I have pleasure in publishing as a document which describes the way of thinking at that time. "The high and magnificent Signori having in mind how grave is the sin of homicide, by which man, a creature made and created in the image of God, is destroyed; and seeking the reasons why it is so very frequent under our jurisdiction; find among other things that it is encouraged by the facility of pardon and roper severity not being used in punishing such a detestable and abominable excess, he who commits the homicide being allowed to be continually in the presence of those who have suffered from the offence and of those who desire to live virtuously; none of whom can regard such manslayers without great indignation and perturbation of mind. And although the laws of the Florentine people bitterly avenge and punish such crimes, and give security against them; notwithstanding, whatever may be the reason, either too great humanity (which in reality one ought to call cruelty), or else undisciplined charity, such entirely right and just decrees are not properly observed. And the high Signori and discreet chief citizens wish to remedy these things which are so contrary to honest living and against divine laws, by making the fear of pubishment deter men from committing them, when they are deprived of all hope of pardon, and by adjuring the magistrates not only not to overlook such things, but to enforce the law with severity, hoping firmly that this provision may hav ea good effect" (State Archives of Florence, Consigli maggiori Provv. Reg. ad annum).

The term "Signori e Collegi" used in the decrees meant as follows: the Signori were the eight Priori and the Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, and the Collegi were the sixteen Gonfalonieri della Compagnie and the twelve men (three from each quarter) formerly called the twelve Buonuomini, who were summoned by the Signori to take council on almost every occasion. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1478

April 26

on Friday

1 month, 2 days later

On Easter Sunday, in an incident called the Pazzi conspiracy, a group including members of the Pazzi family, backed by the Archbishop of Pisa and his patron Pope Sixtus IV, attacks Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Florence. Giuliano is killed, but Lorenzo escapes with only a stab wound.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 29: patron; poet; ruler

1478

May 9

on Thursday

13 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

June 7

on Friday

29 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

July 10

on Wednesday

1 month, 3 days later

Another ambassador came from the King of France; he was going to the Pope, and was lodged in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni.

And at this time the horsemen of the Duke of Milan came by the Pisan road, and passed near Poggibonizi, and the troops of the king continued to approach.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 9: duke

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 21

1478

July 13

on Saturday

3 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

18 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 15

on Thursday

15 days later

The French ambassador left; and at this time we lost the Castellina. And Messer Niccolo Vitelozzi(1) was going about sacking certain forts of Citta di Castello, and burning men, women, and children, with every sort of cruetly. After that, Messer Lorenzo of Citta di Castello(2) burnt some of our fortresses in the district of Arezzo, and committed atrocities, burning people. They were both cruel men. Such generally come to a bad end. Godly people, as we read in Holy Scripture, never come to a bad end.

(1) Or rather, Vitelli, ally of the Florentines and of Lorenzo de' Medici.

(2) Lorenzo Giustini, who held that city for the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Città di Castello was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1479

January 10

on Friday

4 months, 28 days later

Four French ambassadors arrived at Florence, two of whom were going to the Pope and two to the King of Naples. They declared to the Signoria here, that they were going to make peace in Italy amongst Christians, and to settle all differences, giving judgement according to reason, and protested that their king would proceed against anyone who hindered peace; if the Pope were the one to be obdurate, he would be summoned to a Council; and when peace had been made, all the powers would undertake a crusade against the Unbelievers. They left on the 16th January.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1479

April 18

on Friday

3 months, 8 days later

The plague had increased to such an extent that I went away to my villa at Dicomano with all my family; leaving my apprentices to attend to the shop.

At this time Count Carlo came to Florence, and was appointed a Capitano, and two separate camps were formed, he going into the Perugian territory and defeating the papal troops, which departed utterly routed. And after this the ducal forces(1) could have been broken up; but through the fault of our Capitano, the Duke of Ferrara, and through the dissensions amongst the citizens, no action was taken, or else the enemy would certainly have been conquered. The Duke of Calabria pitched his camp before Colle. People continually deceive us, and we cannot be victorious, as God punishes us for our sins.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Perugia was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Colle di Buggiano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1480

8 months, 18 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is sent as legate to the Netherlands and France to settle the quarrel concerning the Burgundian inheritance between Louis XI and Maximilian of Austria, to obtain the help of France against the Turks, and to effect the liberation of Cardinal Balue whom Louis had held in strict custody since 1469 on account of treasonable acts.

Attachments
Giuliano della Rovere, as cardinal (left), with uncle and patron Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV (right)
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1519)
"Louis XI visiting the Cardinal La Balue", by Jean-Leon Gerome

Astronomical Events

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 21: king
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 37: pope; cardinal
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 59: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 57: king

1480

March 29

on Monday

2 months, 28 days later

(Ash Wednesday). The Pope sent an aggravatoria(1) forbidding anyone to communicate; but as it was not made public, almost everyone communicated, and was troubled in conscience after it became known.

(1) A kind of excommunication. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1480

April 9

on Friday

11 days later

Two ambassadors were sent to the Pope and to Naples: Messer Antonio Ridolfi and Piero di Lutozzi.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1480

October 27

on Wednesday

6 months, 21 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici sends a delegation of painters to Rome

Cosimo Rosselli leaves Florence for Rome, together with other Florentine painters, where he has been called as part of the reconciliation project between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, and Pope Sixtus IV. The Florentines start to work in the The Sistine Chapel as early as the Spring of 1481, along with Perugino, who is already there.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492), aged 31: patron; poet; ruler
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 66: pope
Perugino (1446-1523), aged 34: painter

1480

November 4

on Thursday

8 days later

Twelve ambassadors were appointed to go to the Pope; and they set out on the 15th November.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 66: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 31

1481

April 13

on Wednesday

5 months, 10 days later

The Pope sent us an Indulgence, to be obtained by attending six churches: Santa Maria del Fiore, the Nunziata dei Servi, Santa Croce, Santa Maria Novella, Santo Spirito, and Sa' Jacopo in Campo Corbolini.(1) And it began on this day and lasted till Easter. Everyone who wished to obtain it had to visit these six churches on three mornings, confessing and doing penance; and had to lend aid, at the said churches, to the forces sent against the Turks.

(1) This church, which was founded in the year 1000, is preceded by a little peristyle closed by wooden gates, as the church is no longer in use. On the capitals of the columns are the arms of the Alberti. In 1206 it passed into the possession of the Knights of Jerusalem, and a good many of their tombs are in the interior. It stands in the Via Faenza, and must not be confounded with either of the two other churches of the same name: San Jacopo tra Fosse, and San Jacopo in Borgo San Jacopo. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1482

March 14

on Tuesday

11 months, 5 days later

A chancellor of Count Girolamo was hung at the windows of the Bargello. He had been captured by one of the Altoviti,(1) who was a proscribed rebel, and in order to be pardoned, found out this man, and caught him between Piombino and Pisa; and he won his pardon.

(1) This must have been the famous Cola Montano, a Bolognese; not a chancellor, but maintained by Count Girolamo Riario, and the Pope, and the King of Naples, and all the enemies of Florence, during the war following the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. That he was taken by one of the Altoviti is not mentioned elsewhere. Brought to Florence, he was put in the prison of the Bargello or Captain of the Piazza dei Signori; where he wrote with his own hand a Confessione, which is preserved in the State Archives of Florence, amongst the Carte Strozziane, still unedited, but well worth publishing, as important contributions to the history of that time. The order of the Signori e Collegi to the Otto di Custodia e Balia, of the 12th March, for the execution of Montano, still exist in the said archives amongst the papers of these magistrates. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Piombino was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1482

March 25

on Saturday

11 days later

Madonna Lucrezia, wife of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and mother of Lorenzo, died on the day of the Annunciation. And at this time the Pope sent us an Indulgence at Santa Maria del Fiore.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1482

April 28

on Friday

1 month, 4 days later

The Duke of Urbino came to Florence, lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and he was received with honour. And on the 29th he left for Milan, to take up his post as Capitano generale, stopping at Ferrara where Signor Roberto was. There they besieged a fort called Ficheruolo till the 1st June.(1)

And in these days the Duke of Calabria on the other hand was besieging Ostia, near Rome; and on the 10th June it was said that he had taken it, but this was not true. He sacked Corneto,(2) however. The Sienese now recalled some of their exiles.

(1) This is not correct; see note to 2nd July.

(2) These are all facts relating to the war which had lately broken out between the Venetians and the Pope on the one hand, and the Florentines, Milan, and Naples on the other. Federigo, Duke of Urbino, was Capitano generale, and Commander of the League against Venice, and Roberto di Sanseverino was in the service of the latter.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ostia was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Corneto was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1482

July 25

on Tuesday

2 months, 28 days later

We heard that the papal troops had defeated the Duke of Calabria, and had taken 300 men-at-arms and 19 leaders; and it was a fact.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1482

September 14

on Thursday

1 month, 21 days later

Roberto il Magnifico(1) died at Rome; he who had been so famous for his victory over the Duke of Calabria near Rome, when he took 300 men-at-arms. These two great captains died with a few days of each other, just when they imagined that they were at the height of their glory. What errors are made by the world! Men incur so many perils in order to slay and kill others, and to obtain a short-lived fame on this earth, not considering what it means to kill a man, and how soon they themselves will have to die and render an account.

(1) Roberto Malatesta, a captain sent by the Venetians to aid the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1482

Winter

Cardinal della Rovere returns to Rome with Cardinal Balue, who he has liberated from the custody of Louis XI.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 61: cardinal
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 39: pope; cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 59: king

1483

9 months, 5 days later

Cardinal della Rovere's mistress gives birth their illegitimate daughter, Felice della Rovere.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 40: pope; cardinal

1483

August 5

on Sunday

7 months, 6 days later

The exiled Sienese came against their city, as far as the fortress of Sitorno, but were unable to do anything. The citizens took many prisoners from the fortress and carried them into Siena.

In these days the Florentines destroyed a fortress in the upper valley of the Arno, called Monte Domenici, because it had rebelled.

During this August of 1483, the Duke of Calabria captured many fortresses in Lombardy from the Venetians,(1) and crushed the Venetian troops in such a manner that they could not hold out any longer. This occurred because the Church had excommunicated all those who gave aid to the Venetians, which prevented them having soldies from beyond the Alps. And the fleet of the King of Naples came into the port of Ancona, and that of the Venetians set out to find it. But on the 5th September, the king's fleet sailed away without waiting for their opponents. Great things had been expected if they had encountered each other.

(1) From the 12th December, 1482, the Pope had made peace with the League, and then associated himself with it in the war against Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Monte Domenici was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1483

October 23

on Tuesday

2 months, 19 days later

A cardinal-legate came to Florence, who was going to the King of France as ambassador, to confirm to him his father's crown. And this cardinal chanced to be the very man whom the last King of France(1) had kept for many years in prison, in a cage.

(1) Louis XI. The name of the cardinal was Jean Balue, whom Louis XI. had persuaded Pope Paul II. to make a cardinal; and later, for political reasons, he had imprisoned him in an iron cage, from which he was liberated in 1481 through the intercession of Pope Sixtus IV. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 69: pope
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 62: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 60: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 39

1484

2 months, 10 days later

Cardinal della Rovere protects the Colonna family against the cruel persecutions of Cardinal Girolamo Riario.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 41: pope; cardinal

1484

August 14

on Thursday

7 months, 16 days later

At 6 in the night (2 a.m.) we heard that Pope Sisto was dead. He died on the 13th, at 14 in the forenoon (10 a.m.). On the 20th the bells were tolled for his death.

At this time as many men as possible were being hired to send to Sarzana and Pietrasanta.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1484

August 30

on Saturday

16 days later

We heard that the new Pope was chosen, and the bells were rung at 4 (midday) on Monday. He had been a Genoese cardinal, Messer Giovanni de' Zeboni,(1) Cardinal of Molfetta; and he took the name of Innocent VIII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1485

December 11

on Friday

1 year, 3 months, 13 days later

There came a certain hot wind from the south, as if it were July, and all the walls of the houses dripped inside, all over Florence, even in the living-rooms, although they had been quite dry.

And in these days of February and March, soldiers were continually being hired, to send to the Duke (of Calabria), who was fighting against the papal forces; so that everyone in Florence who had taken part against the Church was excommunicated. All intelligent people wondered that anyone should go against the Church, especially as it had nothing to do with us. However, this mistaken conduct was the result of our sins and of our not fearing God.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1489

March 10

on Sunday

3 years, 3 months later

We heard that the Pope had made six cardinals, who were as follows: two French, one Milanese, two of his nephews, and one Florentine, son of Lorenzo de' Medici.(1) Thank God! It is a great honour to our city in general, and in particular to his father and his house.

(1) Giovanni de' Medici, who later became Pope Leo X.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1492

2 years, 9 months, 27 days later

Cardinal della Rovere, jealous and angry over Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's election to pope, accuses Borgia of being elected over him by means of simony and a secret agreement with Ascanio Sforza.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 49: pope; cardinal
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 61: pope

1492

March 10

on Thursday

2 months, 9 days later

Lorenzo's son, the cardinal, received the hat from the Pope.(1) It was given him at the Badia on the way to Fiesole (i.e. at San Domenico), and many citizens went out to meet him when he came into Florence to visit the Signoria; and the next day he went to hear mass in Santa Maria del Fiore. And on this day the Signoria presented him with 30 loads of gifts carried by porters, being silver plate, and basins, and ewers, and dishes, and all the silver utensils that can possibly be used by a great lord. According to what was said, they were estimated at more than 20 thousand florins, although that seems impossible to me; but it was public report, and therefore I set it down. It was certainly a rich and magnificent gift. Praise be to God!

(1) When he had been made cardinal in 1488 he had not received the insignia, being only thirteen years old.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Fiesole was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1492

March 12

on Saturday

2 days later

The said cardinal went to Rome, to visit the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1493

May 20

on Saturday

1 year, 2 months, 9 days later

A Sunday; the Cardinal de' Medici returned to Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 18: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 54

1493

July 26

on Wednesday

2 months, 7 days later

A Thursday; Pope Innocent VIII. died; and on Sunday, the 29th, the bells were tolled for his death.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1493

August 11

on Friday

16 days later

At 23 in the evening (7 p.m.) we heard that the new Pope had been chosen. He was a cardinal, and the vice-chancellor; a Spaniard by birth. He called himself Pope Alessandro VI.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1493

August 12

on Saturday

1 day later

We received confirmation of this news about the Nona (11.30 a.m.), and the bells were rung for his election.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1493

September 20

on Wednesday

1 month, 9 days later

We heard that the Pope had made some new cardinals.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1493

November 17

on Friday

1 month, 28 days later

We sent ambassadors to Rome to visit the Pope. They were Piero son of Lorenzo de' Medici, the Bishop of Arezzo, Pier Filippo Pandolfini, Francesco Valori, and Tommaso Minerbetti. They went in fine array, especially Piero de' Medici.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1493

December 20

on Wednesday

1 month, 3 days later

This Tommaso Minerbetti returned (to Florence), having been knighted by the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1494

November 9

on Friday

10 months, 24 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

About 20 in the afternoon (4 p.m.), when it was ringing for vespers,(1) Piero son of Lorenzo de' Medici wished to go to the Signoria in the Palagio, taking his armed men with him. The Signori not allowing this, he did not choose to go alone, and turned back.(1) Now men began to collect in the Piazza, and in the Palagio were heard cries of Popolo e Liberta! (The People and Liberty!), whilst the bell was rung for a parlamento, and men appeared at the windows with the same cry. Immediately the Gonfaloniere del Bue(2) came into the Piazza, and behind him Francesco Valori and other citizens on horseback, all crying Popolo e Liberta! These were the first to arrive; but before an hour had passed, the Piazza was filled with all the Gonfaloni and all the citizens, troops of armed men crying loudly, Popolo e Liberta! Although the people did not very well understand what all this tumult was about, nevertheless not many citizens went to Piero de' Medici's house. The Tornabuoni and some other citizens went there armed, with many men under their command, and coming into the street before his door, cried, Palle! Piero then mounted his horse, to come into the Piazza with his men, starting several times, and then stopping again. I think that he perceived how few citizens were with him, and also he must have been told that the Piazza was full of armed men. Meanwhile the cardinal, his brother, left his house, accompanied by many soldiers and by those citizens who were there, and came down the Corso as far as Orto San Michele, crying Popolo e Liberta like the rest; declaring that he separated himself from Piero. The only consequence was that the Piazza turned against him, menacing him with the points of their weapons shouting at him as a traitor, and not choosing to accept him. He turned back, not without danger. And now a proclamation was issued, at the Canto della Macina(3) and in the Via de' Martegli(4) next to the Chiassolino (little alley) ordering every foreigner to lay down his arms, and forbidding anyone on pain of death to aid or abet Piero de' Medici. In consequence of this, many abandoned Piero and laid down their arms. They dropped off on all sides, so that few remained with him. Therefore Piero left this house and went towards the Porta a San Gallo, which he had caused to be kept open for him by his brother Giuliano with many soldiers and by friends outside. Signor Pagolo Orsini was waiting outside with horses and armed men in readiness to enter, but it did not seem the right moment, and when Piero arrived they decided it would be best to go away, taking Giuliano with them. The poor young cardinal remained in his house, and I saw him at a window kneeling with joined hands, praying Heaven to have mercy. I was much touched when I saw him, considering him to be a good lad and of upright character. It was said that when he had seen Piero ride away, he disguised himself as a monk and took his departure also. Another proclamation was published in the Piazza, announcing that whoever slew Piero de' Medici should have 2 thousand ducats and whoever slew the cardinal should have a thousand. And after this many soldiers left the Piazza with Jacopo de' Nerli, and going to the house of Ser Giovanni son of Ser Bartolomeo,(5) pillaged it. And then the crowd rose, with the cry of Antonio di Bernardo,(5) and pillaged his house also, and pillaged the Bargello. The number of soldiers and of the people going about robbing increased every moment; and this all happened before 24 in the evening (8 p.m.), less than four hours from when the disturbance began. Then the Signoria published a proclamation forbidding any more houses to be pillaged, on pain of death; and the Gonfaloni went about the city all night to guard it, crying Popolo e Liberta, carrying lighted torches, so that no more harm was done, except that a certain serving-man of the Bargello who cried Palle, was killed in the Piazza. And now Girolamo son of Marabotto Tornabuoni, and Pierantonio Carnesecchi, and others of that party, turned and cried Popolo e Liberta like the rest. When they were about to enter the Piazza, however, weapons were pointed against them, and they were only saved by their cuirasses, and had to escape as best they might. In fact, Girolamo Tornabuoni had his cuirass torn off in Orto San Michele, but when he begged for mercy, his life was spared. And Giovan Francesco Tornabuoni was severely wounded in the throat, and returned home. When the disturbance began, some of the French who were quartered in Florence armed themselves and joined Piero's party, crying Francia. I believe it was pointed out to them that the matter was between citizens only, and that if they were to do anything against the Palagio, they would put themselves in the wrong; therefore they acted accordingly, returning to their lodgings and then going about the city unarmed.(6)

(1) In the book already quoted of the Deliberazioni dei Signori e Collegi, the second entry of this date is the order that Piero must appear within an hour of the notification.

(2) The "Banner of the Bull" was that of the Borgias.

(3) The Canto della Macina is where Via Ginori meets Via Guelfa. (Trans.)

(4) The Via de' Martegli is the Via Martelli, between the Piazza del Duomo and Via Cavour. (Trans.)

(5) See note to 10th November.

(6) The confusion of this day must have been great, and something of it appears even in our Luca when he was writing about the various events which happened hour after hour, as he notes some which do not seem to belong to the same date. For instance, with regard to the prices placed upon the heads of the Medici, I find some contradiction in the documents, because the Signoria, on the 20th, in two distinct councils, first banished Piero and declared him a rebel, and afterwards offered 2000 florins reward to anyone who delivered him alive into their hands, 1000 to anyone who captured Ser Piero son of Francesco da Bibbiena, his chancellor, and 500 for the capture of Bernardo brother of Ser Piero, another chancellor. He also forgets the order given to liberate the prisoners of the Stinche, and the appointment of Francesco Pep and Braccio Martelli as ambassadors to the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 60-3

1494

November 9

on Friday

About 20 in the afternoon (4 p.m.), when it was ringing for vespers,(1) Piero son of Lorenzo de' Medici wished to go to the Signoria in the Palagio, taking his armed men with him. The Signori not allowing this, he did not choose to go alone, and turned back.(1) Now men began to collect in the Piazza, and in the Palagio were heard cries of Popolo e Liberta! (The People and Liberty!), whilst the bell was rung for a parlamento, and men appeared at the windows with the same cry. Immediately the Gonfaloniere del Bue(2) came into the Piazza, and behind him Francesco Valori and other citizens on horseback, all crying Popolo e Liberta! These were the first to arrive; but before an hour had passed, the Piazza was filled with all the Gonfaloni and all the citizens, troops of armed men crying loudly, Popolo e Liberta! Although the people did not very well understand what all this tumult was about, nevertheless not many citizens went to Piero de' Medici's house. The Tornabuoni and some other citizens went there armed, with many men under their command, and coming into the street before his door, cried, Palle! Piero then mounted his horse, to come into the Piazza with his men, starting several times, and then stopping again. I think that he perceived how few citizens were with him, and also he must have been told that the Piazza was full of armed men. Meanwhile the cardinal, his brother, left his house, accompanied by many soldiers and by those citizens who were there, and came down the Corso as far as Orto San Michele, crying Popolo e Liberta like the rest; declaring that he separated himself from Piero. The only consequence was that the Piazza turned against him, menacing him with the points of their weapons shouting at him as a traitor, and not choosing to accept him. He turned back, not without danger. And now a proclamation was issued, at the Canto della Macina(3) and in the Via de' Martegli(4) next to the Chiassolino (little alley) ordering every foreigner to lay down his arms, and forbidding anyone on pain of death to aid or abet Piero de' Medici. In consequence of this, many abandoned Piero and laid down their arms. They dropped off on all sides, so that few remained with him. Therefore Piero left this house and went towards the Porta a San Gallo, which he had caused to be kept open for him by his brother Giuliano with many soldiers and by friends outside. Signor Pagolo Orsini was waiting outside with horses and armed men in readiness to enter, but it did not seem the right moment, and when Piero arrived they decided it would be best to go away, taking Giuliano with them. The poor young cardinal remained in his house, and I saw him at a window kneeling with joined hands, praying Heaven to have mercy. I was much touched when I saw him, considering him to be a good lad and of upright character. It was said that when he had seen Piero ride away, he disguised himself as a monk and took his departure also. Another proclamation was published in the Piazza, announcing that whoever slew Piero de' Medici should have 2 thousand ducats and whoever slew the cardinal should have a thousand. And after this many soldiers left the Piazza with Jacopo de' Nerli, and going to the house of Ser Giovanni son of Ser Bartolomeo,(5) pillaged it. And then the crowd rose, with the cry of Antonio di Bernardo,(5) and pillaged his house also, and pillaged the Bargello. The number of soldiers and of the people going about robbing increased every moment; and this all happened before 24 in the evening (8 p.m.), less than four hours from when the disturbance began. Then the Signoria published a proclamation forbidding any more houses to be pillaged, on pain of death; and the Gonfaloni went about the city all night to guard it, crying Popolo e Liberta, carrying lighted torches, so that no more harm was done, except that a certain serving-man of the Bargello who cried Palle, was killed in the Piazza. And now Girolamo son of Marabotto Tornabuoni, and Pierantonio Carnesecchi, and others of that party, turned and cried Popolo e Liberta like the rest. When they were about to enter the Piazza, however, weapons were pointed against them, and they were only saved by their cuirasses, and had to escape as best they might. In fact, Girolamo Tornabuoni had his cuirass torn off in Orto San Michele, but when he begged for mercy, his life was spared. And Giovan Francesco Tornabuoni was severely wounded in the throat, and returned home. When the disturbance began, some of the French who were quartered in Florence armed themselves and joined Piero's party, crying Francia. I believe it was pointed out to them that the matter was between citizens only, and that if they were to do anything against the Palagio, they would put themselves in the wrong; therefore they acted accordingly, returning to their lodgings and then going about the city unarmed.(6)

(1) In the book already quoted of the Deliberazioni dei Signori e Collegi, the second entry of this date is the order that Piero must appear within an hour of the notification.

(2) The "Banner of the Bull" was that of the Borgias.

(3) The Canto della Macina is where Via Ginori meets Via Guelfa. (Trans.)

(4) The Via de' Martegli is the Via Martelli, between the Piazza del Duomo and Via Cavour. (Trans.)

(5) See note to 10th November.

(6) The confusion of this day must have been great, and something of it appears even in our Luca when he was writing about the various events which happened hour after hour, as he notes some which do not seem to belong to the same date. For instance, with regard to the prices placed upon the heads of the Medici, I find some contradiction in the documents, because the Signoria, on the 20th, in two distinct councils, first banished Piero and declared him a rebel, and afterwards offered 2000 florins reward to anyone who delivered him alive into their hands, 1000 to anyone who captured Ser Piero son of Francesco da Bibbiena, his chancellor, and 500 for the capture of Bernardo brother of Ser Piero, another chancellor. He also forgets the order given to liberate the prisoners of the Stinche, and the appointment of Francesco Pep and Braccio Martelli as ambassadors to the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1494

November 10

on Saturday

1 day later

The citizens again came armed into the Piazza, and set to recruit more men. Antonio de Bernardo, Ser Giovanni son of Ser Bartolomeo, Ser Simone da Staggia, Ser Ceccone son of Ser Barone, Ser Lorenzo of the Dogana, Lorenzo son of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and Piero Tornabuoni, were fetched from their houses and made prisoner. The Signoria published a proclamation commanding anyone who had, property belonging to Piero de' Medici or to the cardinal his brother, or to Ser Giovanni, Ser Simeone, Ser Bernardo, and Ser Lorenzo of the Dogana,(1) to declare it, on pain of death. And a second proclamation was published, which had been decided upon by the council composed of all the veduti e seduti.(2) There were an immense number of citizens present. Ant this morning they pillaged the cardinal's house, which was in Sant' Antonio(3) di Firenze, sending their men to claim the last things that still remained.

(1) The documents give the names and positions of these keen supported of the house of Medici as follows: Antonio son of Bernardo son of Miniato Dini, purveyor of the Monte Comune; Ser Giovanni son of Ser Bartolomeo of Pratovecchio, notary of _Riformagioni _(a magistracy whose office it was to keep a register of the decrees, etc.); Ser Simone Grazzini of Staggia, notary of the Tratte (election ballot); and Ser Lorenzo son of Antonio Tucci, alias of the Dogana (Customs).

(2) Those citizens who had filled one of the higher offices, and those who had been next in order to those elected. (Trans.)

(3) Sant' Antonio di Vienna was in the Via Faenza, and was founded in the year 1358. There was a beautiful church and a large convent, with three large cloisters and extensive gardens. The canons were called Frati del Fuoco, and Frati del T. that being their arms. The church and convent were both destroyed when the Fortezza di Basso was built; but the canons built a new church near.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1494

December 10

on Monday

1 month later

10th December (Wednesday). Money was continually being found hidden in the Dogana (city customs), underneath coals and heaps of nails, etc., to which the above-mentioned citizens who were imprisoned confessed by degrees. It was said that the king had reached Viterbo, and that the Pope had consented to give him a safe-conduct.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 63: pope
King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 75

1494

December 14

on Friday

4 days later

14th December (Sunday). We heard how those Frenchmen who were marking the houses in Rome had been driven away, and many had been killed; the Romans wishing to defend themselves and not accept the Frenchmen in their city.

This same day we heard that the Pope and the cardinals had entered the castle of Sant' Angelo, and that the Duke of Calabria had arrived there with a large force, so that it was judged that it would fare badly with the French. It was also said that the king had sent a proclamation to Pisa, to the effect that the Pisans should submit to the Florentines; otherwise the Florentines would make such war upon them that they would be entirely destroyed, at the expense of the said King of France; that is to say that the money which he was to receive would be used instead for the cost of such an expedition; which was not true, but there was always a great deal of talk.(1)

The same day Fra Girolamo did his utmost in the pulpit to persuade Florence to adopt a good form of government; he preached in Santa Maria del Fiore every day, and to-day which was a Sunday, he wished that there should be no women, but only men; he wished that only the Gonfalonier and one of the Signori should remain in the Palagio, and that all the offices of Florence should be there; and he preached much about State matters, and that we ought to love and fear God, and love the common weal; and no one must set himself up proudly above the rest. He always favoured the people and he insisted that no one ought to be put to death, but there must be other forms of punishment; and he continued to preach in this manner every morning. Many forms were drawn up, and there was much controversy among the citizens, so that every day it was expected that the bell would be rung for a parlamento.

(1) There must have been some truth in it, as we read in the Memoriale of Portoveneri, where there are so many notices of the rebellion and war of Pisa, that on the 4th December there reached this city a herald from the king with the articles which the latter had agreed to with the Florentines, in which it is said: "Everything must be given back that formerly belonged to the Florentines. And this day the said messenger of the King has gone to Sarzana and to Pietrasanta and to Fivizzano and to Bagnone and to Castel-Nuovo and all Luligiana, to consign it to the Florentines." This was agreed to in the treaty.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

December 22

on Saturday

8 days later

22nd December (Monday). It was said that the king was still at Viterbo; everyone went on talking of the French, of Rome, and Pisa, and how Rome would not give a safe-conduct. The Duke of Calabria had arrived there, to resist the French.

This day many things were voted in the Palagio: Anyone who slew a man could not return to Florence; and a law as follows against the unmentionable vice: the first time the offender to be punished with gogna,(1) the second time, to be fastened to a pillar, and the third time, to be burnt; and many other laws, all recommended by the Frate.

(1) Alia gogna was when a prisoner was exposed on the outer wall of the prison of the Bargello, with his hands bound behind him to one of the iron rings, bare-headed, with his hat at his feet to receive soldi, and a placard on his breast upon which his crime was written. He had to remain there an hour, during which time the old bell of the prison was rung. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1495

January 4

on Friday

13 days later

4th January (Sunday). We heard that the King of France had entered Rome by agreement,(1) but, nevertheless, they did not give up the Castel Sant' Agnolo to him. It was said that he had pillaged the Orsini.

(1) Giuseppe Molini, p. 22 of vol. i . of the Documents di Storia Italiana, publishes the agreement made on the 15th of this month between the Pope and the King.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 64: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 79

1495

January 8

on Tuesday

4 days later

8th January (Thursday). It was said that the King of France wished to have the Castel Sant' Agnolo and the Pope and the cardinals, and the brother of the Turk,(1) who were in the said castello, delivered over to him.

(1) This was Zim or Gemme, son of the great Maometto and brother of the reigning Bajazet II., with whom he was disputing the Empire, and therefore he had taken refuge with the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1495

February 5

on Tuesday

28 days later

5th February. The French Cardinal Sammalò,(1) who had just been made cardinal by the Pope, entered Florence. He had come here with the King of France as a bishop; and now he was returning to France. He had many horsemen with him. He was lodged in Santa Maria Novella in the papal apartments. All this time it was said that the King of France was in a bad situation, and there was cause for fear.

(1) Guillaume Briconnet, Bishop of Saint-Malo. From the 25th January, the Pisan ambassadors had written that the Reverandissimo of Saint-Malo, a man, they said, "of great intellect and authority," was going to be sent to Florence by the King of France, not on his way to France, but to remain in Tuscany or the neighbourhood, in order to preserve peace during the stay of the king in the kingdom of Naples; and in case of his going to Pisa begged the Signori to receive him and his suite with honour, "going to meet him outside, and with as many men" as was possible. He had left Rome the morning of the 27th January (Lettere, quoted i. 38).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

April 2

on Tuesday

1 month, 26 days later

2nd April. It was said that a league had been made between the Venetians, the Duke of Milan, the Emperor, the Pope, the King of Spain, and the Genoese; and we should be given till the end of April to decide whether we would join it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1497

May 12

on Wednesday

2 years, 1 month, 11 days later

Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola and threatens the Florentines with an interdict if they persisted in harbouring him.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 66: pope
Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 45: priest

1503

November 1

on Sunday

6 years, 5 months, 23 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elected to the papacy, and is known as Pope Julius II.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 60: pope; cardinal

1505

1 year, 2 months, 2 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II, commissioned to create the tomb for the pope, and spends eight months in the quarries of Carrara selecting marble for the tomb.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 62: pope; cardinal

1506

1 year later

Pope Julius II gives his illegitimate daughter, Felice, in marriage to Giovanni Giordano Orsini.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

January 14

on Sunday

13 days later

The classical statue of Laocoön and His Sons is unearthed in Rome. On the recommendation of Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo, Pope Julius II purchases it and places it on public display in the Vatican a month later.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 22

on Monday

8 days later

The Swiss Guard arrives at the Vatican, to serve as permanent ceremonial and palace guards under Pope Julius II.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 24

on Wednesday

2 days later

Pope Julius II confirms papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations and approves the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

April 18

on Wednesday

2 months, 24 days later

Pope Julius II lays the cornerstone of the Basilica of St. Peter's.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

14 days later

Michelangelo to Giuliano da Sangallo

Florence, 2 May 1506

To Master Giuliano da Sangallo, Florentine, the Pope's architect in Rome

Giuliano, I learn from your letter that the Pope took my departure very ill, but that His Holiness is ready to pay down the money and do the things whereon we agreed; and that I should return, with no misgivings. As to my departure, it is true that on Saturday in Holy Week I heard the Pope say at table, talking with a jeweller and with the Master of the Ceremonies, that he was resolved not to spend a groat more, either on small stones or on large; the which astonished me mightily. Nevertheless, before leaving, I enquired of him concerning that which I needed for the pursuit of the work. His Holiness replied, that I should return on the Monday: and I did return, on Monday and Tuesday and Wednesday and Thursday, as he saw. At last, on Friday morning, I was sent out, or rather driven away; and then man who sent me away said he knew me, but that such were his orders. (...)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

p22 From Florence, May 2nd, 1506.
To the Florentine Maestro Guliano da San Gallo Architect to the Pope, in Rome.

Guliano (sic), I learn from a letter sent by you that the Pope was angry at my departure, that he is willing to place the money at my disposal and to carry out what was agreed upon between us ; also, that I am to come back and fear nothing. As far as my departure is concerned, the truth is that on Holy Saturday I heard the Pope, speaking at table with a jeweller and the Master of the Ceremonies, say that he did not want to spend another baiocco on stones, whether small or large, which surprised me very much. However, before I set out I asked him for some of the money required for the continuance of my work. His Holiness replied that I was to come back again on Monday: and I went on Monday, and on Tuesday, and on Wednesday, and on Thursday as His Holiness saw. At last, on the Friday morning, I was turned out, that is to say, I was driven away : and the person who turned me away said he knew who I was, but that such were his orders. Thereupon, having heard those words on the Saturday and seeing them afterwards put into execution, I lost all hope. But this alone was not the whole reason of my departure. There was also another cause, but I do not wish to write about it ; enough that it made me think that, if I were to remain in Rome, my own tomb would be prepared before that of the Pope. This is the reason for my sudden departure. Now you write to me on behalf of the Pope, and in similar manner you will read this letter to the Pope. Give His HoHness to understand that I am more eager to proceed with the work than ever I was before, and that if he really wishes to have this tomb erected it would be well for him not to vex me as to where the work is to be done, provided that within the agreed period of five years it be erected in St. Peter's, on the site he shall choose, and that it be a beautiful work, as I have promised : for I am persuaded that it will be a work without an equal in all the world if it be carried out.

p24 If His Holiness now wishes to proceed, let him deposit the said money here in Florence with a person whose name I will communicate to you. I have a quantity of marble in preparation at Carrara, which I will have sent here, and I will do the same with the marble I have in Rome, although it will entail a considerable loss to me : but I should disregard that if by this means I could obtain permission to carry out the work here. From time to time I would despatch the pieces as they are finished, in such a manner that His Holiness would be as well content as if I were working in Rome — more, indeed, because he would see the completed works without having any anxiety. With regard to the aforesaid money and work, I will bind myself in any way His Holiness may direct, and I will furnish whatever security here in Florence he may require. Let it be what it may, I will give him full security, even though it be the whole of Florence. There is yet one thing I have to add : it is this, that the said work could not possibly be done for the price in Rome, but it could be done here because of the many conveniences which are available, such as could not be had in Rome. Moreover, I should do better work and take more interest in it, because I should not have to think about a number of other things. However, Guliano mio carissimo I beg of you to let me have an answer, and quickly. I have nothing further to add. This 2nd day of May, 1506.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

November 6

on Tuesday

6 months, 8 days later

Pope Julius II personally leads his troops into Bologna, retaking the city from the excommunicated tyrant Giovanni II Bentivoglio.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1507

January 22

on Tuesday

2 months, 17 days later

p27 From Bologna, January 22nd, 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, opposite to the Apothecary, della Palla, near the Porta Rossa.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee, from which I learn that Lodovico has arranged with Francesco about Mona Zanobia's farm. Thou tellest me also that Giovansimone has begun to attend the same shop as thyself, and that he wants to come here to Bolognia. I have not replied before because I have not had time until to-day. With regard to the above-mentioned farm, thou sayest that Lodovico has entered into an agreement, and that he is going to write to me on the subject. Please understand that if he has written to me I have never received any letter which deals with the matter please tell him this, therefore, so that he may not p28 be surprised at receiving no reply to his letter, if he has written one.

I will tell thee my views about Giovansimone, so that thou mayest impart them to him on my behalf. I do not wish him to come here before I have cast the figure I have in hand, and for this I have a sufficient reason, though do not ask me what it is. Enough that as soon as I have cast the figure I will see that he shall come here without fail. It will then be less inconvenient, as I shall be released from the expenses which I have now to bear.

I expect that by the middle of Lent my figure will be ready for casting, and I pray God that it may turn out well ; for if it be successful I hope to stand well with this Pope and to receive his favour. If I should cast it at mid-Lent and it should turn out well I hope to be in Florence for the Easter festival, and then I will assuredly do by you as I promised, if ye continue to be diligent.

Tell Piero Aldobrandini that I have entrusted his blade to the best worker in such things I can find, and that he promises to let me have it during the coming week. As soon as I receive it I will send it on, if I consider it satisfactory : if not, I will have another made. Tell him also not to be surprised if I have not served him as quickly as I ought, for I have so little time to spare that I could not do otherwise than I have done.

This twenty-second day of January, 1506.

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1507

February 1

on Friday

10 days later

p32 Bologna, February 1st, 1507. To Buonarroto di Lodovico Simone, in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I learn from thy letters how matters have gone with regard to the small farm : it has given me the greatest satisfaction and I am well pleased, provided it is a sure thing.

I have made careful enquiries about this Baronciello business, and from what I have heard it is a far more serious thing than ye make it out to be : and for my part, seeing that it is unfair, I would not ask it of him. We are all of us under considerable obligation to Baronciello, and we will do our best to fulfil those obligations, especially such as lie in our power. Thou must know that on Friday evening, at the twenty-first hour. Pope Julius came to my house where I am at work, and remained for about half an hour while I was working. Then he gave me his blessing p33 and went away, showing himself well satisfied with what I am doing. For all this it seems to me we ought to thank God very heartily ; and so I beg you to do, and to pray for me.

I have to inform thee further that on Friday morning I sent away Lapo and Lodovico, who were with me. I turned Lapo away because he was conspiringagainst me and is a rogue, and would not do as he was bid. Lodovico is better, and I would have kept him on for another two months ; but Lapo, in order not to be the only one blamed, corrupted him in such a way that both have been sent off. I tell thee this not because I am troubled by them — for they are not worth three quattrini the two together — but so that, if they come to talk to Lodovico, he should not be surprised. Tell him on no account to listen to them: if thou desirest to know more go to Messer Agniolo, Herald of the Signoria, for I have sent him a full account of the matter, and he of his kindness will give thee all information.

I note what thou sayest about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter thy master's shop and endeavour to make progress : encourage him to do his best, for if this matter turns out well I have hopes of placing you in a good position, if ye are prudent. With reference to that other land beside Mona Zanobia's, if Lodovico likes it tell him to enquire into the matter and let me know. I believe, and it is said here, that the Pope will go hence about Carnival.

On the first day of February, 1506 (1507).

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO DI BUONARROTA SIMONI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 30
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 64: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; p. 32-3

1507

February 8

on Friday

7 days later

p34 From Bologna. To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrotta Simoni, in Florence. The 8th day of February, 1506 (1507).

Most Revered Father, — I have to-day received a letter from you, from which I learn that Lapo and Lodovico have been talking to you. I am content that you should rebuke me, because I deserve to be rebuked as a wretch and a transgressor quite as much as anyone else, and perhaps more. But you must understand that I have not transgressed in any wise in the matter for which you rebuke me, either against them or against anyone else, unless it be that I have done more than I ought. All the men with whom I have ever had dealings know very well what I give them ; and if anyone knows it, Lapo and Lodovico are the two who know it best of all, for in a month and a half one of them has had twenty-seven broad ducats and the other eighteen broad ducats, each with their expenses. Therefore I beg of you not to be carried away by their story. When they complained about me you ought to have asked how long they were with me and how much they had received from me then you would have had to ask them what cause they had for complaint. But the reason of their great anger, particularly of that rascal Lapo, is this they had given it out on all sides that they were the men who were doing this work, or rather, that they were in partnership with me ; and they never realised — Lapo in particular — that he was not the master until I sent him off. Only then did he understand that he was in my service ; and having already given p35 a great deal of trouble and caused the Pope's favour to show signs of declining, it appeared a strange thing to him that I should drive him away like a beast. I am sorry that he should still have seven ducats of mine, but when I return to Florence he shall most assuredly pay me back, though if he has any conscience he would also feel obliged to give me back the other money he has received. But enough. I shall say no more about it as I have written a sufficiently full account of their performances to Messer Agniolo (the Herald). I beg you to go to him, and if you can take Granaccio with you, do so, and let him read the letter I have written so that he may understand what abject creatures they are. But I beg of you to keep silent as to what I have written about Lodovico, for if I cannot find anyone else to come here and cast the metal I shall endeavour to get him back, because as a matter of fact I have not dismissed him ; only Lapo, who received more blame than he cared to support alone, lightened his own load by corrupting Lodovico. You will learn the whole matter from the Herald, and also how you are to act. Do not have any dealings with Lapo, for he is too great a scoundrel, and we have nothing to do with either of them.

With reference to Giovansimone, it does not seem to me advisable that he should come here, as the Pope is leaving during Carnival ; I believe he will visit Florence on the way, and he does not leave affairs here in good order. According to rumour, there is a want of confidence prevalent here which it is wise neither to inquire into nor to write about : but enough that, even if nothing were to happen — and I believe p36 nothing will — I do not want to have the care of brothers on my shoulders. Do not be surprised at this and do not breathe a word of it to anyone, because I have need of assistants, and I should find none willing to come if this were known. And besides, I still think things may turn out well. I shall soon be back in Florence and I will behave in such a manner as to satisfy Giovansimone and the others, if it please God ! To-morrow I will write you another letter with reference to certain moneys I wish to send to Florence, telling you what to do with them. I understand about Piero ; he will answer on my behalf, for he is a good fellow, as he has always been.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

P.S. I have something else to add in reply to the curious behaviour Lapo attributes to me. I want to tell you one thing, and it is this. I bought seven hundred and twenty pounds of wax, and before I bought it I told Lapo to find out where it could be got, and to settle the price, saying that I would give him the money so that he could buy it. Lapo went, and came back again, and told me that it could not be got for a farthing less than nine broad ducats and twenty bolognini the hundred (pounds), which is equal to nine ducats forty soldi. He added that I ought to take the opportunity without delay because I had been very fortunate. I replied that he was to go and find out whether he could get the odd forty soldi per hundred knocked off and that I would then buy it. He answered that the Bolognesi were of such a nature that they would not abate one farthing of the price p37 they had asked. This raised my suspicions, and I let the matter drop. Later in the same day I called Piero aside and told him secretly to go and ask the price of the wax per hundred. Piero went to the same man as Lapo and bargained with him for eight and a half ducats, to which price I agreed, and afterwards I sent Piero to receive his commission, and he got that also. This is one of my strange performances. Of a truth I know it seemed strange to him that I was able to see through his deceit. It was not enough for him to receive eight broad ducats a month and his expenses, but in addition he tried to swindle me ; and he may have swindled me on many occasions of which I know nothing, for I trusted him. I have never met a man who appeared more honest, so I suppose his straightforward look must have misled many another person. Therefore do not trust him in anything, and pretend not to see him.

Notes

The Francesco Granaccio mentioned here was a painter and a fellow-student with Michelangelo in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied also with Michelangelo in the Medici Garden at San Marco.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 24

on Sunday

16 days later

p38 From Bologna, February 24th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — It is already fifteen days since I sent certain moneys to Lodovico in Florence with certain instructions, and I have never had a reply. I am much surprised at it. Tell Lodovico, therefore, to let me know if he has received them, and if he has done as I asked ; tell him to let me know without fail, because I am annoyed about it and marvel at his want of perception. He is the sort of man that one would entrust with important business again ! I should have expected him to write a hundred letters, to make sure that at least one should reach me. See to it that he informs me without fail as to what steps he has taken and that the letter is sent in such a way as to reach me.

Yesterday I sent to see if Piero's dagger was finished and found that it had still to be gilt. The man has kept me waiting for a month, but the truth is that he was not able to do otherwise, for owing to the departure of the Court he has had to supply weapons to all the courtiers and has had a very great deal to do. It p39 is for this reason he has kept me waiting. Tell Piero not to be anxious, for in any case he shall have it in a few days. The Pope went away on Monday morning at the sixteenth hour, and if thou desirest to learn in what state he has left my affairs, go to the Herald and he will tell thee. I have no time to write.

The twenty-fourth day of February.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Source: Primary

p.38-9

1507

May 2

on Thursday

2 months, 7 days later

p. 45 From Bologna, May 2nd, (1507).
To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee which gave me much pleasure. Since then I have written thee two letters, and I suppose I have had the same good fortune with respect to them that I usually have, that is to say, I suppose they have not arrived.

I may tell thee that, please God, two months will not pass before I return to Florence : and all that I have promised to do for Buonarroto and for thee I am prepared to carry out. I do not write to thee of my intentions at full length, nor do I say how eager I am to help you, because I am loath that others should get to know of our affairs : be of good cheer, however, for greater — or rather, better — things are in store for thee than thou thinkest. I have no more to tell thee on this head. Thou must know that here everyone is preparing for war, and this is the fourth day that the whole district has been under arms and a prey to rumoured dangers, with which the Church in especial is threatened : the cause of it being the Bentivogli, p46 who have made an attempt to enter the city with a great following of people. The high courage and prudence of his lordship the Legate, however, and the admirable precautions he has taken have, I believe, saved the patrimony from them once more, since at the twenty-third hour this evening we had news from their forces that they were turning back again with small honour to themselves, No more. Pray God for me : and live in happy expectation, because soon I shall be back in Florence.

The 2nd day of May.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

Note

The Bentivogli, sometime lords of Bologna, had been driven out by the Papal forces, and it was as a result of this reoccupation that Julius visited the city, as related in Michelangelo's letters. Shortly after the Pope's departure, however, Annibale Bentivoglio made the attempt to which this letter refers, but was repulsed by the Papal Legate, the Cardinal di Pavia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

8 months, 4 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II and asked to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

May 10

on Sunday

4 months, 10 days later

p. 50

May 10th, 1508 :

"I record that on this tenth day of May, in the year one thousand five hundred and eight, I, Michelagniolo, sculptor, have received from his Holiness, our p.51lord Pope Julius the Second, five hundred ducats of the Camera, which were paid to me by Messer Carlino, Chamberlain, and by Messer Carlo degli Albizzi, on account of the paintings in the vault of the Chapel of Pope Sixtus, on which I begin to work this day, under the conditions and stipulations set forth in the document prepared by His Most Reverend Lordship of Pa(via) and subscribed by my hand.

"For the assistant painters who are to come from Florence, who will be five in number, twenty gold ducats of the Camera each, with this proviso : that is to say, when they have arrived and have entered into an agreement with us, the aforesaid twenty ducats which each will have received shall be reckoned as part of their wages, these wages to be due as from the day of their departure from Florence. And if they shall not enter into an agreement with us, they are to retain one-half of the said sum for the expenses of their journey and for their time."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

December 10

on Thursday

7 months, 4 days later

The League of Cambrai is formed as an alliance against the Republic of Venice between Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

Winter

Raphael is commissioned by Pope Julius II to fresco his private library at the Vatican Palace.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

Winter

Raphael is invited to Rome by the new pope, Julius II, perhaps at the instigation of the papal architect, Bramante. Raphael dwells in Rome until his death.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal
Bramante (1444-1514), aged 64: architect
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet

1509

April 27

on Tuesday

1 year, 26 days later

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

Spring

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

1510

September

1 year, 8 months, 3 days later

King Louis XII convokes a synod of French bishops at Tours, where it is decreed that the pope, Julius II, has no right to make war upon a foreign prince, and, in case he should undertake such a war, the foreign prince had the right to invade the Ecclesiastical States and to withdraw his subjects from their obedience to the pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 67: pope; cardinal

1511

January 20

on Friday

4 months, 21 days later

Pope Julius II braves the inclemency of the weather and marches against Mirandola and takes it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Mirandola was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

May 23

on Tuesday

4 months, 3 days later

The French army makes a descent upon Bologna which Pope Julius II had left nine days previously, drive out the papal troops and reinstate the Bentivogli.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 25

on Friday

3 months, 4 days later

Pope Julius II falls dangerously ill and for a time his life is despaired of.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 28

on Monday

3 days later

Pope Julius II recovers from a near mortal illness.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 1

on Friday

4 days later

Some of the cardinals are displeased with the pope's anti-French policy, and five of them go so far as to convoke a schismatic council at Pisa.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 7

on Thursday

6 days later

Pope Julius II condemns the heresy of Piero de Lucca concerning the Incarnation.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

October 4

on Wednesday

27 days later

Pope Julius II forms the so-called Holy League or League of Cambrai, which includes only the pope, the Venetians, and Spain.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

November 17

on Friday

1 month, 14 days later

England joins the Holy League of Pope Julius II and is soon followed by the emperor and by Switzerland.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in England was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1512

April 11

on Thursday

4 months, 26 days later

The French are defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna against Pope Julius II's League of Cambrai and are driven beyond the Alps.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ravenna was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 69: pope; cardinal

1513

8 months, 25 days later

Leonardo da Vinci moves to Rome at the invitation of the newly elected Pope Leo X, where he studies the properties of mirrors.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 38: pope

1513

February 21

on Friday

1 month, 21 days later

Pope Julius II dies of fever in Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 70: pope; cardinal

1515

1 year, 10 months, 14 days later

Buonarrotto Buonarotti, brother of Michelangelo, is created Count Palatine by Pope Leo X.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 38
Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 40: pope

1515

Buonarrotto Buonarotti receives an augmentation of the family arms from Pope Leo X, to wit: "upon a chief or, a pellet azure, charged with fleur-de-lys or, between the capital letters L. and X."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 38
Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 40: pope

1515

December 19

on Sunday

11 months, 22 days later

Leonardo da Vinci is present at the meeting of King Francoise I and Pope Leo X, which takes place in Bologna.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 40: pope
King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 21: king

Source: Primary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

1516

13 days later

While Michelangelo is in Rome a reduced plan for The Tomb of Pope Julius II is adopted by him and the executors of the estate of Pope Julius II.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1516

Michelangelo receives notice from Pope Leo X that he is wanted in Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 41: pope

1520

March 10

on Wednesday

4 years, 2 months, 10 days later

A ricordo or note from Michelangelo:

Pope Leo, perhaps because he wants to get the facade at S. Lorenzo finished quicker than according to the contract made with me, and I also consenting thereto, sets me free ... and so he leaves me at liberty, under no obligation of accounting to any one for anything which I have had to do with him or others upon his account.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.224

1520

June 15

on Tuesday

3 months, 7 days later

Pope Leo X issues the bull Exsurge Domine (Arise O Lord), threatening Martin Luther with excommunication if he does not recant his position on indulgences and other Catholic doctrines.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1520

1520

December 10

on Friday

5 months, 28 days later

Martin Luther burns a copy of The Book of Canon Law (see Canon Law) and his copy of the Papal bull Exsurge Domine.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 45: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1520

1521

January 3

on Monday

24 days later

Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Leo X (1475-1521), aged 46: pope

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1521

1523

September 23

on Sunday

2 years, 8 months, 23 days later

Cardinal Giulio de' Medici is made Pope, taking the name of Clement VII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 45: pope

1524

January 13

on Sunday

3 months, 22 days later

Pope Clement VII offers Michelangelo a pension in order to retain his services. It appears that Michelangelo only asked for fifteen ducats a month, and that his friend Pietro Gondi had proposed twenty-five ducats. Fattucci rebuked him in affectionate terms for his want of pluck, informing him that "Jacopo Salviati has given orders that Spina should be instructed to pay you a monthly provision of fifty ducats." Moreover, all the disbursements made for the work at S. Lorenzo were to be provided by the same agent in Florence, and to pass through Michelangelo's hands. A house was assigned him, free of rent, at S. Lorenzo, in order that he might be near his work. Henceforth he was in almost weekly correspondence with Giovanni Spina on affairs of business, sending in accounts and drawing money by means of his then trusted servant, Stefano, the miniaturist.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.239

1524

March 24

on Monday

2 months, 11 days later

Michelangelo's friend Cardinal Leonardo Grosso writes to him from Rome, on Michelangelo's depression at the course of the suit against him by the heirs of Pope Julius II regarding the incompletion of the Pope's tomb:

I am also told that you have declined your pension, which seems to me mere madness, and that you have thrown the house up, and do not work. Friend and gossip, let me tell you that you have plenty of enemies, who speak their worst; also that the Pope and Pucci and Jacopo Salviati are your friends, and have plighted their troth to you. It is unworthy of you to break your word to them, especially in an affair of honour. Leave the matter of the tomb to those who wish you well, and who are able to set you free without the least encumbrance, and take care you do not come short in the Pope's work. Die first. And take the pension, for they give it with willing heart.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci (1458-1531), aged 66: cardinal
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 46: pope
Jacopo Salviati (1461-1533), aged 63: politician
Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Cardinal Leonardo Grosso; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.242

1525

Autumn

11 months, 12 days later

Pope Clement VII makes Fattucci write to Michelangelo that he wishes to erect a colossal statue on the piazza of S. Lorenzo, opposite the Stufa Palace. The giant is to surmount the roof of the Medicean Palace, with its face turned in that direction and its back to the house of Luigi della Stufa. Being so huge, it would have to be composed of separate pieces fitted together. Michelangelo speedily knocked this absurd plan on the head in a letter.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

Agents

Luigi della Stufa (1453-1535), aged 72: diplomat
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 47: pope

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.256

1526

May 22

on Saturday

1 year, 2 months, 22 days later

King Francoise I repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including Pope Clement VII, Milan, Venice, and Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 48: pope
King Francoise I (1494-1547), aged 32: king

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1526

1527

May 6

on Friday

11 months, 19 days later

In the Sack of Rome, Spanish and German troops led by the Duke of Bourbon sack Rome, forcing Pope Clement VII to make peace with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marking the end of the High Renaissance. The Pope grows a beard in mourning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Spain was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Germany was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.