/>

Duke of Calabria

duke

1479

April 18

on Friday

The plague had increased to such an extent that I went away to my villa at Dicomano with all my family; leaving my apprentices to attend to the shop.

At this time Count Carlo came to Florence, and was appointed a Capitano, and two separate camps were formed, he going into the Perugian territory and defeating the papal troops, which departed utterly routed. And after this the ducal forces(1) could have been broken up; but through the fault of our Capitano, the Duke of Ferrara, and through the dissensions amongst the citizens, no action was taken, or else the enemy would certainly have been conquered. The Duke of Calabria pitched his camp before Colle. People continually deceive us, and we cannot be victorious, as God punishes us for our sins.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Perugia was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Colle di Buggiano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1479

November 15

on Saturday

7 months, 1 day later

The Duke of Calabria took Colle di Valdelsa. He had besieged it for about seven months before he was able to take it; the mortars had been fired against it 1024 times, so that the greater part of the walls was destroyed. And now the enemy went into quarters.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1479

December 23

on Tuesday

1 month, 8 days later

Bernardo Bandini de' Baroncegli was captured at Constantinople, the Grand Turk having given him up. He had fled from Florence when Giuliano de' Medici was murdered, believing that his life would be safe at Constantinople.

News arrived that the Duke of Calabria had taken possession of Siena, but it was not true. However, to all intents and purposes, he was master of the place, for the Sienese were helpless, having left him come in with all his troops, and he did what he chose.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1480

April 28

on Wednesday

4 months, 7 days later

Messer Piero Vespucci(1) was liberated from prison, and left Florence, and went to the Duke of Calabria at Siena and stopped there.

At this time it was noised abroad that the Pope had made a league with the Venetians, the Sienese, and the Duke of Urbino.(2) It was not true.

(1) The Duke of Calabria, and his father King Ferdinand, had made urgent solicitations in favour of Vespucci.

(2) Federigo di Montefeltro.

Attachments
Portrait of Federico da Montefeltro, by Piero della Francesca

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1480

May 7

on Friday

9 days later

Ten Sesti and one Decima were voted; and a Sgravo (decrease) of 3 thousand florins was made and an Aggravo (increase) of a thousand florins.(1)

At this time the Duke of Calabria was sent a sum of 30 thousand florins, on several occasions. It may be imagined what need there was for these taxes of Sesti and Decime. We Florentines have the wise custom of giving money in payment to everyone who does us an injury, and who destroys and pillages our territory. And this is not a solitary instance; it will always be the same; anyone who wants money from the Florentines has only to do them an injury.

(1) A Sgravo means that some taxes were lowered or remitted; whilst on others there was an increase (Aggravo). See note to 13th June, 1478. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1480

June 20

on Sunday

1 month, 14 days later

The Duke of Calabria confined within limits 18 knights and citizens of Siena. He also kept his soldiers in the city, so that he was master of the situation. And the Sienese did not consider it at all just that he should act in this way, but he chose to do so. He had the idea of acting in the same way with regard to us; but please God, by a great miracle, it happened that on the 6th August the Turkish army came to Otranto and began to besiege it; so it was necessary to leave our neighbourhood, at the king's command, and return to defend the kingdom. The Turks were encamped in three places, being at Rodi (Rhodes), and with the Hungarians, besides at Otranto.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Rhodes was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

April 28

on Friday

1 year, 10 months, 12 days later

The Duke of Urbino came to Florence, lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and he was received with honour. And on the 29th he left for Milan, to take up his post as Capitano generale, stopping at Ferrara where Signor Roberto was. There they besieged a fort called Ficheruolo till the 1st June.(1)

And in these days the Duke of Calabria on the other hand was besieging Ostia, near Rome; and on the 10th June it was said that he had taken it, but this was not true. He sacked Corneto,(2) however. The Sienese now recalled some of their exiles.

(1) This is not correct; see note to 2nd July.

(2) These are all facts relating to the war which had lately broken out between the Venetians and the Pope on the one hand, and the Florentines, Milan, and Naples on the other. Federigo, Duke of Urbino, was Capitano generale, and Commander of the League against Venice, and Roberto di Sanseverino was in the service of the latter.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ostia was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Corneto was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1482

July 25

on Tuesday

2 months, 28 days later

We heard that the papal troops had defeated the Duke of Calabria, and had taken 300 men-at-arms and 19 leaders; and it was a fact.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1482

September 14

on Thursday

1 month, 21 days later

Roberto il Magnifico(1) died at Rome; he who had been so famous for his victory over the Duke of Calabria near Rome, when he took 300 men-at-arms. These two great captains died with a few days of each other, just when they imagined that they were at the height of their glory. What errors are made by the world! Men incur so many perils in order to slay and kill others, and to obtain a short-lived fame on this earth, not considering what it means to kill a man, and how soon they themselves will have to die and render an account.

(1) Roberto Malatesta, a captain sent by the Venetians to aid the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1483

January 5

on Friday

3 months, 23 days later

The Duke of Calabria came to Florence, leaving again on the 8th for Ferrara, and taking 800 horsemen with him; amongst his force were many Turks(1). He was received with great honour.

(1) Taken into his pay after the recapture of Otranto.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.
Sunrise in Otranto was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:10 PM.

1483

February 6

on Tuesday

1 month, 2 days later

Some of the Turks whom the duke was sending back, passed through. As 400 of them had deserted to the Venetians, he thought it best to send back the remainder; and we raised a Christian brigade for him here in Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1483

April 7

on Saturday

2 months later

The Sienese beheaded three of their citizens, one being Antonio Belandi, and another one of the knights made by the Duke of Calabria. Thus, in the opposition of parties, are treated those ambitious men who are not contented with the state of life to which God has called them.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1483

June 21

on Thursday

2 months, 15 days later

In a tabernacle in Orto Sa' Michele there was placed the figure of San Tommaso beside Jesus, and the Jesus in bronze, which is the most beautiful thing imaginable, and the finest head of the Saviour that has as yet been made; it is by Andrea del Verrocchio.

At this time the Duke of Calabria and Signor Roberto left Ferrara and went into Lombardy, where much damage was being down on all sides, and Signor Gostanzo was poisoned there.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1483

August 5

on Sunday

1 month, 15 days later

The exiled Sienese came against their city, as far as the fortress of Sitorno, but were unable to do anything. The citizens took many prisoners from the fortress and carried them into Siena.

In these days the Florentines destroyed a fortress in the upper valley of the Arno, called Monte Domenici, because it had rebelled.

During this August of 1483, the Duke of Calabria captured many fortresses in Lombardy from the Venetians,(1) and crushed the Venetian troops in such a manner that they could not hold out any longer. This occurred because the Church had excommunicated all those who gave aid to the Venetians, which prevented them having soldies from beyond the Alps. And the fleet of the King of Naples came into the port of Ancona, and that of the Venetians set out to find it. But on the 5th September, the king's fleet sailed away without waiting for their opponents. Great things had been expected if they had encountered each other.

(1) From the 12th December, 1482, the Pope had made peace with the League, and then associated himself with it in the war against Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Monte Domenici was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1485

December 1

on Tuesday

2 years, 3 months, 29 days later

At Rome they burnt the houses of the Orsini at Monte Giordano, and there was great excitement. The Duke of Calabria went to the help of the Orsini, because they were at war with the Pope; and the consequence was war in Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:46 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.

1485

December 11

on Friday

10 days later

There came a certain hot wind from the south, as if it were July, and all the walls of the houses dripped inside, all over Florence, even in the living-rooms, although they had been quite dry.

And in these days of February and March, soldiers were continually being hired, to send to the Duke (of Calabria), who was fighting against the papal forces; so that everyone in Florence who had taken part against the Church was excommunicated. All intelligent people wondered that anyone should go against the Church, especially as it had nothing to do with us. However, this mistaken conduct was the result of our sins and of our not fearing God.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1486

July 10

on Saturday

7 months, 1 day later

The Duke of Calabria was pressing the papal forces hard, and we were contributing to the cost of all this.

On this same day happened the death of Antonio, son of Guido, a singer who made improvisations, an extremely clever man. I mention him because he surpassed everyone else in this art.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1487

May 10

on Tuesday

10 months, 4 days later

We heard that the Duke of Calabria had had an encounter with Signor Roberto, and had a great battle, many men being slain. The duke had the advantage.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1489

January 15

on Tuesday

1 year, 8 months, 11 days later

The daughter(1) of the Duke of Calabria passed through Florence, on her way to wed the Duke of Milan,(2) with a large escort of horsemen, and many Signori and matrons and damsels in her train; a very great and noble company. A magnificent escort was sent to meet her, at incalculable cost.

(1) Isabella d'Aragona. (2) Giangalleazzo Sforza.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1494

August 5

on Sunday

5 years, 6 months, 23 days later

Piero de' Medici went to meet the Duke of Calabria, in the neighbourhood of Arezzo, to visit him, as one visits a great gentleman, a lord. The French ambassadors who were in Florence, having asked for their safe-conduct, and not receiving it at once, when they knew of this journey of Piero's began to suspect us of not being friendly to their king; at least this was said in the city, and it was said that the king threatened the Florentines. It was difficult to persuade them that we were faithful friends, and that their suspicions were without foundation. All this, however, I only heard by report.

In these days the fleet of the King of France arrived at Genoa, and there was much talk of an encounter.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1494

October 23

on Tuesday

2 months, 19 days later

We heard that the Duke of Calabria was dead, having died a natural death at Naples, possibly from despondency. It was extraordinary that father and son should have died within such a short interval, just when their country was in so much danger. Truly the fullness of time had come, and the hand of God struck. These things make us lay aside our pride, and take refuge in faith, when we consider that it will be the same for us all. Messer Francesco (Ah, you Frenchmen!), what is the use of subjugating other countries? May God pardon us our sins!

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

Agents

Occupations

Tags

Themes

Places

Hot Spots