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Priest

1438

December 6

on Thursday

The operai of the Florentine Cathedral stated that in order to improve the level of divine worship there, Ugolino de Giugnis, a canon of the Cathedral, was commissioned to elect "Magister Benotto and his associates who sing at the church of San Giovanni (the Baptistry) to sing Vespers at Santa Maria del Fiore on festive and solemn days." Another document dated the same day mentions writing to Lorenzo de' Medici, "ambassador of Florence to the pope, presently in Ferrara,' so that he could inform the pope of the decision, specifying the number of singers to join Benotto as three.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Source: Primary

http://www.jstor.org/stable/41701491?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

1474

April 25

on Saturday

35 years, 4 months, 29 days later

Girolamo Savonarola goes to Bologna where he knocks on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, and asks to be admitted. As he tells his father in his farewell letter, he wants to become a knight of Christ.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 22: priest

1478

3 years, 8 months, 12 days later

Girolamo Savonarola's studies are interrupted when he is sent to the Dominican priory of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Ferrara as assistant master of novices.

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Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 26: priest

1478

May 3

on Friday

4 months, 2 days later

At about 18 in the afternoon (2 p.m.), a priest(1) was captured in the Badia of Florence, who was a chancellor (secretary) of Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi, and another at the same time, from Volterra(2); they had remained hidden there from the day of the murder till now. And that evening Brigliaino and one of the cardinal's chancellors were hung at the windows of the Palagio, and when the ropes were cut, they fell down on the platform. The soldiers quarreled over robbing the dead bodies of doublets and hose.

(1) Stefano di Ser Niccolo of Bagnone, a priest in San Procolo at Florence.

(2) Antonio di Gherardo Maffei of Volterra, scribe of the Camera Apostolica, or notary of the Ruota (a society of Doctors of Law).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1482

3 years, 8 months, 4 days later

Instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Girolamo Savonarola is assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence.

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Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 30: priest

1484

July

2 years, 6 months, 2 days later

In this July a worship of an image of the Virgin Mary(1) at Prato began; people rushing there from all the country round. It worked miracles like that of Bibbona, so that building was begun and great expense incurred.

(1) This is the Madonna called della Carceri, which is worshipped at Prato, where there was soon built a very elegant temple after the design of Giuliano da San Gallo. Ferdinando Baldanzi wrote a fine description of it, which can be read in the Calendario Pratense of 1847. A church was also built at Bibbona in the Volterrano, in honour of the other image mentioned on the 12th June, 1482. Savonarola alludes to the prodigies worked by these two images in the second of his Poesie tratte dall' autografo, in which he says:

"O anima cecata Tu senti mille segni A Prato e a Bibbona"

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1485

6 months, 4 days later

Girolamo Savonarola delivers apocalyptic sermons in San Gimignano as a Lenten preacher.

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Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 33: priest

1491

6 years, 1 day later

Lionardo di Buonarrota, Michelangelo's older brother, becomes a devoted follower of Girolamo Savonarola and enters the Domenican Order, effectively leaving Michelangelo as eldest son of the family.

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1494

November 5

on Monday

3 years, 10 months, 9 days later

Certain messengers of the King of France arrived and went about Florence marking the houses which they preferred. They came indoors and entered all the rooms, marking one for such and such a lord, and another for such and such a baron.

And observe that there were not hundreds but thousands of the French, so that the whole city was occupied in every corner; for those houses that were not marked were occupied in a moment when the men-at-arms and the infantry arrived, going into every street, and saying: Apri qua! (Open there!) and not caring whether the owners were rich or poor. They gave it to be understood that they meant to pay: but there were not many who paid. And when they did pay a certain amount, they paid for the horns and ate the ox (Italian proverb): "They didn't pay anything like what they cost." Few of us had sent away our womenkind, except the young girls, who were sent to convents and to relatives where no soldiers were quartered; but the French were really very well-behaved, for there was not a single one who said an unsuitable word to a woman. In their hearts they felt a secret dread, and kept asking how many men Florence could dispose of; and they were told that at the sound of a bell the city would have 100 thousand men from within and without at her command. The truth was this: that they had come with the idea of sacking Florence, as their king had promised them but they could not see the game begun, much less won. And all this was the doing of the Almighty.

On this same day, five ambassadors were chosen to go to the King of France, who was at Pisa. They were as follows: First, Fra Girolamo, a preacher of the Order of San Domenico, dwelling at San Marco, a native of Ferrara; whom we believe to be a prophet, and he does not deny it in his sermons, but always says da parte del Signore (I have it from the Lord . . .), and he preaches on important subjects. The second, Tanai de' Nerli; the third, Pandolfo Rucellai; the fourth, Giovanni Cavalcanti; and the fifth, Piero Soderini; all Florentine citizens. And they left the next day.

On the same day a number of French arrived, who were the vanguard of the king, and lodged in the houses assigned to them, which were marked with chalk. This evening at about 2 o'clock (10 p.m.) a few strokes of the bell were heard from the Palagio; and immediately the Piazza was full of men, it being thought that a portamento was going to be summoned, for everyone was excited and distrustful, continually expecting great events.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1494

November 28

on Wednesday

23 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king left Florence after having dined, and went for the night to the Certosa, and all his men went before or after him, so that few remained here. It was said that Fra Girolamo of Ferrara, our famous preacher, had gone to the king and declared that he was not doing the will of God in stopping, and that he ought to leave. It was even said that he went a second time, when he saw that the king did not leave, and declared again that he was not following God's will, and that whatever evil should befall others would return on his head. It was thought that this was the cause of his leaving more speedily, because at that time the said Fra Girolamo was held to be a prophet and a man of holy life, both in Florence and throughout Italy. At the same time there came to Florence the captain of the French troops in Romagna, whose name was Begni,(1) and he told the king rather dictatorially that he ought to leave on every account, as the weather was favourable, and he declared that it would be ill to delay the advance. And in fact the king did leave, for he put more faith in this seigneur than in all the rest, and deservedly, as he was an extremely intelligent and worthy man, according to what was said; and this was in reality the strongest reason which induced him to leave.(2)

(1) Robert Stuart, Comte de Beaumont le Roger, Seigneur of Aubigny-sur-Nerre.

(2) On this day the Signori designed Guglielmo d'Antonio Pazzi, Braccio di Domenico Martelli, Niccolo Antinori, and Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici to go the following morning and accompany the king as far as Siena. Afterwards they substituted Francesco de' Rossi for the Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

November 28

on Wednesday

After a short, tense occupation of the city, and an intervention by Girolamo Savonarola (as well as the promise of a huge subsidy), the French army resumes its journey southward. Savonarola declares that by answering his call to penitence, the Florentines had begun to build a new Ark of Noah which had saved them from the waters of the divine flood.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 42: priest

1494

December 6

on Thursday

8 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

Fra Girolamo preached, and ordered that alms should be given for the Poveri Vergognosi(1) in four churches: Santa Maria del Fiore, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Croce, and Santo Spirito; which were collected on the following day, Sunday. And so much was given that it was impossible to estimate it: gold and silver, woollen and linen materials, silks and pearls and other things; everyone contributed so largely out of love and charity.

(1) The Company of Buonuomini, who care for the Poveri Vergognosi, was formed before 1521, and used to care for the wants of the prisoners in the Stinche and the Bargello. They met in the old church of San Martino, to which offerings were brought, and they later extended their administrations to other honourable poor in the city. In the church of San Martino the twelve Buonuomini are painted in twelve frescoed lunettes. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 74

1494

December 7

on Friday

1 day later

The said offering was made. And he preached again in Santa Maria del Fiore, and ordered that a procession should be made, in order to thank God for the benefits received.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 42: priest

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 74

1494

December 14

on Friday

7 days later

14th December (Sunday). We heard how those Frenchmen who were marking the houses in Rome had been driven away, and many had been killed; the Romans wishing to defend themselves and not accept the Frenchmen in their city.

This same day we heard that the Pope and the cardinals had entered the castle of Sant' Angelo, and that the Duke of Calabria had arrived there with a large force, so that it was judged that it would fare badly with the French. It was also said that the king had sent a proclamation to Pisa, to the effect that the Pisans should submit to the Florentines; otherwise the Florentines would make such war upon them that they would be entirely destroyed, at the expense of the said King of France; that is to say that the money which he was to receive would be used instead for the cost of such an expedition; which was not true, but there was always a great deal of talk.(1)

The same day Fra Girolamo did his utmost in the pulpit to persuade Florence to adopt a good form of government; he preached in Santa Maria del Fiore every day, and to-day which was a Sunday, he wished that there should be no women, but only men; he wished that only the Gonfalonier and one of the Signori should remain in the Palagio, and that all the offices of Florence should be there; and he preached much about State matters, and that we ought to love and fear God, and love the common weal; and no one must set himself up proudly above the rest. He always favoured the people and he insisted that no one ought to be put to death, but there must be other forms of punishment; and he continued to preach in this manner every morning. Many forms were drawn up, and there was much controversy among the citizens, so that every day it was expected that the bell would be rung for a parlamento.

(1) There must have been some truth in it, as we read in the Memoriale of Portoveneri, where there are so many notices of the rebellion and war of Pisa, that on the 4th December there reached this city a herald from the king with the articles which the latter had agreed to with the Florentines, in which it is said: "Everything must be given back that formerly belonged to the Florentines. And this day the said messenger of the King has gone to Sarzana and to Pietrasanta and to Fivizzano and to Bagnone and to Castel-Nuovo and all Luligiana, to consign it to the Florentines." This was agreed to in the treaty.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

December 16

on Sunday

2 days later

16th December (Tuesday). Nothing but the sermons of the said Frate.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 42: priest

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 77

1494

December 19

on Wednesday

3 days later

19th December (Friday). Many schemes of government were taken to the Palagio. Each Gonfaloniere made a scheme, as the Frate had proposed.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 42: priest

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 77

1494

December 21

on Friday

2 days later

21st December (Sunday). He preached again; and still he did not wish any women to come; he went on discoursing about State matters, and great fear was felt lest the citizen should not agree. Chi la volava lesso e chi arrosto (One wished it boiled and another roast): i.e . everyone had a different opinion, one agreed with the Frate, and another was against him; and if it had not been for him there would have been bloodshed.

This evening it was permitted by the Lord, about 2 at night (10 p.m.), in the Via tra' Ferravecchi,(1) near the Volta della Luna,(1) that my son Benedetto was stabbed in the face, across the cheek, by no means slightly; and we cannot think by whom. We believe it must have been a mistake, as he has never offended anyone or suspected anyone of having a grudge against him: it happened in punishment of our other sins. I freely pardon the aggressor, as I hope that the Lord may pardon me, and I pray God to pardon him and not send him to hell for this.

(1) Via fra' Ferravecchi = the present Via Strozzi; and the Volta della Luna was on the north side of it, between Via Vecchietia and Piazza Vittorio-Emmanuele. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1494

December 22

on Saturday

1 day later

22nd December (Monday). It was said that the king was still at Viterbo; everyone went on talking of the French, of Rome, and Pisa, and how Rome would not give a safe-conduct. The Duke of Calabria had arrived there, to resist the French.

This day many things were voted in the Palagio: Anyone who slew a man could not return to Florence; and a law as follows against the unmentionable vice: the first time the offender to be punished with gogna,(1) the second time, to be fastened to a pillar, and the third time, to be burnt; and many other laws, all recommended by the Frate.

(1) Alia gogna was when a prisoner was exposed on the outer wall of the prison of the Bargello, with his hands bound behind him to one of the iron rings, bare-headed, with his hat at his feet to receive soldi, and a placard on his breast upon which his crime was written. He had to remain there an hour, during which time the old bell of the prison was rung. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1494

December 28

on Friday

6 days later

28th December (Sunday). Fra Girolamo preached, and again wished no women to be present. There was a great crowd; it was judged that there were always 13 to 14 thousand people at his sermons. Everyone felt very distrustful, fearing some trouble in the beginning of this new government.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1495

January 1

on Tuesday

4 days later

1st January. The new Signoria entered into office, and it was a great joy to see the whole Piazza filled with citizens, quite different from other times, as a new thing, thanking God who had given this impartial government to Florence, and delivered us from subjection. And all this had been done at the instigation of the Frate.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1495

January 6

on Sunday

5 days later

6th January (Tuesday). The Epiphany. The "Eight," in searching for money, found in San Marco 1200 florins belonging to Ser Giovanni. Some gave the blame to Fra Girolamo; but in preaching he exonerated himself, saying that he had not known anything of this money, nor had he been applied to with regard to it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1495

January 11

on Friday

5 days later

11th January (Sunday). Fra Girolamo preached, and spoke much concerning the reforms in the city; and exculpated himself from various accusations, saying that there were devils who disturbed the life of the commune; and that they wrote forged letters, which made it appear as if the Frate had given Piero de' Medici hopes of returning in order to make the people turn against him. But nevertheless all this was untrue; he was entirely for the people and the common weal. He was calumniated by these foxes; but the truth would always prevail. It is the fact that he always encouraged this community of feeling amongst the people.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1495

January 13

on Sunday

2 days later

Girolamo Savonarola preaches his great Renovation Sermon to a huge audience in the Cathedral of Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 43: priest

1495

January 17

on Thursday

4 days later

17th January (Saturday). Fra Girolamo preached; and concerned himself much about this peace and union of the citizens; and many of them began to grow angry with him, saying, Questo Fraluccio ci fa capitare male (This wretched monk will bring us ill-luck).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1495

January 25

on Friday

8 days later

25th January. Fra Girolamo preached, and asked leave of absence, saying he had to go to Lucca. The people were much displeased.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Lucca was at 6:09 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1495

April 1

on Monday

2 months, 6 days later

1st April. Fra Girolamo preached, and said and testified that the Virgin Mary had revealed to him, that after going through much trouble, the city of Florence was to be the most glorious, the richest, and the most powerful that ever existed; and he promised this absolutely. All these things he spoke as a prophet, and the greater part of the people believed him, especially quiet people without political or party passions.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1495

April 9

on Tuesday

8 days later

p85 8th April. Fra Girolamo preached in the Palagio, confirming everything that he had said before.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 43: priest

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p.85

1497

March

1 year, 10 months, 27 days later

From Rome. Prudente giovane Buonarroto di Lodovico Bonarroti, in Florence.

In the name of God, this — day of March, 1497.

Dear Brother — for as such I esteem thee, etc., From thy brother Michelagniolo I have received thy letter, from which I derived the greatest comfort, chiefly because it contains news of your seraphic (sarafico) Frate Jeronimo, who has set the whole of Rome talking. They say here that he is a vile heretic : so much so that at all costs he ought to come to Rome and prophesy a little for these people here ; then they would canonise him. Wherefore let all his friends be of good courage.

Brother, thou art constantly in my thoughts ; wherefore be of good courage and strive to learn all thou canst, as thou art doing. I have told Frizzi(1) everything, and he understands the whole matter. Fra Mariano [da Genazzano] has nothing but evil to say of your prophet. I have nothing more to add. In my next letter I will give thee more information, for now I am in a hurry. There is no other news to give thee, save that seven paper bishops were made yesterday, and five of them were hanged by the neck. Bear my remembrances to all the members of thy family, and especially to Lodovico my father, for as such I esteem him : and when thou writest hither, commend me to Michelagniolo. No more. Written in the dark.

Thy Piero, in Rome.

(1) Federigo di Filippo Frizzi, a Florentine sculptor, who was subsequently entrusted with the task of restoring Michelangelo's statue of the Risen Christ, in the Minerva at Rome.

The "paper bishops" referred to in this letter were offenders against the law who were condemned to stand in the pillory with paper caps on their heads. Buonarroto was born on May 26th, 1577, and was younger than Michelangelo by two years.

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Source: Primary

Michelangelo; Buonarroti, Michelangelo, trans. Robert W. Carden. "Michelangelo. A Record of His Life", p. 5-6

1497

May 12

on Wednesday

2 months, 12 days later

Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola and threatens the Florentines with an interdict if they persisted in harbouring him.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 66: pope
Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 45: priest

1498

March 18

on Friday

10 months, 10 days later

After much debate and steady pressure from a worried Florentine government, Girolamo Savonarola withdraws from public preaching.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1498

May 23

on Monday

2 months, 6 days later

Fra Girolamo Savonarola, Fra Domenico, and Fra Silvestro Maruffi are led out in the morning into the main square where, before a tribunal of high clerics and government officials, they were condemned as heretics and schismatics, and sentenced to die forthwith. Stripped of their Dominican garments in ritual degradation, they mounted the scaffold in their thin white shirts. Each on a separate gallows, they were hanged, while fires were ignited below them to consume their bodies. To prevent devotees from searching for relics, their ashes were carted away and scattered in the Arno.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 46: priest

1527

May 16

on Monday

28 years, 12 months, 4 days later

In Florence, the Piagnon, a group devoted to the memory of Girolamo Savonarola, drive out the Medici for a second time, re-establishing the Republic of Florence until 1530.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1527

1530

August 3

on Sunday

3 years, 2 months, 20 days later

In the Battle of Gavinana, Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert. The Piagnon (followers of the memory of Girolamo Savonarola) are overthrown, ending the Siege of Florence, and the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de' Medici.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

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