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Luca Landucci

Florentine apothecary and diarist born in Florence (1436) and died in Florence (1516), aged 80

1450

October 15

on Tuesday

I record that on the 15th October, 1450, I, Luca, son of Antonio, son of Luca Landucci, a Florentine citizen, of about fourteen years of age, went to learn book-keeping from a master called Calandra; and, praise God! I succeeded.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1452

January 1

on Thursday

1 year, 2 months, 18 days later

Luca Landucci enters the shop of the apothecary Francesco, at the sign of the Scala, in the Mercato Vecchio in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 16: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 1

1453

February 1

on Tuesday

1 year, 1 month, 2 days later

The mother of Luca Landucci's father, Antonio, dies and is buried in San Piero Maggiore.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 17: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Landucci, Luca, trans. Alice de Rosen Jervis, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1927. "A Florentine Diary", p. 1

1454

November 3

on Friday

1 year, 9 months, 5 days later

My father Antonio received his mother's inheritance, of which we possess a document giving the details; he inherited all her property both in Florence and in the country; amongst the rest a house which was left as a legacy to her and Antonio for their lives. Messer Otto Niccolini arranged a compromise, by which the monks of Castello, who had the reversion, were to pay Antonio twenty-three lire a year for the rest of his life, taking back the said house, and they paid this sum as long as Antonio lived.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1458

March

3 years, 3 months, 29 days later

At this time the lantern of the cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore was begun; and the palace of Cosimo de' Medici; and the churches of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito, and the Badia on the way to Fiesole; also many houses near the walls in the neighbourhood of San Barnaba and Sant'Ambrogio, and in several other parts.

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Astronomical Events

1462

September 4

on Thursday

4 years, 6 months, 8 days later

I left Francesco, son of Francesco, the apothecary, at the sign of the Sun, who gave me, the sixth year, the salary of fifty florins, and I joined company with Spinello, son of Lorenzo, the hope of gaining more causing me to give up the gain which was sure. And we opened an apothecary's shop in the Mercato Vecchio (Old Market), at the sign of the King, which had formerly been the shop of a second-hand dealer, and had a very low roof. We raised the roof, and spent a fortune although I was unwilling to outlay so much. All was done without stint, one cupboard alone costing 50 gold florins. Seeing that the costs were so great, and that the said Spinelli had no money to produce, being very badly off, and considering besides that I had already spent 200 gold florins of my own, whilst he had not yet contributed a penny, although we had agreed to go shares.

Attachments
Piazza del Mercato Vecchio, by Giovanni Stradano

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1463

July 27

on Monday

10 months, 26 days later

And on the 27th July, 1463, we (i.e., Landucci and Spinello) agreed to separate, I telling him that I would leave him everything in the shop as it stood, without considering the cost, but that I must have my share of the profits, namely, 50 gold florins, for the time I had been with him, and he must repay me the money which I had put into it. And no agents were required. He replied that it should be so; but that I must give him a few months' time; and to this I agreed, as he gave me sufficient sureties, amounting to 200 gold florins, paid by his brother Lorenzo and Maestro Lorenzo, son of Maestro Leonardo.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1463

December 10

on Thursday

4 months, 16 days later

I left there (the apothecarium) on the 10th December, 1463, and began chaffering for the shop of San Pulinari; but we could not come to terms over it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1465

April 10

on Monday

1 year, 4 months, 2 days later

A young woman, who was the daughter of Zanobi Gherucci, was tried, for having killed, and then thrown into a well, the little girl of Bernardo della Zecca, a goldsmith, for the sake of stealing a pearl necklace and certain silver ornaments that the child wore round her neck. She was taken away in the executioner's cart, and was beheaded.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1465

April 10

on Monday

There passed through Florence a son of Don Ferante, King of Naples, on his way to Milan to fetch the daughter of the Duke of Milan to be wedded to his brother. This lad was twelve or thirteen years old; he was made much of, and was lodged at Santa Maria Novella. And afterwards he returned through Florence with the bride, accompanied by many signori and dukes, with a large troop of horse; and besides other things, there were so many damsels and matrons in his train that it was magnificent. And at this time a man was found coining false money, and he was beheaded.

Attachments
Portrait of Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait bust traditionally identified with Ippolita Maria Sforza, daughter of Francesco I, by Francesco Laurana
Portrait bust of Don Ferante, King of Naples
Alfonso II, brother of Duke Ferante, King of Naples

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1465

December 1

on Friday

7 months, 25 days later

There was an election in the Palagio, and Niccolo Soderini became Gonfaloniere. He reduced the tax on wine to 14 soldi, for which the people called down blessings on his head.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1466

January 12

on Friday

1 month, 12 days later

During the night the Arno began to be in flood, although there had not been a drop of rain but the snow had melted suddenly, so that the river entered the town and flooded it as far as the Canto a Monteloro, and benches from the Church of Santa Croce floated across to that point.

And the water went into the Piazza del Grano, reaching more than half-way up the door of the apothecary's shop and past the Palagio del Podesta. The river overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses, and filled the Prato and the Via della Scala. Many mules and horses were drowned in their stables, and all the wine-casks went floating about, mostly towards the Arno. This flood had come suddenly.

Attachments
The Arno flood of 1966
The Via della Scala today

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:13 PM.

1466

May 24

on Thursday

4 months, 12 days later

A Saturday and the eve of the Spirito Santo, I was wedded to a daughter of Domenico, son of Domenico Pagni, whose name was Salvestra. She had a dowry of 400 florins, in the state funds, praise God!

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1466

July 6

on Friday

1 month, 13 days later

A Sunday evening, I gave her the ring, the contract being made before Ser Giovanni, son of Francesco di Neri.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1466

September 1

on Saturday

1 month, 27 days later

On this day a parlamento (assembly) was held in the Piazza, and there was a great commotion in the city; the shops were closed several times, for fear that they might be looted. Niccolo Soderini, Messer Dietisalvi, and Messer Luca Pitti were exiled, for having been the leaders in the plot against Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, when it was attempted to murder him in his way from Careggi. And after the failure of the plot, many citizens connected with it were exiled, about twenty-seven of them being restricted within certain boundaries and made ineligible for office, according to the sentences inscribed on a document inserted in this book; except Messer Luca Pitti, who made an alliance with Giovanni Tornabuoni, giving him his daughter as wife, and in consequence he was reprieved from exile, and they remained friends and at peace.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1466

September 1

on Saturday

(Because of a falling out with Spinello) I therefore repaired to Giovanni da Bruscoli, who was opening the shop of the Agnus-Dei, and who gave me 36 florins a year, so that I was able to buy the shop of the Tornaquinci, on the 1st September, 1466.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1466

November 23

on Friday

2 months, 23 days later

Luca Landucci moves his wife into his own house in Florence.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 30: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 8.

1468

April 28

on Tuesday

1 year, 5 months, 7 days later

At about 15 in the morning (11 a.m.) we had the news that peace(1) was concluded. It was celebrated with bonfires, and the shops were closed.

(1) Alamanno Rinuccini (Ricordi, etc. Firenze, 1840), says that the news of the universal peace amongst all the powers of Italy, pronounced by the Pope two days previously, reached Florence at 13 ore (9 a.m.) on the 27th April.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1468

July 15

on Wednesday

2 months, 18 days later

A tax was decreed, called the Ventina(1), but it was not kept up long. Later on, in 1469, a renewal of the Catasta was decreed instead.

(1) A tax of the twentieth part.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1468

September 17

on Thursday

2 months, 4 days later

Eight men were taken in the hangman's cart to be hung, because they had intended to give over Castiglioni di Marradi(1).

(1) This rebellion was raised by the Signori of Forli and Faenza.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1470

April 15

on Friday

1 year, 7 months later

Fifteen men were brought from Prato, who had intended to give over the place, and they were hung(1).

(1) This was the plot of Bernardo Nardi.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Prato was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 9.

1471

May 26

on Friday

1 year, 1 month, 11 days later

I bought some of the first sugar that came here from Madeira; which island had been subdued a few years before by the King of Portugal, and sugar had begun to be grown there; and I had some of the first.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Madeira was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1471

May 27

on Saturday

1 day later

A Monday, the gilt copper ball was put up on the lantern of the cupola of Santa Maria del Fiore(1).

(1) Some writers place this fact in 1472, and others in 1474, some mistake the year and not the month; but Landucci states the truth, which is confirmed by the following two extracts taken from the Archives of the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore. On the 28th May, 1471, 2 lire 8 soldi given to Marchione, servant of the Opera (Administrative Office), to buy bread and wine for the workmen when they put up the ball. And on the 1st June 3 lire paid to the trumpeters of the Palagio; taken by Matteo di Madonna Andreagia, to be given them for their trouble when they played on the lantern when the cross was put up (Quaderna di Cassa, ad an).

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1471

May 30

on Tuesday

3 days later

They placed the cross on the said ball, and the canons and many other people went up and sang the Te Deum there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1471

July 28

on Friday

1 month, 29 days later

We had the news that Pope Pagolo was dead; he died on the 26th, Friday night, a little before dawn.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1471

August 9

on Wednesday

12 days later

Sisto IV. was elected Pope. He was from Savona; a Franciscan monk, and general of the Order; then he had been made cardinal by Pope Pagolo, and now Pope. he was elected on Friday, the even of San Lorenzo, and was crowned on San Sisto's day.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Savona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 57: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 10.

1471

September 23

on Saturday

1 month, 15 days later

Six ambassadors left Florence to visit the said Pope; namely: Lorenzo de' Medici, Messer Domenico Martegli, Messer Agnolo della Stuffa, Messer Bongianni Gianfigliazzi, Piero Minerbetti and Donato Acciaiuolo; and the said Pope made Piero Miberbetti a knight and he returned to Florence with this title.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

1471

October 22

on Sunday

29 days later

It was voted in the Palagio that sealed florins should no longer be used in trade,(1) but florins as large as grossi, at 5 lire 11 soldi, the florin of grossi, at 20 quattrini the grosso; and they were fixed at 20 per cent. higher. It was also voted that the property of the (Guelf) party should be sold.

(1) This decree is published by Vettori in his treatise on the gold florin. The fiorini larghi were called so because they were enlarged in circumference. It was decreed that they should be increased in weight by one old denaro, that is, by the 240th part; and they were also to be larger and flatter (fiorini larghi di grossi is only another name for fiorini larghi). They were worth more than the old fiorini di sugello; but their value on the market was continually fluctuating, and gradually increasing; in 1469, they were worth 5 lire 6 soldi; in 1485, 5 lire 4 soldi; in 1493, 6 lire 11 soldi; in 1500, 7 lire, and in 1531, 7 lire, 10 soldi. The scudo d' oro (a crown) was not coined till 1530. (Trans. from Orsini.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1472

April 27

on Saturday

6 months, 8 days later

We heard that Volterra had suddenly revolted; and troops were sent there.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1472

May 6

on Monday

9 days later

The Bishop of Volterra came as ambassador, but settled nothing. And on the 7th two mortars were loaded to go there. And on the 10th the Count of Urbino went there with men-at-arms; and by the 19th he took all their castles; and on the 24th he took many prisoners and captured their bastion. And on the 1st June their ambassadors arrived here to demand terms, and almost came to agreement, but everything was upset when they returned there. And so far two mortars had been used. And on the 8th June, the attacking party beheaded one of the Bartolini; and on the 9th they used another mortar.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1472

June 18

on Tuesday

1 month, 13 days later

A knight came to us (from Volterra) with the olive-branch, and an agreement was made, guaranteeing their property and persons. There was much rejoicing. But when the attacking-party entered, one of their constables, a Venetian, began to cry: "Sack it, sack it!" and our men began plundering, and it was impossible to make them observe their agreement. The count had this Venetian hung and also a Sienese. Nevertheless the unfortunate people fared badly. The count came to Florence on the 27th June, 1472; he was given the Patriarch's house, a banner, two basins, two silver ewers, 180 lire, and a helmet. He went away on the 1st July, 1473.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1473

June 2

on Monday

11 months, 19 days later

A bell was hung in Santa Maria del Fiore, the largest of all, recast.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.

1473

July 5

on Saturday

1 month, 3 days later

A lazzerino of the Mangango(1) was condemned to death, and was beheaded. He had committed the crime of violating a girl of about twelve years old in such a way that she died; and then he had buried her body outside the Porta alla Giusticia.(2) And later it was discovered, as the dogs raked it up. Sentences were issued against him, but he could not be found. When captured some years after, he confessed having committed the outrage.

(1) This may mean a worker at the Mangano (cloth-press). (2) This gate was not far from the Torre della Zecca Vecchia, and was so called because criminals passed under it on the way to execution (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1473

July 18

on Friday

13 days later

We heard that our archbishop, who was one of the Neroni of Florence, had died at Rome; and the archbishopric was given to the Cardinal of San Sisti, called Brother Piero.(1)

(1) Piero Riario, nephew of the Pope.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 59: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 11.

1473

December 11

on Thursday

4 months, 26 days later

A poor woman in Camaldoli,(1) who had several grown-up daughters, was praying to the crucifix in their house, when they saw it break into sweat, and speaking of it in the neighbourhood, people began to go and pray to it. When the Carmelite friars heard of it, they went and fetched it reverently and placed it in a tabernacle of the Cappella della Croce,(2) and it was worshiped there.

(1) A portion of the city near the gate of San Frediano, which received its name from an old monastery of the Camaldolensi. It is the abode of the roughest and poorest of the people, and the name was extended to a district near San Lorenzo (the Camaldoli of San Frediano, and the Camaldoli of San Lorenzo), the appellation now signifying "rough people." (Trans.)

(2) This is doubtless the crucifix known as La Providenza, and concerning which a certain G. F. B. published the Notizie (Florence, 1852).

Attachments
The village of Camaldoli today
The monastery of Camaldoli

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Camaldoli was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1474

September 25

on Friday

9 months, 18 days later

We received a letter written by Matteo Palmieri, captain of Volterra, which I saw and read; it related the following marvel, namely, that in these days there had been born in Volterra a boy (that is, a monster) which had the head of a bull, and three teeth, with a lump of skin on the head like a horn, and the top of the head was open like a pomegranate, with fiery rays coming out. Its arms were all hairy, and its feet were like a lion's with lion's claws. Its body was of the nature of a female of the human race, but its legs down to the feet were those of a bull like the head. And it lived about three hours. The mother died the fourth day. The midwives and the other women present half died of fried. And this was shown to the said Matteo as a terrible thing. And the said Matteo, captain of Volterra, wrote here to Florence with his own hand; and I copied the said letter in the actual words, neither omitting nor adding anything. And because the said Matteo was my father's intimate friend and my godfather, the letter itself came into my hands, although it was directed to other citizens.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1475

April 1

on Thursday

6 months, 8 days later

A lad of about twenty-three, a peasant from the neighbourhood of the Sieci, was arrested, who on Easter night had shut himself up in Santa Maria del Fiore, and hidden under the altar of Our Lady towards the Chapter-house; the next morning he robbed the Madonna of certain silver ornaments on her arms and legs and eyes, and behaved in a disgusting way to show his contempt. And imagine how utterly worthless this crazy fellow was, when he had only been liberated by the captain on Holy Thursday after having been imprisoned for theft. On Saturday he was hung from the Campanile. I have mentioned him rather than others, because having been let out of prison on Thursday, the very next Sunday he committed this outrage.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1475

May 1

on Saturday

1 month later

I, Luca Landucci, went to Rome for the Jubilee, and took with me my mother-in-law; and we travelled for fifteen days going and coming.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

Luca Landucci (1436-1516), aged 39: apothecary; diarist

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 12.

1476

April 26

on Wednesday

12 months, 1 day later

At about 15 in the forenoon (11 a.m.) in Santa Maria del Fiore, whilst high mass was being celebrated and the Host elevated, Giuliano, son of Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, and Francesco Nori were killed, near the choir of the said church towards the door which goes to the Servi; and Lorenzo de' Medici was wounded in the neck, and fled into the sacristy and escaped. They were killed in consequence of a certain conspiracy made by Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Franceschino de' Pazzi and Guglielmo de' Pazzi, the which Guglielma was he brother-in-law of Lorenzo de' Medici, his wife being a sister of theirs, called Bianca. And the sons of Messer Piero de' Pazzi were also there, that is, Andrea and Renato and Niccolo; and of the house of Salviati, there were Francesco, Bishop of Pisa, and Jacopo Salviati, who was son-in-law to Filippo Tornabuoni, and another Jacopo also a Salviati, and Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, Bracciolini and Bernardo Bandini of the house of Baroncegli, and Amerigo Corsi, and many others. The conspirators brought Cardinal di San Giorgio(1) here, who was a young man; he entered Florence on the day above-mentioned, and they all came together in Santa Maria del Fiore, and, as I have said, at the elevation of the Host seized their swords, and it is said that Francesco de' Pazzi struck Giuliano, and Bandini the other. And having killed Giuliano they wanted to kill Lorenzo, but did not succeed, as he fled into the sacristy. Meantime the Bishop de' Salviati, with Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, and two of his relatives who were both called Jacopo, went to the Palagio, with several priests, feigning to desire to speak to the Signoria, and they spoke to the Gonfaloniere, and became somewhat confused. The Gonfaloniere perceived the treachery, and he and his companions shut themslves up here and there, and ordered the doors to be closed, and the bell run for a parlamento. And what with the rumour which came from Santa Maria del Fiore of Giuliano's death and the bell ringing at the Palagio, the city was immediately in arms. And Lorenzo de' Medici was taken to his house. Meantime Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi rushed on horseback to the Piazza de' Signori, crying "Popolo e liberta!" (The People and Liberty!), wishing to take the Palagio, but the bishop not having succeeded in getting possession of it, Messer Jacopo was not able to enter. He then went towards his own house, and was advised to take to flight; and he fled by the Porta all Croce, together with many men-at-arms, in the Piazza and at Lorenzo de' Medici's house. And numbers of men on the side of the conspirators were killed in the Piazza; amongst others a priest of the bishop's was killed there, his body being quartered and the head cut off, and then the head was stuck on the top of a lance, and carried about Florence the whole day, and one quarter of his body was carried on a spit all through the city, with the cry of: "Death to the traitors!" That same evening the cardinal was taken to the Palagio, barely escaping with his life, all his companions being captured without exception.

And the bishop remained in the Palagio with all the rest. And that evening they hung Jacopo, son of Messer Poggio, from the windows of the Palagio de' Signori, and likewise the Bishop of Pisa, and Franceschino de' Pazzi, naked; and about twenty men besides, some at the Palagio de' Signori, and others at the Palagio dell Podesta and at the Casa del Capitano, all at the windows.

The next day (the 27th) they hung Jacopo Salviati, son-in-law of Filippo Tornabuoni, and the other Jacopo, also at the windows, and many others of the households of the cardinals and of the bishop. And the day after that (the 28th April, 1478), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi was captured at Belforte. And that evening of the 28th, about 23 in the evening (7 p.m.), Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi and Renato de' Pazzi were hung at the windows of the Palagio de'' Signori, above the ringhiera(2); and so many of their men with them, that during these three days the number of those killed amounted to more than seventy. The cardinal remained a prisoner of the Palagio, and no harm was done him, except that he was made to write to the Holy Father, with his own hand, all that had happened. And the same day the prisoners in the Stinche(3) managed to break open the prison, and all escaped - with the exception of one unfortunate man who was captured and hung.

(1) Rafaello Riario.

(2) The ringhiera was the platform consisting in three steps and railing, which used to be round the Palagio (Palazzo Vecchio) on the front and on the north. It was used for haranguing the people and was only demolished in 1812, when the present steps and platform replaced it. (Trans.)

(3) The Stinche were the old prisons, which formed a large rectangular mass between the Via del Diluvio (now Via del Fosso), the Via del Palagio (now Via Ghibellina), the Via del Mercatino, and the Via de' Lavatoi. The exterior walls were extremely high, and windowless. The name was derived from that of a fortress which had rebelled against Florence at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and which the Florentines retook, bringing the prisoners back as a trophy. Originally intended for traitors and revels, these prisons were used afterwards for various purposes, even for madmen; whilst later on debtors and bankrupts were confined there, and others with life-sentences. In 1835, under the Grand-duke Leopold, it was decreed that they should be sold, and shops and houses were built on the area; also the large hall, called Filamonica, and riding-school, afterwards replaced by the Pagliani theatre, now called the Verdi. (Trans.)

Attachments
Bianca de' Medici is traditionally presumed to be the woman in the centre
Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici by Botticelli
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio
The skull of Giuliano de' Medici, fractured from the blade that killed him
The Stinche, or old prisons of Florence, as shown in an engraving

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1476

August 15

on Tuesday

3 months, 21 days later

Four of the city gates in Florence were closed; the first was Porta San Miniato, the second was the Porta all Giustizia, the third Porta Pinti(1), and the fourth the Porticciuola della Mulina (of the Mill).(2)

(1) The Porta a Pinti, demolished with the walls in 1866, was at the end of the Borgo Pinti, and was a very picturesque gate, with a group of old cypresses. (Trans.)

(2) The Porticciuola della Mulina was near the Prato, down by the river, leading to the Mulina (Mill) of the Vagaloggia. It was sometimes called Pirticciuola del Prato. The three last gates were taken down when the walls were demolished. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1476

December 26

on Tuesday

4 months, 13 days later

We heard that the Duke of Milan(1) had been stabbed and killed by one of his citizens called Giovanni Andrea,(2) who was moved to commit the crime by certain unjust acts of the duke. He was put to death by the populace, out of zeal for the common good. There were several conspirators; and the first who reached the duke was this Giovanni Andrea, who feigned to offer him a letter with one hand whilst he stabbed him with the other. It happened as with Scevola the Roman, when they took life for life. Such men are rarely found. And I believe that they carry out their crimes by divine permission. This was on the day of Santo Stefano, in church, during the mass. And when they tried to flee, they could not, because the crowd of people, and mostly the women who hindered them by spreading out their gowns(3) in such a way that the barons of the duke, and chiefly a certain Ghezzo who stood next to him, caught and slew the said Giovanni Andrea. And three others were taken and hung. Some people said that these three who were caught were quartered by four horses.

(1) Galeazzo Sforza. (Trans.)

(2) Lampugnano.

(3) The women used to sit on the floor during these long ceremonies. (Trans.)

Attachments
Woodcut depicting the assassination of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan
Portrait of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan
Giovanni Andrea, the assassin of the Duke of Milan, as depicted in Assassin's Creed

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1477

January 15

on Monday

20 days later

Pope Sisto nominated several cardinals; one he nominated for the emperor. And he ordered that the feast of San Francesco should be observed like the other feasts which are enjoined.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 63: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1477

June 7

on Thursday

4 months, 23 days later

The duty on the wine was raised, so that where 14 soldi used to be paid, it was now 20; but a promise was given that it would not last for more than five years.

And at this time the cupola of the Servi was finished (i.e. of the SS. Annunziata).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 14.

1478

March 25

on Monday

9 months, 21 days later

The Holy Father gave a plenary indulgence in Santa Maria del Fiore for one day, from vespers on the 24th March till the next vespers, on the 25th March, which people availed themselves of with great devotion. The Cause of this was the preaching of Brother Antonio da Vergiegli in Santa Maria del Fiore during Lent, which bore good fruit.

On this same 25th March, a law was determined upon at the Palagio, which forbade anyone who had killed a man to return to Florence(1).

(1) The provision is of the 16th March, 1478, Old Style, and perhaps the 25th is the day on which it was published. It was made to limit the concession of safe-conducts, and the causes which led to it may be read in the exordium which I have pleasure in publishing as a document which describes the way of thinking at that time. "The high and magnificent Signori having in mind how grave is the sin of homicide, by which man, a creature made and created in the image of God, is destroyed; and seeking the reasons why it is so very frequent under our jurisdiction; find among other things that it is encouraged by the facility of pardon and roper severity not being used in punishing such a detestable and abominable excess, he who commits the homicide being allowed to be continually in the presence of those who have suffered from the offence and of those who desire to live virtuously; none of whom can regard such manslayers without great indignation and perturbation of mind. And although the laws of the Florentine people bitterly avenge and punish such crimes, and give security against them; notwithstanding, whatever may be the reason, either too great humanity (which in reality one ought to call cruelty), or else undisciplined charity, such entirely right and just decrees are not properly observed. And the high Signori and discreet chief citizens wish to remedy these things which are so contrary to honest living and against divine laws, by making the fear of pubishment deter men from committing them, when they are deprived of all hope of pardon, and by adjuring the magistrates not only not to overlook such things, but to enforce the law with severity, hoping firmly that this provision may hav ea good effect" (State Archives of Florence, Consigli maggiori Provv. Reg. ad annum).

The term "Signori e Collegi" used in the decrees meant as follows: the Signori were the eight Priori and the Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, and the Collegi were the sixteen Gonfalonieri della Compagnie and the twelve men (three from each quarter) formerly called the twelve Buonuomini, who were summoned by the Signori to take council on almost every occasion. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1478

April 29

on Monday

1 month, 5 days later

There was a little rest and quiet, without more bloodshed, but people were still bewildered with terror.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1478

April 30

on Tuesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

(Ascension-day). The obsequies of Giuliano de' Medici took place in San Lorenzo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1478

May 1

on Wednesday

1 day later

The new Signoria entered into office. That evening Andrea de' Pazzi and Brigliaino(1) were captured. And also, the same evening, returning from Pisa, Messer Piero Vespucci was captured and taken to the Palagio, as it was said that he had aided the escape of a man concerned in the plot.

(1) Giovanni di Domenico, called Brigliaino, a hanger-on of the house of Pazzi, and a worthless man.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 3

on Friday

2 days later

At about 18 in the afternoon (2 p.m.), a priest(1) was captured in the Badia of Florence, who was a chancellor (secretary) of Messer Jacopo de' Pazzi, and another at the same time, from Volterra(2); they had remained hidden there from the day of the murder till now. And that evening Brigliaino and one of the cardinal's chancellors were hung at the windows of the Palagio, and when the ropes were cut, they fell down on the platform. The soldiers quarreled over robbing the dead bodies of doublets and hose.

(1) Stefano di Ser Niccolo of Bagnone, a priest in San Procolo at Florence.

(2) Antonio di Gherardo Maffei of Volterra, scribe of the Camera Apostolica, or notary of the Ruota (a society of Doctors of Law).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 5

on Sunday

2 days later

The horses and mules of Messer Jacopo and others were sold by auction.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

May 9

on Thursday

4 days later

Ambassadors came to Florence from the Pope; and finally, after a few days, they were sent away again without our having consented to give up the cardinal, whom they had wished to take back with them. And at this time many armed men were placed in the Piazza, and a patrol of birri (sergeants) paraded the city day and night and the city-guards all night. No one went out after one o'clock (9 p.m.), whatever class he belonged to; not a sound was heard in the city at night; and no one carried arms at any time.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 10

on Friday

1 day later

They sent Andrea de' Pazzi and two of his younger brothers into a new prison, in the vault of a tower at Volterra.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 15

on Wednesday

5 days later

The body of Messer Jacopo was disinterred in Santa Croce and buried near the city wall, between Porta alla Croce and the Porta alla Giusticia, inside.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1478

May 17

on Friday

2 days later

At about 20 in the evening (4 p.m.), some boys disinterred it (the body of Messer Jacopo) a second time, and dragged it through Florence by the piece of rope that was still round its neck; and when they came to the door of his house, they tied the rope to the door-bell, saying: "Knock at the door!" and they made great sport all through the town. And when they grew tired and did not know what more to do with it, they went to the Ponte al Rubiconte and threw it into the river.(1) And they sang a song with certain rhymes, amongst others this line: "Messer Jacopo is floating away down the Arno." And it was considered an extraordinary thing, first because children are usually afraid of dead bodies, and secondly because the stench was so bad that it was impossible to go near it; one may imagine what it was like, from the 27th April till the 17th May! And they must have had to touch with with their hands to throw it into the Arno. And as it floated down the river, always keeping above the surface, the bridges were crowded with people to watch it pass. And another day, down towards Brozzi, the boys pulled it out of the water again, and hung it on a willow, and then the beat it, and threw it back into the Arno. And it is said that it was seen to pass under the bridges of Pisa, always above the surface.

(1) History says that the magistrates had the body thrown into the Arno, to put a stop to the boys' treatment of it. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Brozzi was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1478

May 20

on Monday

3 days later

Guglielmo de' Pazzi gave his word to keep within fixed boundaries; and he was sent to his own estate and there limited to a distance of from five to twenty miles from Florence. And Messer Piero Vespucci was imprisoned in the Stinche for life, because he had aided in the flight of a certain Napoleone Francese, who was proscribed for having been concerned in the conspiracy of Messer Jacopo narrated above.(1)

(1) It is probably that Vespucci was led to assist the flight of Francese not so much from friendship and humane feeling, as from hatred for Giuliano de' Medici, victim of the plot; the latter being the favoured lover of Piero Vespucci's daughter-in-law, the beautiful Simonetta Catani, the wife of Marco Vespucci, the continual and avowed object of Giulian's love-poems.

Attachments
Simonetta Vespucci modeling Venus in Botticelli's "Birth of Venus"

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1478

June 1

on Saturday

12 days later

The clothes and household effects of the said Pazzi and others were sold by auction, under the roof of the Zecca (Mint), and they filled the place from end to end for their possessors had been very rich.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

Agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

June 5

on Wednesday

4 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was set free.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

June 7

on Friday

2 days later

He (Cardinal di San Giorgio) was accompanied by the "Eight"(1) and many citizens from the Palagio to the Nunziata; and he was in dread of being killed by the populace. That same day the Pope excommunicated us.

(1) These were the Otto di Guardia e Balia, at this time at the height of their power. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:01 PM.

1478

June 12

on Wednesday

5 days later

The cardinal (Cardinal di San Giorgio) left Florence.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1478

June 13

on Thursday

1 day later

It was voted in Council to put on many new taxes, Sesti and Decime(1); and 50 thousand florins on the priests.

(1) The "Seventy," in the lifetime of Lorenzo, fearing the rigorous equality sought for by the Catasto, changed it to a form of subtle progressive taxation, which they called the Decima scalata. This apparently favoured the lower classes; there were certain cases in which the lower classes paid only a twentieth of their income, and the upper classes paid a Sesto (the sixth part). The Medici, however, were extremely clever in favouring their friends by sgravi (remissions), and oppressing their enemies by aggravi (increases) or demands for old debts. The citizens had to make a full declaration of their family, possessions and means, as for the Castato. A man who had twelve children was exempt, only having the pay the registration fee, so as to be eligible for office. (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1478

July 2

on Tuesday

19 days later

An ambassador came to Florence from the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in France was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 20

1478

July 5

on Friday

3 days later

The feast of San Giovanni was kept, not having been kept on the actual day, and perambulating shows went about, and there was a procession; the palio(1) was also run, and there were girandole and spiritegli and giganti(2) and many fine things, as if it had been the real day.

(1) The palio was actually the prize for which the races were so called were run, and consisted of a costly piece of drapery of velvet or silk, which was displayed at the winning-post. The famous palio of San Giovanni is mentioned by several historians as having taken place in the thirteenth century; the race was run from the Porta alla Croce to the Porta al Prato; and the prize was originally of scarlet velvet, and later of scarlet silk. (Trans.)

(2) The edifizi (shows mounted on carts) were platforms on wheels, upon which figures were placed, representing scriptural, mythological or other subjects, and sometimes short scenes were enacted. At the present time, on the day of San Giovanni, the band plays in the evening, mounted on a similar platform on wheels. (Trans.) Girandole were platforms covered with rockets and wheels of fire, which took the form of shops, houses, etc. Spiritegli were people on stilts, who admidst the dense crowd appeared to be walking in the air, over the heads of the rest, like spirits. Giganti were men with their feet bound to high stilts, who wore masks and were dressed up to appear like giants; they supported themselves on poles made to resemble walking-sticks (Vasari, Lives of the Painters). (Trans.)

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1478

July 10

on Wednesday

5 days later

Another ambassador came from the King of France; he was going to the Pope, and was lodged in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni.

And at this time the horsemen of the Duke of Milan came by the Pisan road, and passed near Poggibonizi, and the troops of the king continued to approach.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Poggibonsi was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

Agents

Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484), aged 64: pope
Gian Galeazo Sforza (1469-1494), aged 9: duke

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 21

1478

July 13

on Saturday

3 days later

The King of Naples sent a herald to Florence, with the proclamation displayed, stamped with the arms of the king, and he went to the Signoria to declare war, being deputed to tell us that the king and the Holy Father were ready to oblige us in every way, if we sent away Lorenzo de' Medici: to which the citizens would not agree, and so war began.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 19

on Friday

6 days later

The Sienese invaded our territory and took booty and prisoners, and on the 22nd they captured Calciano.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Calciano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 days later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

8 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 1

on Thursday

1 day later

The enemy took Lamole, and captured more than 100 persons, and also continued to bombard the Castellina. The rule for our Italian soldiers seems to be this: "You pillage there, and we will pillage here; there is no need for us to approach too close to one another." They often let a fort be bombarded for several days, without attempting to succour it. We require to be taught by the northern soldiers how to make war.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Lamole was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 10

on Saturday

9 days later

The French ambassador and the Florentine ambassador(1) returned from Rome, without having arrived at anything satisfactory.

(1) Guidantonio Vespucci.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 15

on Thursday

5 days later

The French ambassador left; and at this time we lost the Castellina. And Messer Niccolo Vitelozzi(1) was going about sacking certain forts of Citta di Castello, and burning men, women, and children, with every sort of cruetly. After that, Messer Lorenzo of Citta di Castello(2) burnt some of our fortresses in the district of Arezzo, and committed atrocities, burning people. They were both cruel men. Such generally come to a bad end. Godly people, as we read in Holy Scripture, never come to a bad end.

(1) Or rather, Vitelli, ally of the Florentines and of Lorenzo de' Medici.

(2) Lorenzo Giustini, who held that city for the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Città di Castello was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1478

August 18

on Sunday

3 days later

We lost the Castellina (as above said); the inhabitants escaped.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 22

1478

August 19

on Monday

1 day later

A peasant was tried and hung, and was taken down as dead and placed on a bier; but having reached the Tempio,(1) he recovered consciousness, not being dead. He was taken to (the hospital of) Santa Maria Nuova, where he died a few days after. All Florence saw him.

And on the same day the enemy (the Sienese) encamped before Radda and Panzano.

(1) The Oratory of the Company of Santa Maria del Tempio, which consoled those condemned to death, and buried their bodies. It was beyond the Porta alla Giustizia, near the Porta alla Croce, outside the walls.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1478

August 20

on Tuesday

1 day later

They (the Sienese) bombarded the said castles all day.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

August 21

on Wednesday

1 day later

A commissary came to us from Venice, who hired for us 3 thousand soldiers, to be paid by the Venetians.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 24

on Saturday

3 days later

The enemy (the Sienese) made an incursion as far as Ponte a Grassina, carrying off a smith and many others.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Grassina Ponte was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1478

August 24

on Saturday

The people about Rovezzano took fright, and the alarm was sounded and they fled into Florence with all their possessions, by the Porta alla Croce, so that it really seemed as if the territory were lost. Such a terror were never seen, everyone being utterly dismayed. They did not consider themselves safe even in Florence, and suffered much discomfort and misery.

And on the same day we last Radda, which was sacked and burnt.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Rovezzano was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

August 25

on Sunday

1 day later

Three men were hung, who were caught outside the Porta Sa' Niccolo, having gone about pillaging in the guise of the enemy; and it was they who had struck such terror into the hearts of the people outside Porta alla Croce, and caused them to desert their homes. These men were Florentines.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1478

August 27

on Tuesday

2 days later

We lost Meletuzzo and San Polo, the constable there having been guilty of treachery.

And on the same day, Pretone and his brother the constable of Radda, and Jacopo Vecchietti who was a commissary there, were arrested, and they were imprisoned in the Stinche, as it was said that they had been guilty of treachery. A man of San Polo was also taken, and was put to the rack.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in San Polo was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1478

September 2

on Monday

6 days later

We heard that a conspiracy had been discovered at Venice, and that several persons had been beheaded or imprisoned.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 23

1478

September 7

on Saturday

5 days later

(Monday). Our Capitano, the Marchese di Ferrara, came to Florence, arriving at about 22 in the evening (6 p.m.), with a great company of crossbowmen on horseback, and musketeers, and we escorted him into the city with great honour, lodging him in the same house which he had before. He had about 50 mules laden with baggage, and remained in Florence till Saturday, the 12th, when he took his baton and went into camp.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:54 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1478

September 14

on Saturday

7 days later

Brolio was taken by assault. And on the same day a man died of plague, in the Casa del Capitano(1), in prison, to which he had been condemned for life; and another man who was sick of the plague was taken out of prison and carried to the hospital of La Scala,(2) where all those sick of the plague were carried. At this time the plague had increased so much, that 40 or more were sick at the hospital, and 7 or 8 died every day, and some days even 11; besides others in the district who did not go to the hospital.

(1) THe house of the Capitano del Popolo, which was behind the Palazzo Vecchio.

(2) The hospital of the Scala was in the street of that name, at the corner of the Via Polverosa (now Via degli Oricellari), and where the convent of San Martino was afterwards built.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Brolio was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:58 PM.

1478

September 25

on Wednesday

11 days later

Cacchiano was lost and was given over to the flames.

And on the same day, mortars were sent to Casoli di Volterra, and our camp was set up before it; but our troops never went to succour those who were losing.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Cacchiano was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

1478

September 29

on Sunday

4 days later

We regained Castelnuovo. At this time there were between 60 and 70 sick of the plague in the hospital and district together, and it was spreading to the camp also.

On this same day the enemy's camp was moved to the Monte a Sansovino. They were beginning to go a little further away.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:53 PM.

1478

October 5

on Saturday

6 days later

Our forces began to besiege Casoli.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Casoli was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 24

Tags

1478

October 6

on Sunday

1 day later

Six Sienese were arrested here, one of them being the Podesta of Castelnuovo, which had been regained.

And at this time there were about 100 sick of the plague, at the hospital of La Scala, and in many houses of Florence; amongst others a man was found dead upon one of the benches in Santa Maria Novella.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1478

October 11

on Friday

5 days later

A boy was found sick of the plague at the gate of the hospital of San Pagolo,(1) and no one could be found to carry him to the hospital of La Scala.

At this time the enemy were bombarding the Monte a Sansovino.(2)

(1) On the Piazza Nuova di Santa Maria Novella, under the Loggie. This building, diminished in size, remained a hospital for many years. Lately, however, it has been changed into an educational institution for poor girls. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1478

October 14

on Monday

3 days later

A sick woman was on her way to La Scala, the attendants helping and supporting her by the arms, but when she got as far as the hospital of the Porcellana,(1) she fell dead; so that one may say that the plague is exceedingly serious.

(1) This hospital was in the Via della Scala, at the corner of the Via della Porcellana.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1478

October 20

on Sunday

6 days later

A truce was made with the enemy for eight days, two days' notice to be given. Intelligent men did not approve of it.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

October 31

on Thursday

11 days later

Notice was given, and the enemy pressed hard on the Monte a Sansovino. And there was a plot in our camp; and the Capitano hung one of the chief men under him.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 1

on Friday

1 day later

The "Eight," who were in office, and their notary, were deposed, for having burnt certain books.

And on the same day, the Monte a Sansovino was lost; the garrison capitulating on condition that their persons and property should be respected. And everyone said that if the truce had not been made, the enemy would have had to break up their camp, as they were so short of provisions that they could not have held out more than three days. Our forces never chose to make a sortie. Hence came the evil; and everyone marvelled that the enemy were not completely victorious after this, for they won much glory.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1478

November 14

on Thursday

13 days later

A father and son from Pistoia were arrested for treason. They were scourged.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

November 15

on Friday

1 day later

Messer Piero Vespucci was taken out of the Stinche and sent to the Podesta; and on the same day they put him back in the Stinche, for some good end.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 3

on Tuesday

18 days later

The traitor from Pistoia, called Piero Baldinotti,(1) was taken in the executioner's cart and hung, and the son was imprisoned for life in the Stinche.

And at this time our soldiers went into quarters in the Pisan territory and elsewhere, and also the Capitano.

(1) He had wished to deliver Pistoia from the yoke of the Florentines, and give it to the King of Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise in Pistoia was at 5:47 AM and sunset was at 5:54 PM.

1478

December 7

on Saturday

4 days later

Messer Tommaso Soderini went as ambassador to Venice.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 25

1478

December 24

on Tuesday

17 days later

A peasant of the neighbourhood, belonging to the Popoleschi, was found dead in his house, having hung himself with a towel.

And during these days the Arno was very high and overflowed its banks opposite Messer Bongianni's houses. It caused great damage.

And the plague was also causing much mortality; it pleased God to chastise us.

And at this Christmas-time, what with terror of the war, the plague, and the papal excommunication, the citizens were in sorry plight. They lived in dread, and no one had any heart to work. The poor creatures could not procure silk or wool, or only very little, so that all classes suffered.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1479

January 10

on Friday

17 days later

Four French ambassadors arrived at Florence, two of whom were going to the Pope and two to the King of Naples. They declared to the Signoria here, that they were going to make peace in Italy amongst Christians, and to settle all differences, giving judgement according to reason, and protested that their king would proceed against anyone who hindered peace; if the Pope were the one to be obdurate, he would be summoned to a Council; and when peace had been made, all the powers would undertake a crusade against the Unbelievers. They left on the 16th January.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:05 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1479

January 17

on Friday

7 days later

A certain hermit came here to preach and threatened many ills. He had been at Volterra, serving at a leper hospital. He was a lad of twenty-four, barefoot, with a wallet on his back; and he declared that St. John and the Angel Raphael had appeared to him. And one morning he went up on to the ringhierra of the Signori to preach, but the "Eight" sent him away. And each day some incident happened.

And at this time, a son of the Duke of Milan,(1) who was confined within certain boundaries in the territory of Pisa, fled from there, and went to Genoa to the Signor Roberto,(2) and joined him.

(1) This was Ludovico Sforza, called Il Moro, uncle to the reigning duke, and at that moment exiled.

(2) Roberto da Sanseverino.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1479

January 27

on Monday

10 days later

My brother Gostanzo returned from the Levant.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

1479

February 4

on Tuesday

8 days later

Chianti was pillaged.

And now the plague had lessened considerably. God be praised!

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Val di Pesa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 26

1479

February 8

on Saturday

4 days later

Four galleys reached the Port of Pisa, two from the West and two from Barbary, which had joined forces. They came in great terror, for fear of the fleet of the king and the Genoese. It was considered a great piece of news.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1479

March 9

on Sunday

29 days later

A man who was said to be a Venetian was hung in the Mercato Nuovo, for having stolen some florns off a money-changer's table the evening before, in broad daylight; and he had been caught and taken to the rector,(1) and was condemned to be hung.

At this time Signor Roberto made an incursion into the Pisan district with many men, and came as far as the Port of Pisa and set it on fire, but did not do it much harm; and then he advanced into the Val di Calci, and burnt the mills and took much booty, after which he retired beyond the Serchio. And in this direction the Duke of Calabria(2) penetrated as far as the Poggio Imperiale, with the design of capturing it, but he did not succeed.

And meanwhile our troops advanced as far as Siena, and pillaged the country, and took a certain fort called Selvoli and held it for some time, that is to say, till the 4th April.

And the plague was making now great ravages, having increased again.

And we were continually raising fresh bands of infantry; and the Venetians sent us a number of soldiers, that were all despatched to the Pisan territory.

And the Capitano now went into the Pisan territory, awaiting Count Carlo(3) and a large body of cavalry.

(1) The rector of the Arte del Cambio (Money-chamber's Guild).

(2) Alfonso d'Aragona, son of Ferdinando, King of Naples.

(3) Count Carlo da Montone, son of the famous Braccio, sent by the Venetians to aid the Florentines.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Serchio was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Val di Calci was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:07 AM and sunset was at 6:14 PM.

1479

April 12

on Saturday

1 month, 4 days later

There was a skirmish outside Pisa between our Capitano and Signor Roberto, and a good number were slain. And it was said that our Capitano had no wish to vanquish the enemy, and therefore did not do his duty; this was the unanimous opinion of the people.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:57 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1479

April 18

on Friday

6 days later

The plague had increased to such an extent that I went away to my villa at Dicomano with all my family; leaving my apprentices to attend to the shop.

At this time Count Carlo came to Florence, and was appointed a Capitano, and two separate camps were formed, he going into the Perugian territory and defeating the papal troops, which departed utterly routed. And after this the ducal forces(1) could have been broken up; but through the fault of our Capitano, the Duke of Ferrara, and through the dissensions amongst the citizens, no action was taken, or else the enemy would certainly have been conquered. The Duke of Calabria pitched his camp before Colle. People continually deceive us, and we cannot be victorious, as God punishes us for our sins.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Perugia was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.
Sunrise in Colle di Buggiano was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1479

November 8

on Saturday

6 months, 24 days later

At midnight the alarm was rung in the Mugello, and everyone was overwhelmed with terror, wanting to rush to Florence. But the enemy came to Piancandoli, and did not enter the Mugello.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Piancaldoli was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Mugello was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1479

November 15

on Saturday

7 days later

The Duke of Calabria took Colle di Valdelsa. He had besieged it for about seven months before he was able to take it; the mortars had been fired against it 1024 times, so that the greater part of the walls was destroyed. And now the enemy went into quarters.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1479

November 24

on Monday

9 days later

A herald came with the olive-branch to announce that peace was already being negotiated.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

No agents

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 28

1479

December 6

on Saturday

12 days later

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence and went to the king at Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.