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Don Ferante, King of Naples

Neopolitan king

1465

April 10

on Monday

There passed through Florence a son of Don Ferante, King of Naples, on his way to Milan to fetch the daughter of the Duke of Milan to be wedded to his brother. This lad was twelve or thirteen years old; he was made much of, and was lodged at Santa Maria Novella. And afterwards he returned through Florence with the bride, accompanied by many signori and dukes, with a large troop of horse; and besides other things, there were so many damsels and matrons in his train that it was magnificent. And at this time a man was found coining false money, and he was beheaded.

Attachments
Portrait of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait bust traditionally identified with Ippolita Maria Sforza, daughter of Francesco I, by Francesco Laurana
Portrait bust of Don Ferante, King of Naples
Alfonso II, brother of Duke Ferante, King of Naples

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1478

July 13

on Saturday

13 years, 3 months, 7 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

18 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

December 3

on Tuesday

4 months, 5 days later

The traitor from Pistoia, called Piero Baldinotti,(1) was taken in the executioner's cart and hung, and the son was imprisoned for life in the Stinche.

And at this time our soldiers went into quarters in the Pisan territory and elsewhere, and also the Capitano.

(1) He had wished to deliver Pistoia from the yoke of the Florentines, and give it to the King of Naples.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1479

January 10

on Friday

1 month, 8 days later

Four French ambassadors arrived at Florence, two of whom were going to the Pope and two to the King of Naples. They declared to the Signoria here, that they were going to make peace in Italy amongst Christians, and to settle all differences, giving judgement according to reason, and protested that their king would proceed against anyone who hindered peace; if the Pope were the one to be obdurate, he would be summoned to a Council; and when peace had been made, all the powers would undertake a crusade against the Unbelievers. They left on the 16th January.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1479

February 8

on Saturday

29 days later

Four galleys reached the Port of Pisa, two from the West and two from Barbary, which had joined forces. They came in great terror, for fear of the fleet of the king and the Genoese. It was considered a great piece of news.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1479

December 6

on Saturday

10 months, 1 day later

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence and went to the king at Naples.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1480

March 13

on Saturday

3 months, 8 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici arrived in Livorno, on his return from Naples. It was considered a marvel that he should have returned, as everyone had doubted the king allowing him to resume his post, and a still greater marvel that he should have been able to arrange everything so diplomatically. God help him!(1)

(1) Lorenzo de' Medici had gone on his own initiative, seeing that the war could no longer be borne, and not wishing to lose the favour and authority that he had acquired in Florence, especially after the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. The Florentines feared lest harm should come to him, and remembered the case of Jacopo Piccinino, who in 1465 unwarily put himself into the hands of the same king, and lost his life. Lorenzo, however, must have felt his ground carefully before moving, and when he returned after having concluded peace, he became more popular and powerful than ever.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Livorno was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1480

June 20

on Sunday

3 months, 9 days later

The Duke of Calabria confined within limits 18 knights and citizens of Siena. He also kept his soldiers in the city, so that he was master of the situation. And the Sienese did not consider it at all just that he should act in this way, but he chose to do so. He had the idea of acting in the same way with regard to us; but please God, by a great miracle, it happened that on the 6th August the Turkish army came to Otranto and began to besiege it; so it was necessary to leave our neighbourhood, at the king's command, and return to defend the kingdom. The Turks were encamped in three places, being at Rodi (Rhodes), and with the Hungarians, besides at Otranto.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Rhodes was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

March 14

on Tuesday

1 year, 8 months, 27 days later

A chancellor of Count Girolamo was hung at the windows of the Bargello. He had been captured by one of the Altoviti,(1) who was a proscribed rebel, and in order to be pardoned, found out this man, and caught him between Piombino and Pisa; and he won his pardon.

(1) This must have been the famous Cola Montano, a Bolognese; not a chancellor, but maintained by Count Girolamo Riario, and the Pope, and the King of Naples, and all the enemies of Florence, during the war following the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. That he was taken by one of the Altoviti is not mentioned elsewhere. Brought to Florence, he was put in the prison of the Bargello or Captain of the Piazza dei Signori; where he wrote with his own hand a Confessione, which is preserved in the State Archives of Florence, amongst the Carte Strozziane, still unedited, but well worth publishing, as important contributions to the history of that time. The order of the Signori e Collegi to the Otto di Custodia e Balia, of the 12th March, for the execution of Montano, still exist in the said archives amongst the papers of these magistrates. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Piombino was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:06 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1483

August 5

on Sunday

1 year, 4 months, 24 days later

The exiled Sienese came against their city, as far as the fortress of Sitorno, but were unable to do anything. The citizens took many prisoners from the fortress and carried them into Siena.

In these days the Florentines destroyed a fortress in the upper valley of the Arno, called Monte Domenici, because it had rebelled.

During this August of 1483, the Duke of Calabria captured many fortresses in Lombardy from the Venetians,(1) and crushed the Venetian troops in such a manner that they could not hold out any longer. This occurred because the Church had excommunicated all those who gave aid to the Venetians, which prevented them having soldies from beyond the Alps. And the fleet of the King of Naples came into the port of Ancona, and that of the Venetians set out to find it. But on the 5th September, the king's fleet sailed away without waiting for their opponents. Great things had been expected if they had encountered each other.

(1) From the 12th December, 1482, the Pope had made peace with the League, and then associated himself with it in the war against Venice.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Monte Domenici was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1493

January 29

on Sunday

9 years, 6 months later

We heard that the King of Naples was dead. Some said that he had died of despondency, because he was continually hearing that the King of France was on his way.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 23: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 56

1494

September 11

on Tuesday

1 year, 7 months, 15 days later

The fleet of the King of Naples was defeated at Rapallo by that King of France and the Genoese; not in an encounter, but the Neapolitan fleet rashly landed 3 thousand soldiers, thinking to take Rapallo; and in the end they were cut off by the Genoese and the king, and could not return to their ships. They fled towards the mountains, and were all killed or taken prisoner; the fleet of the King of Naples being disarmed and destroyed.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rapallo was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

October 23

on Tuesday

1 month, 12 days later

We heard that the Duke of Calabria was dead, having died a natural death at Naples, possibly from despondency. It was extraordinary that father and son should have died within such a short interval, just when their country was in so much danger. Truly the fullness of time had come, and the hand of God struck. These things make us lay aside our pride, and take refuge in faith, when we consider that it will be the same for us all. Messer Francesco (Ah, you Frenchmen!), what is the use of subjugating other countries? May God pardon us our sins!

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1495

February 25

on Monday

4 months, 5 days later

25th February. We heard that the King of France had taken Naples, and how he had entered it on the 21st without a blow. The King of Naples took refuge in the Castel dell' Uovo. This news was proclaimed here with great rejoicing, with drums and fifes, and the shops were shut. There were many bonfires and lights(1) on the towers, and other manifestations, to commemorate such a conquest.(2)

(1) These pangeli were pieces of stuff swimming in oil or dipped in grease, and placed in flat round tins.

(2) This is confirmed by a decree of the Signori on this date, which besides commanding the shops to be shut, also orders processions to be made on three successive mornings.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1496

April 5

on Sunday

1 year, 1 month, 10 days later

p85 5th April. We heard that the King of France had acquired the whole kingdom of Naples; and that the King of Naples had fled into Ischia, having lost hope.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Ischia was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 26: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p.85

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