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Pope Alexander VI

Spanish pope born in Xàtiva (1431) and died in Papal States (1503), aged 72

Employees

Giuliano da Sangallo military engineer, sculptor and architect

1492

Cardinal della Rovere, jealous and angry over Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia's election to pope, accuses Borgia of being elected over him by means of simony and a secret agreement with Ascanio Sforza.

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Pope Julius II (1443-1513), aged 49: pope; cardinal
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 61: pope

1494

December 10

on Monday

2 years, 11 months, 14 days later

10th December (Wednesday). Money was continually being found hidden in the Dogana (city customs), underneath coals and heaps of nails, etc., to which the above-mentioned citizens who were imprisoned confessed by degrees. It was said that the king had reached Viterbo, and that the Pope had consented to give him a safe-conduct.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 63: pope
King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 75

1494

December 22

on Saturday

12 days later

22nd December (Monday). It was said that the king was still at Viterbo; everyone went on talking of the French, of Rome, and Pisa, and how Rome would not give a safe-conduct. The Duke of Calabria had arrived there, to resist the French.

This day many things were voted in the Palagio: Anyone who slew a man could not return to Florence; and a law as follows against the unmentionable vice: the first time the offender to be punished with gogna,(1) the second time, to be fastened to a pillar, and the third time, to be burnt; and many other laws, all recommended by the Frate.

(1) Alia gogna was when a prisoner was exposed on the outer wall of the prison of the Bargello, with his hands bound behind him to one of the iron rings, bare-headed, with his hat at his feet to receive soldi, and a placard on his breast upon which his crime was written. He had to remain there an hour, during which time the old bell of the prison was rung. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1495

January 4

on Friday

13 days later

4th January (Sunday). We heard that the King of France had entered Rome by agreement,(1) but, nevertheless, they did not give up the Castel Sant' Agnolo to him. It was said that he had pillaged the Orsini.

(1) Giuseppe Molini, p. 22 of vol. i . of the Documents di Storia Italiana, publishes the agreement made on the 15th of this month between the Pope and the King.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 64: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 79

1495

January 8

on Tuesday

4 days later

8th January (Thursday). It was said that the King of France wished to have the Castel Sant' Agnolo and the Pope and the cardinals, and the brother of the Turk,(1) who were in the said castello, delivered over to him.

(1) This was Zim or Gemme, son of the great Maometto and brother of the reigning Bajazet II., with whom he was disputing the Empire, and therefore he had taken refuge with the Pope.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1495

February 5

on Tuesday

28 days later

5th February. The French Cardinal Sammalò,(1) who had just been made cardinal by the Pope, entered Florence. He had come here with the King of France as a bishop; and now he was returning to France. He had many horsemen with him. He was lodged in Santa Maria Novella in the papal apartments. All this time it was said that the King of France was in a bad situation, and there was cause for fear.

(1) Guillaume Briconnet, Bishop of Saint-Malo. From the 25th January, the Pisan ambassadors had written that the Reverandissimo of Saint-Malo, a man, they said, "of great intellect and authority," was going to be sent to Florence by the King of France, not on his way to France, but to remain in Tuscany or the neighbourhood, in order to preserve peace during the stay of the king in the kingdom of Naples; and in case of his going to Pisa begged the Signori to receive him and his suite with honour, "going to meet him outside, and with as many men" as was possible. He had left Rome the morning of the 27th January (Lettere, quoted i. 38).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

April 2

on Tuesday

1 month, 26 days later

2nd April. It was said that a league had been made between the Venetians, the Duke of Milan, the Emperor, the Pope, the King of Spain, and the Genoese; and we should be given till the end of April to decide whether we would join it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1497

May 12

on Wednesday

2 years, 1 month, 11 days later

Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola and threatens the Florentines with an interdict if they persisted in harbouring him.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 66: pope
Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), aged 45: priest

Agents

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