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Pope Julius II

Italian pope and cardinal born in Albisola (1443) and died in Rome (1513), aged 70

Employees

Raphael (1483-1520) Umbrian High Renaissance painter, architect and poet

Giuliano da Sangallo military engineer, sculptor and architect

Michelangelo (1475-1564) Florentine High Renaissance military engineer, sculptor, painter, architect and poet

1443

December 5

on Tuesday

Giuliano della Rovere is born in Albisola.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Albisola was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1460s

16 years, 1 month, 1 day later

Giuliano della Rovere serves as altar boy to Pope Sixtus IV.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 17: pope; cardinal
Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 46: pope

1471

11 years, 3 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elevated to bishop of Carpentras, in France.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1471

December 15

on Friday

11 months, 18 days later

Giuliano della Rovere is created Cardinal Priest of San Pietro In Vincoli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in San Pietro In Vincoli was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 28: pope; cardinal

1472

17 days later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Lausanne.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 29: pope; cardinal

1473

1 year, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Catania.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 30: pope; cardinal

1476

3 years later

Cardinal della Rovere acquires the bishopric of Coutances, along with the archbishopric of Avignon.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 33: pope; cardinal

1478

2 years, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere holds the episcopal see of Mende.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 35: pope; cardinal

1480

2 years later

Cardinal della Rovere is sent as legate to the Netherlands and France to settle the quarrel concerning the Burgundian inheritance between Louis XI and Maximilian of Austria, to obtain the help of France against the Turks, and to effect the liberation of Cardinal Balue whom Louis had held in strict custody since 1469 on account of treasonable acts.

Attachments
Giuliano della Rovere, as cardinal (left), with uncle and patron Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus IV (right)
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1519)
"Louis XI visiting the Cardinal La Balue", by Jean-Leon Gerome

Astronomical Events

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 21: king
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 37: pope; cardinal
Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 59: cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 57: king

1482

Winter

2 years, 3 months, 1 day later

Cardinal della Rovere returns to Rome with Cardinal Balue, who he has liberated from the custody of Louis XI.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Cardinal Jean Balue (1421-1491), aged 61: cardinal
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 39: pope; cardinal
King Louis XI (1423-1483), aged 59: king

1483

9 months, 5 days later

Cardinal della Rovere's mistress gives birth their illegitimate daughter, Felice della Rovere.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 40: pope; cardinal

1484

1 year later

Cardinal della Rovere protects the Colonna family against the cruel persecutions of Cardinal Girolamo Riario.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 41: pope; cardinal

1492

8 years, 2 days later

Cardinal della Rovere, jealous and angry over Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's election to pope, accuses Borgia of being elected over him by means of simony and a secret agreement with Ascanio Sforza.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 49: pope; cardinal
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 61: pope

1503

November 1

on Sunday

11 years, 10 months, 6 days later

Cardinal della Rovere is elected to the papacy, and is known as Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 60: pope; cardinal

1505

1 year, 2 months, 2 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II, commissioned to create the tomb for the pope, and spends eight months in the quarries of Carrara selecting marble for the tomb.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 62: pope; cardinal

1506

1 year later

Pope Julius II gives his illegitimate daughter, Felice, in marriage to Giovanni Giordano Orsini.

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Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

January 14

on Sunday

13 days later

The classical statue of Laocoön and His Sons is unearthed in Rome. On the recommendation of Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo, Pope Julius II purchases it and places it on public display in the Vatican a month later.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 22

on Monday

8 days later

The Swiss Guard arrives at the Vatican, to serve as permanent ceremonial and palace guards under Pope Julius II.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1506

January 24

on Wednesday

2 days later

Pope Julius II confirms papal approval of the mare clausum policy being pursued by Spain and Portugal amid their explorations and approves the changes of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas to previous papal bulls.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

April 18

on Wednesday

2 months, 24 days later

Pope Julius II lays the cornerstone of the Basilica of St. Peter's.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

1506

May 2

on Wednesday

14 days later

p22 From Florence, May 2nd, 1506.
To the Florentine Maestro Guliano da San Gallo Architect to the Pope, in Rome.

Guliano (sic), I learn from a letter sent by you that the Pope was angry at my departure, that he is willing to place the money at my disposal and to carry out what was agreed upon between us ; also, that I am to come back and fear nothing. As far as my departure is concerned, the truth is that on Holy Saturday I heard the Pope, speaking at table with a jeweller and the Master of the Ceremonies, say that he did not want to spend another baiocco on stones, whether small or large, which surprised me very much. However, before I set out I asked him for some of the money required for the continuance of my work. His Holiness replied that I was to come back again on Monday: and I went on Monday, and on Tuesday, and on Wednesday, and on Thursday as His Holiness saw. At last, on the Friday morning, I was turned out, that is to say, I was driven away : and the person who turned me away said he knew who I was, but that such were his orders. Thereupon, having heard those words on the Saturday and seeing them afterwards put into execution, I lost all hope. But this alone was not the whole reason of my departure. There was also another cause, but I do not wish to write about it ; enough that it made me think that, if I were to remain in Rome, my own tomb would be prepared before that of the Pope. This is the reason for my sudden departure. Now you write to me on behalf of the Pope, and in similar manner you will read this letter to the Pope. Give His HoHness to understand that I am more eager to proceed with the work than ever I was before, and that if he really wishes to have this tomb erected it would be well for him not to vex me as to where the work is to be done, provided that within the agreed period of five years it be erected in St. Peter's, on the site he shall choose, and that it be a beautiful work, as I have promised : for I am persuaded that it will be a work without an equal in all the world if it be carried out.

p24 If His Holiness now wishes to proceed, let him deposit the said money here in Florence with a person whose name I will communicate to you. I have a quantity of marble in preparation at Carrara, which I will have sent here, and I will do the same with the marble I have in Rome, although it will entail a considerable loss to me : but I should disregard that if by this means I could obtain permission to carry out the work here. From time to time I would despatch the pieces as they are finished, in such a manner that His Holiness would be as well content as if I were working in Rome — more, indeed, because he would see the completed works without having any anxiety. With regard to the aforesaid money and work, I will bind myself in any way His Holiness may direct, and I will furnish whatever security here in Florence he may require. Let it be what it may, I will give him full security, even though it be the whole of Florence. There is yet one thing I have to add : it is this, that the said work could not possibly be done for the price in Rome, but it could be done here because of the many conveniences which are available, such as could not be had in Rome. Moreover, I should do better work and take more interest in it, because I should not have to think about a number of other things. However, Guliano mio carissimo I beg of you to let me have an answer, and quickly. I have nothing further to add. This 2nd day of May, 1506.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO,
Sculptor, in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Carrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1506

November 6

on Tuesday

6 months, 8 days later

Pope Julius II personally leads his troops into Bologna, retaking the city from the excommunicated tyrant Giovanni II Bentivoglio.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 63: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1506

1507

January 22

on Tuesday

2 months, 17 days later

p27 From Bologna, January 22nd, 1507.

To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony, in Florence. To be delivered at the shop of Lorenzo Strozzi, Arte della Lana, opposite to the Apothecary, della Palla, near the Porta Rossa.

BUONARROTO, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee, from which I learn that Lodovico has arranged with Francesco about Mona Zanobia's farm. Thou tellest me also that Giovansimone has begun to attend the same shop as thyself, and that he wants to come here to Bolognia. I have not replied before because I have not had time until to-day. With regard to the above-mentioned farm, thou sayest that Lodovico has entered into an agreement, and that he is going to write to me on the subject. Please understand that if he has written to me I have never received any letter which deals with the matter please tell him this, therefore, so that he may not p28 be surprised at receiving no reply to his letter, if he has written one.

I will tell thee my views about Giovansimone, so that thou mayest impart them to him on my behalf. I do not wish him to come here before I have cast the figure I have in hand, and for this I have a sufficient reason, though do not ask me what it is. Enough that as soon as I have cast the figure I will see that he shall come here without fail. It will then be less inconvenient, as I shall be released from the expenses which I have now to bear.

I expect that by the middle of Lent my figure will be ready for casting, and I pray God that it may turn out well ; for if it be successful I hope to stand well with this Pope and to receive his favour. If I should cast it at mid-Lent and it should turn out well I hope to be in Florence for the Easter festival, and then I will assuredly do by you as I promised, if ye continue to be diligent.

Tell Piero Aldobrandini that I have entrusted his blade to the best worker in such things I can find, and that he promises to let me have it during the coming week. As soon as I receive it I will send it on, if I consider it satisfactory : if not, I will have another made. Tell him also not to be surprised if I have not served him as quickly as I ought, for I have so little time to spare that I could not do otherwise than I have done.

This twenty-second day of January, 1506.

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO BUONARROTI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1507

February 1

on Friday

10 days later

p32 Bologna, February 1st, 1507. To Buonarroto di Lodovico Simone, in Florence.

Buonarroto, — I learn from thy letters how matters have gone with regard to the small farm : it has given me the greatest satisfaction and I am well pleased, provided it is a sure thing.

I have made careful enquiries about this Baronciello business, and from what I have heard it is a far more serious thing than ye make it out to be : and for my part, seeing that it is unfair, I would not ask it of him. We are all of us under considerable obligation to Baronciello, and we will do our best to fulfil those obligations, especially such as lie in our power. Thou must know that on Friday evening, at the twenty-first hour. Pope Julius came to my house where I am at work, and remained for about half an hour while I was working. Then he gave me his blessing p33 and went away, showing himself well satisfied with what I am doing. For all this it seems to me we ought to thank God very heartily ; and so I beg you to do, and to pray for me.

I have to inform thee further that on Friday morning I sent away Lapo and Lodovico, who were with me. I turned Lapo away because he was conspiringagainst me and is a rogue, and would not do as he was bid. Lodovico is better, and I would have kept him on for another two months ; but Lapo, in order not to be the only one blamed, corrupted him in such a way that both have been sent off. I tell thee this not because I am troubled by them — for they are not worth three quattrini the two together — but so that, if they come to talk to Lodovico, he should not be surprised. Tell him on no account to listen to them: if thou desirest to know more go to Messer Agniolo, Herald of the Signoria, for I have sent him a full account of the matter, and he of his kindness will give thee all information.

I note what thou sayest about Giovansimone. It pleases me that he should enter thy master's shop and endeavour to make progress : encourage him to do his best, for if this matter turns out well I have hopes of placing you in a good position, if ye are prudent. With reference to that other land beside Mona Zanobia's, if Lodovico likes it tell him to enquire into the matter and let me know. I believe, and it is said here, that the Pope will go hence about Carnival.

On the first day of February, 1506 (1507).

MICHELAGNIOLO DI LODOVICO DI BUONARROTA SIMONI, Sculptor, in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

Buonarrotto Buonarotti (1477-1528), aged 30
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 64: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Michelangelo; p. 32-3

1507

February 8

on Friday

7 days later

p34 From Bologna. To Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarrotta Simoni, in Florence. The 8th day of February, 1506 (1507).

Most Revered Father, — I have to-day received a letter from you, from which I learn that Lapo and Lodovico have been talking to you. I am content that you should rebuke me, because I deserve to be rebuked as a wretch and a transgressor quite as much as anyone else, and perhaps more. But you must understand that I have not transgressed in any wise in the matter for which you rebuke me, either against them or against anyone else, unless it be that I have done more than I ought. All the men with whom I have ever had dealings know very well what I give them ; and if anyone knows it, Lapo and Lodovico are the two who know it best of all, for in a month and a half one of them has had twenty-seven broad ducats and the other eighteen broad ducats, each with their expenses. Therefore I beg of you not to be carried away by their story. When they complained about me you ought to have asked how long they were with me and how much they had received from me then you would have had to ask them what cause they had for complaint. But the reason of their great anger, particularly of that rascal Lapo, is this they had given it out on all sides that they were the men who were doing this work, or rather, that they were in partnership with me ; and they never realised — Lapo in particular — that he was not the master until I sent him off. Only then did he understand that he was in my service ; and having already given p35 a great deal of trouble and caused the Pope's favour to show signs of declining, it appeared a strange thing to him that I should drive him away like a beast. I am sorry that he should still have seven ducats of mine, but when I return to Florence he shall most assuredly pay me back, though if he has any conscience he would also feel obliged to give me back the other money he has received. But enough. I shall say no more about it as I have written a sufficiently full account of their performances to Messer Agniolo (the Herald). I beg you to go to him, and if you can take Granaccio with you, do so, and let him read the letter I have written so that he may understand what abject creatures they are. But I beg of you to keep silent as to what I have written about Lodovico, for if I cannot find anyone else to come here and cast the metal I shall endeavour to get him back, because as a matter of fact I have not dismissed him ; only Lapo, who received more blame than he cared to support alone, lightened his own load by corrupting Lodovico. You will learn the whole matter from the Herald, and also how you are to act. Do not have any dealings with Lapo, for he is too great a scoundrel, and we have nothing to do with either of them.

With reference to Giovansimone, it does not seem to me advisable that he should come here, as the Pope is leaving during Carnival ; I believe he will visit Florence on the way, and he does not leave affairs here in good order. According to rumour, there is a want of confidence prevalent here which it is wise neither to inquire into nor to write about : but enough that, even if nothing were to happen — and I believe p36 nothing will — I do not want to have the care of brothers on my shoulders. Do not be surprised at this and do not breathe a word of it to anyone, because I have need of assistants, and I should find none willing to come if this were known. And besides, I still think things may turn out well. I shall soon be back in Florence and I will behave in such a manner as to satisfy Giovansimone and the others, if it please God ! To-morrow I will write you another letter with reference to certain moneys I wish to send to Florence, telling you what to do with them. I understand about Piero ; he will answer on my behalf, for he is a good fellow, as he has always been.

Your MICHELAGNIOLO, in Bolognia.

P.S. I have something else to add in reply to the curious behaviour Lapo attributes to me. I want to tell you one thing, and it is this. I bought seven hundred and twenty pounds of wax, and before I bought it I told Lapo to find out where it could be got, and to settle the price, saying that I would give him the money so that he could buy it. Lapo went, and came back again, and told me that it could not be got for a farthing less than nine broad ducats and twenty bolognini the hundred (pounds), which is equal to nine ducats forty soldi. He added that I ought to take the opportunity without delay because I had been very fortunate. I replied that he was to go and find out whether he could get the odd forty soldi per hundred knocked off and that I would then buy it. He answered that the Bolognesi were of such a nature that they would not abate one farthing of the price p37 they had asked. This raised my suspicions, and I let the matter drop. Later in the same day I called Piero aside and told him secretly to go and ask the price of the wax per hundred. Piero went to the same man as Lapo and bargained with him for eight and a half ducats, to which price I agreed, and afterwards I sent Piero to receive his commission, and he got that also. This is one of my strange performances. Of a truth I know it seemed strange to him that I was able to see through his deceit. It was not enough for him to receive eight broad ducats a month and his expenses, but in addition he tried to swindle me ; and he may have swindled me on many occasions of which I know nothing, for I trusted him. I have never met a man who appeared more honest, so I suppose his straightforward look must have misled many another person. Therefore do not trust him in anything, and pretend not to see him.

Notes

The Francesco Granaccio mentioned here was a painter and a fellow-student with Michelangelo in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. He studied also with Michelangelo in the Medici Garden at San Marco.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1507

February 24

on Sunday

16 days later

p38 From Bologna, February 24th, (1507).
To Buonarroto di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simony
in Florence.

BUONARROTO, — It is already fifteen days since I sent certain moneys to Lodovico in Florence with certain instructions, and I have never had a reply. I am much surprised at it. Tell Lodovico, therefore, to let me know if he has received them, and if he has done as I asked ; tell him to let me know without fail, because I am annoyed about it and marvel at his want of perception. He is the sort of man that one would entrust with important business again ! I should have expected him to write a hundred letters, to make sure that at least one should reach me. See to it that he informs me without fail as to what steps he has taken and that the letter is sent in such a way as to reach me.

Yesterday I sent to see if Piero's dagger was finished and found that it had still to be gilt. The man has kept me waiting for a month, but the truth is that he was not able to do otherwise, for owing to the departure of the Court he has had to supply weapons to all the courtiers and has had a very great deal to do. It p39 is for this reason he has kept me waiting. Tell Piero not to be anxious, for in any case he shall have it in a few days. The Pope went away on Monday morning at the sixteenth hour, and if thou desirest to learn in what state he has left my affairs, go to the Herald and he will tell thee. I have no time to write.

The twenty-fourth day of February.
MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Source: Primary

p.38-9

1507

May 2

on Thursday

2 months, 7 days later

p. 45 From Bologna, May 2nd, (1507).
To Giovan Simone di Lodovico di Buonarrota Simoniy
in Florence.

Giovan Simone, — Some days ago I received a letter from thee which gave me much pleasure. Since then I have written thee two letters, and I suppose I have had the same good fortune with respect to them that I usually have, that is to say, I suppose they have not arrived.

I may tell thee that, please God, two months will not pass before I return to Florence : and all that I have promised to do for Buonarroto and for thee I am prepared to carry out. I do not write to thee of my intentions at full length, nor do I say how eager I am to help you, because I am loath that others should get to know of our affairs : be of good cheer, however, for greater — or rather, better — things are in store for thee than thou thinkest. I have no more to tell thee on this head. Thou must know that here everyone is preparing for war, and this is the fourth day that the whole district has been under arms and a prey to rumoured dangers, with which the Church in especial is threatened : the cause of it being the Bentivogli, p46 who have made an attempt to enter the city with a great following of people. The high courage and prudence of his lordship the Legate, however, and the admirable precautions he has taken have, I believe, saved the patrimony from them once more, since at the twenty-third hour this evening we had news from their forces that they were turning back again with small honour to themselves, No more. Pray God for me : and live in happy expectation, because soon I shall be back in Florence.

The 2nd day of May.

MICHELAGNIOLO,
in Bolognia.

Note

The Bentivogli, sometime lords of Bologna, had been driven out by the Papal forces, and it was as a result of this reoccupation that Julius visited the city, as related in Michelangelo's letters. Shortly after the Pope's departure, however, Annibale Bentivoglio made the attempt to which this letter refers, but was repulsed by the Papal Legate, the Cardinal di Pavia.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

8 months, 4 days later

Michelangelo is summoned to Rome by Pope Julius II and asked to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1508

May 10

on Sunday

4 months, 10 days later

p. 50

May 10th, 1508 :

"I record that on this tenth day of May, in the year one thousand five hundred and eight, I, Michelagniolo, sculptor, have received from his Holiness, our p.51lord Pope Julius the Second, five hundred ducats of the Camera, which were paid to me by Messer Carlino, Chamberlain, and by Messer Carlo degli Albizzi, on account of the paintings in the vault of the Chapel of Pope Sixtus, on which I begin to work this day, under the conditions and stipulations set forth in the document prepared by His Most Reverend Lordship of Pa(via) and subscribed by my hand.

"For the assistant painters who are to come from Florence, who will be five in number, twenty gold ducats of the Camera each, with this proviso : that is to say, when they have arrived and have entered into an agreement with us, the aforesaid twenty ducats which each will have received shall be reckoned as part of their wages, these wages to be due as from the day of their departure from Florence. And if they shall not enter into an agreement with us, they are to retain one-half of the said sum for the expenses of their journey and for their time."

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1508

December 10

on Thursday

7 months, 4 days later

The League of Cambrai is formed as an alliance against the Republic of Venice between Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1508

1508

Winter

Raphael is invited to Rome by the new pope, Julius II, perhaps at the instigation of the papal architect, Bramante. Raphael dwells in Rome until his death.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal
Bramante (1444-1514), aged 64: architect
Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet

1508

Winter

Raphael is commissioned by Pope Julius II to fresco his private library at the Vatican Palace.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Raphael (1483-1520), aged 25: painter; architect; poet
Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 65: pope; cardinal

1509

April 27

on Tuesday

1 year, 26 days later

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict and excommunication for refusing to cede part of Romagna to papal control.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1509

1509

Spring

Pope Julius II places Venice under interdict.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 66: pope; cardinal

1510

September

1 year, 8 months, 3 days later

King Louis XII convokes a synod of French bishops at Tours, where it is decreed that the pope, Julius II, has no right to make war upon a foreign prince, and, in case he should undertake such a war, the foreign prince had the right to invade the Ecclesiastical States and to withdraw his subjects from their obedience to the pope.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 67: pope; cardinal

1511

January 20

on Friday

4 months, 21 days later

Pope Julius II braves the inclemency of the weather and marches against Mirandola and takes it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Mirandola was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

May 23

on Tuesday

4 months, 3 days later

The French army makes a descent upon Bologna which Pope Julius II had left nine days previously, drive out the papal troops and reinstate the Bentivogli.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Bologna was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 25

on Friday

3 months, 4 days later

Pope Julius II falls dangerously ill and for a time his life is despaired of.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

August 28

on Monday

3 days later

Pope Julius II recovers from a near mortal illness.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 1

on Friday

4 days later

Some of the cardinals are displeased with the pope's anti-French policy, and five of them go so far as to convoke a schismatic council at Pisa.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

September 7

on Thursday

6 days later

Pope Julius II condemns the heresy of Piero de Lucca concerning the Incarnation.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

October 4

on Wednesday

27 days later

Pope Julius II forms the so-called Holy League or League of Cambrai, which includes only the pope, the Venetians, and Spain.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1511

November 17

on Friday

1 month, 14 days later

England joins the Holy League of Pope Julius II and is soon followed by the emperor and by Switzerland.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in England was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 68: pope; cardinal

1512

April 11

on Thursday

4 months, 26 days later

The French are defeated in the bloody battle of Ravenna against Pope Julius II's League of Cambrai and are driven beyond the Alps.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ravenna was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 69: pope; cardinal

1513

February 21

on Friday

10 months, 16 days later

Pope Julius II dies of fever in Rome.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 70: pope; cardinal

1516

2 years, 10 months, 14 days later

While Michelangelo is in Rome a reduced plan for The Tomb of Pope Julius II is adopted by him and the executors of the estate of Pope Julius II.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

1524

March 24

on Monday

8 years, 2 months, 25 days later

Michelangelo's friend Cardinal Leonardo Grosso writes to him from Rome, on Michelangelo's depression at the course of the suit against him by the heirs of Pope Julius II regarding the incompletion of the Pope's tomb:

I am also told that you have declined your pension, which seems to me mere madness, and that you have thrown the house up, and do not work. Friend and gossip, let me tell you that you have plenty of enemies, who speak their worst; also that the Pope and Pucci and Jacopo Salviati are your friends, and have plighted their troth to you. It is unworthy of you to break your word to them, especially in an affair of honour. Leave the matter of the tomb to those who wish you well, and who are able to set you free without the least encumbrance, and take care you do not come short in the Pope's work. Die first. And take the pension, for they give it with willing heart.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:03 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

Cardinal Lorenzo Pucci (1458-1531), aged 66: cardinal
Pope Clement VII (1478-1534), aged 46: pope
Jacopo Salviati (1461-1533), aged 63: politician
Pope Julius II (1443-1513): pope; cardinal

Source: Primary

Cardinal Leonardo Grosso; Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.242

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