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Medici family

1434

The Medici family seize power in Florence, marking the beginning of a fifty year rule.

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1471

37 years, 9 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici calculates that since 1434, his family has spent some 663,000 florins (approx. 460 million USD today) on charity, buildings and taxes. He writes,

I do not regret this for though many would consider it better to have a part of that sum in their purse, I consider it to have been a great honour to our state, and I think the money was well-expended and I am well-pleased.

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1476

5 years, 1 day later

David is sold

Signoria of Florence purchases the David by Andrea del Verrocchio from the Medici family.

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1478

June 13

on Thursday

2 years, 5 months, 14 days later

It was voted in Council to put on many new taxes, Sesti and Decime(1); and 50 thousand florins on the priests.

(1) The "Seventy," in the lifetime of Lorenzo, fearing the rigorous equality sought for by the Catasto, changed it to a form of subtle progressive taxation, which they called the Decima scalata. This apparently favoured the lower classes; there were certain cases in which the lower classes paid only a twentieth of their income, and the upper classes paid a Sesto (the sixth part). The Medici, however, were extremely clever in favouring their friends by sgravi (remissions), and oppressing their enemies by aggravi (increases) or demands for old debts. The citizens had to make a full declaration of their family, possessions and means, as for the Castato. A man who had twelve children was exempt, only having the pay the registration fee, so as to be eligible for office. (Trans.)

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The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1480

1 year, 6 months, 22 days later

The Anonimo Gaddiano claims that Leonardo da Vinci is living with the Medici and working in the Garden of the Piazza San Marco in Florence, a Neo-Platonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers.

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1488

8 years, 2 days later

Michelangelo's first Florentine period

Michelangelo's first years in Florence were marked by his apprenticeship to Ghirlandaio and the patronage of the Medici.

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Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), aged 39: painter

1494

November 11

on Sunday

6 years, 10 months, 16 days later

A man arrived in the Piazza, having entered the city by the Porta alla Croce, and said that he had passed men-at-arms and infantry on the road to Florence, belonging to Piero de' Medici. Cries of Popolo e Liberta immediately resounded everywhere, and in less than half an hour the whole city was in arms, men of classes rushing to the Piazza with incredible haste, and with deafening cries of Popolo e Liberta. I verily believe that if the whole world had come against them, such a union could not have been broken; it being permitted by the Lord that the people should make such a demonstration, during this danger from the French, who had come to Florence with the evil intent of sacking it. But when they saw of what sort the people were, their heart failed them. As soon as the truth was known, that no armed men were approaching, a proclamation was made ordering all to lay aside their weapons, an this was about the dinner-hour. The Gonfaloni, however, remained on guard day and night, with a good number of men; and horsemen and foot-soldiers belonging to the King of France were continually entering. The Signoria had had the Porta di San Friano(1) opened. This evening the King of France remained at Empoli; and more than 6 thousand men came before the king, and as many with him, and another 6 thousand behind him. And at this time the taxes were lightened and many pardons granted.(2)

(1) The Gate of San Frediano, towards Empoli. (Trans.)

(2) I here add, that the office of the Otto di Pratica (the Eight Councillors), the Consiglio del Settanta (Council of the Seventy), and that of the Hundred, all institutions of the Medici and their adherents, were done away with and annulled.

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The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Empoli was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1494

November 26

on Monday

15 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king went together with the Signoria to hear mass at Santa Maria del Fiore and here he swore to observe the articles which had been drawn up, and which were as follows: that we should lend him 120 thousand florins, giving him 50 thousand florins now, and the rest before the end of July 1495; and that he should leave and give back to us the forts of Pisa and all the others; and leave our territory free and unmolested; and that Piero de' Medici should be confined to boundaries 100 miles away from Florence; and that the price of 2000 florins placed upon his head should be taken off, and also off his brothers'. All this he swore to observe, on the altar of Santa Maria del Fiore, before Christ Jesus, on the word of a king.(1)

(1) These articles had been signed the preceding day in the palace of the Medici, where the king was quartered. The Marquis Gino Capponi published them in the Archivio Storico Italiano, I Serie, vol. I., pp. 348-75. There are twenty-seven articles, and the last twelve regard entirely the persons and interests of the Medici.

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The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1501

May 12

on Sunday

6 years, 5 months, 18 days later

Extract from a letter from Francesco Malatesta to Isabella d'Este mentioning Leonardo's viewing and valuation of some antique vases formerly owned by the Medici:

I showed them to Leonardo Vinci the painter. He praised all of them but especially the crystal one, because it is all of one piece and very clear.... and Leonardo said that he had never seen a better piece.

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The moon was waning crescent that night.

Source: Primary

Charles Nicholl; Nicholl, Charles. "Leonardo da Vinci. Flights of the Mind." E-book, p. 591.

1513

11 years, 7 months, 27 days later

The fragment of Leonardo's mural, the Battle of Anghiari, was protected with a wooden frame soon after the return of the Medici to Florence, when the rest of the room was dismantled and eliminated, as we everything referring to the preceding republican government.

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1527

April 29

on Friday

14 years, 4 months, 1 day later

Michelangelo helps Piero di Filippo Gondi

A note from Michelangelo shows the disturbed state of Florence at the time of the uprising against the Medici:

I record how, some days ago, Piero di Filippo Gondi asked for permission to enter the new sacristy at S. Lorenzo, in order to hide there certain goods belonging to his family, by reason of the perils in which we are now. To-day, upon the 29th of April 1527, he has begun to carry in some bundles, which he says are linen of his sisters; and I, not wishing to witness what he does or to know where he hides the gear away, have given him the key of the sacristy this evening.

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The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

Source: Primary

Symonds, John Addington: "The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti", Modern Library (New York), p.259

1527

May 16

on Monday

17 days later

In Florence, the Piagnon, a group devoted to the memory of Girolamo Savonarola, drive out the Medici for a second time, re-establishing the Republic of Florence until 1530.

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The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Source: Primary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1527

1530

August 3

on Sunday

3 years, 2 months, 20 days later

In the Battle of Gavinana, Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert. The Piagnon (followers of the memory of Girolamo Savonarola) are overthrown, ending the Siege of Florence, and the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de' Medici.

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The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1556

February 26

on Sunday

25 years, 7 months, 3 days later

Cellini's apprentice Fernando di Giovanni di Montepulciano accuses his mentor of having sodomised him many times. This time the penalty was a hefty fifty golden scudi fine, and four years of prison, remitted to four years of house arrest thanks to the intercession of the Medicis.

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The moon was a full moon that night.

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