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King Charles VIII

French king born in Amboise (1470) and died in Amboise (1498), aged 28

1491

December 6

on Sunday

King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Brittany was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 5:48 AM and sunset was at 5:55 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 21: king
Anne of Brittany (1477-1514), aged 14: queen
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 32: king

Source: Primary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1491

1493

January 29

on Sunday

1 year, 1 month, 25 days later

We heard that the King of Naples was dead. Some said that he had died of despondency, because he was continually hearing that the King of France was on his way.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 23: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 56

1494

11 months, 7 days later

King Charles VIII of France invades the Italian peninsula, throwing the city states into the turmoil of war.

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Astronomical Events

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci

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1494

August 5

on Sunday

7 months, 6 days later

Piero de' Medici went to meet the Duke of Calabria, in the neighbourhood of Arezzo, to visit him, as one visits a great gentleman, a lord. The French ambassadors who were in Florence, having asked for their safe-conduct, and not receiving it at once, when they knew of this journey of Piero's began to suspect us of not being friendly to their king; at least this was said in the city, and it was said that the king threatened the Florentines. It was difficult to persuade them that we were faithful friends, and that their suspicions were without foundation. All this, however, I only heard by report.

In these days the fleet of the King of France arrived at Genoa, and there was much talk of an encounter.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Arezzo was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1494

September 11

on Tuesday

1 month, 7 days later

The fleet of the King of Naples was defeated at Rapallo by that King of France and the Genoese; not in an encounter, but the Neapolitan fleet rashly landed 3 thousand soldiers, thinking to take Rapallo; and in the end they were cut off by the Genoese and the king, and could not return to their ships. They fled towards the mountains, and were all killed or taken prisoner; the fleet of the King of Naples being disarmed and destroyed.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Rapallo was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

September 21

on Friday

10 days later

We heard that the King of France had entered Genoa, and that the Genoese were preparing to receive him with great honour, having decorated the whole city, and even taken down the gates and laid them on the ground, to show more splendour and to ensure the king's safety. But it was not true that the king was going there, although they expected him and had made all the preparations. It was said that he felt distrustful of the citizens.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Genoa was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:56 PM.

1494

October 4

on Thursday

13 days later

More ambassadors from the King of France came to Florence, and going to the Signoria, could not obtain a decisive answer but only a vague one; so that on the 9th they both left Florence in indignation, and returned to the king without a safe-conduct. It was then said that the king swore to let his soldiers pillage Florence; and everyone thought it had been a piece of folly and rashness not to give the safe-conduct readily.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1494

October 26

on Friday

22 days later

Piero de' Medici left here to go on the way to Pisa, to meet the King of France; and when he reached the king, he caused the keys of Serezzano and of Pietrasanta to be given him, and also made him promises of money. The king wishing to know whether in truth he had been given this commission, sent Lorenzo, son of Giovanni Tornabuoni, who had gone with Piero de' Medici, back to Florence, to get it confirmed by the Signoria; but they refused to confirm it. Lorenzo, in some consternation, did not return to the French camp, and Piero was rather at fault. He acted like a young fellow, and perhaps with good results, since we remained friends with the king, thank God!

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Serezzano was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1494

November 5

on Monday

10 days later

Certain messengers of the King of France arrived and went about Florence marking the houses which they preferred. They came indoors and entered all the rooms, marking one for such and such a lord, and another for such and such a baron.

And observe that there were not hundreds but thousands of the French, so that the whole city was occupied in every corner; for those houses that were not marked were occupied in a moment when the men-at-arms and the infantry arrived, going into every street, and saying: Apri qua! (Open there!) and not caring whether the owners were rich or poor. They gave it to be understood that they meant to pay: but there were not many who paid. And when they did pay a certain amount, they paid for the horns and ate the ox (Italian proverb): "They didn't pay anything like what they cost." Few of us had sent away our womenkind, except the young girls, who were sent to convents and to relatives where no soldiers were quartered; but the French were really very well-behaved, for there was not a single one who said an unsuitable word to a woman. In their hearts they felt a secret dread, and kept asking how many men Florence could dispose of; and they were told that at the sound of a bell the city would have 100 thousand men from within and without at her command. The truth was this: that they had come with the idea of sacking Florence, as their king had promised them but they could not see the game begun, much less won. And all this was the doing of the Almighty.

On this same day, five ambassadors were chosen to go to the King of France, who was at Pisa. They were as follows: First, Fra Girolamo, a preacher of the Order of San Domenico, dwelling at San Marco, a native of Ferrara; whom we believe to be a prophet, and he does not deny it in his sermons, but always says da parte del Signore (I have it from the Lord . . .), and he preaches on important subjects. The second, Tanai de' Nerli; the third, Pandolfo Rucellai; the fourth, Giovanni Cavalcanti; and the fifth, Piero Soderini; all Florentine citizens. And they left the next day.

On the same day a number of French arrived, who were the vanguard of the king, and lodged in the houses assigned to them, which were marked with chalk. This evening at about 2 o'clock (10 p.m.) a few strokes of the bell were heard from the Palagio; and immediately the Piazza was full of men, it being thought that a portamento was going to be summoned, for everyone was excited and distrustful, continually expecting great events.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1494

November 8

on Thursday

3 days later

Piero de' Medici returned to Florence, coming from the King of France, who was at Pisa; and when he reached his house, he threw out confetti (sweetmeats), and gave a lot of wine to the people, to make himself popular; declaring that he had settled everything satisfactorily with the king, and appearing to be in the best of humours.

This same day, the Signori published a proclamation that as long as the king should stay in Florence there would be no tax on firewood or on any kind of food; and only the half of the usual tax on wine; also that anyone might sell and provide meals.(1)

(1) This proclamation is really of the 6th November, and the exemptions and diminutions of the tax conceded by it are a little different from those quoted here: the duration of these was from the 9th to the 20th, and on the latter date they were prorogued for the whole month. This was done "in order that there should be an abundance of victuals in the city both for its inhabitants and the foreigners, and to help the poor people."

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1494

November 11

on Sunday

3 days later

A man arrived in the Piazza, having entered the city by the Porta alla Croce, and said that he had passed men-at-arms and infantry on the road to Florence, belonging to Piero de' Medici. Cries of Popolo e Liberta immediately resounded everywhere, and in less than half an hour the whole city was in arms, men of classes rushing to the Piazza with incredible haste, and with deafening cries of Popolo e Liberta. I verily believe that if the whole world had come against them, such a union could not have been broken; it being permitted by the Lord that the people should make such a demonstration, during this danger from the French, who had come to Florence with the evil intent of sacking it. But when they saw of what sort the people were, their heart failed them. As soon as the truth was known, that no armed men were approaching, a proclamation was made ordering all to lay aside their weapons, an this was about the dinner-hour. The Gonfaloni, however, remained on guard day and night, with a good number of men; and horsemen and foot-soldiers belonging to the King of France were continually entering. The Signoria had had the Porta di San Friano(1) opened. This evening the King of France remained at Empoli; and more than 6 thousand men came before the king, and as many with him, and another 6 thousand behind him. And at this time the taxes were lightened and many pardons granted.(2)

(1) The Gate of San Frediano, towards Empoli. (Trans.)

(2) I here add, that the office of the Otto di Pratica (the Eight Councillors), the Consiglio del Settanta (Council of the Seventy), and that of the Hundred, all institutions of the Medici and their adherents, were done away with and annulled.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Empoli was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1494

November 12

on Monday

1 day later

Lorenzo son of Piero Francesco de' Medici returned, and dined at this own house of the Gora, and the same evening he went to meet the king, who was stopping at Legniaia, in the house of Piero Capponi. And on this same day the Bargello was made prisoner in the church of the Servi.(1) Also more French entered the city than any other day, and they filled every house, even the poorest, including all Camaldoli.

(1) His name was Piero Antonio dall' Aquila. The day before, a reward had been promised to anyone who would give information as to where he was hidden; and on the 14th the Priors decreed quod dono tradatur to the Signor Giovanni da Maddaloni, oratore (representative) of the King of France, who would receive him in the king's name.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Camaldoli was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.
Sunrise in Legniaia was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:48 PM.

1494

November 15

on Thursday

3 days later

Numbers of French were still coming in; and preparations were made to receive the king with great honour.(1)

(1) Already on the 11th the Signoria had ordered that all the citizens, on the king's arrival, should go towards the Porta San Frediano, in as fine array as they could muster, to do him honour.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1494

November 16

on Friday

1 day later

Many decorations were made for the king's arrival in the house of Piero de' Medici, and principally at the entrance of the palace. Two large columns were erected outside, one on each side of the gate, with ornamentation representing the arms of France, etc., too intricate to describe. It truly was a triumph; everything was done so well and on such a grand scale. I will not even begin to tell you how the interior was ordered. And spiritegli(1) and giants and triumphal cars went about the town, and stages on wheels for the miracle-play of the Nunziata, whilst there were innumerable embellishments and the arms of France all over Florence. Above the gate of the Palagio de' Signori were the said arms, very large and magnificently blazoned.

(1) See note to 5th July, 1478.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:41 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1494

November 17

on Saturday

1 day later

The King of France entered Florence at 22 in the evening (6 p.m.) by the Porta a San Friano, and passed through the Piazza (de' Signori), proceeding so slowly that it was already 24 (8 p.m.) before he reached Santa Maria del Fiore. He dismounted at the steps, and walked up to the High Altar, there being so many torches that they made a double row from the door to the altar, leaving a way clear in the middle, along which he went with his barons and all his suite, amidst such tumultuous shouting of Viva Francia as was never heard. Only think that all Florence was there, either in the church or outside. Everyone shouted, great and small, old and young, and all from their hearts, without flattery. When he was seen on foot he seemed to the people somewhat less imposing, for he was infact a very small man. Nevertheless there was no one who did not feel favourably disposed towards him. Therefore it should have been eas tomake him understand that our hearts are innocent of guile, and that we are truly devoted to him; so that he ought to feel moved towards us in uncommon measure, and to trust us absolutely. This is really the case, and he will see in the future what the faith of the Florentines signifies. Upon coming out of church, he remounted his horse and rode on to the palace of Piero de' Medici, amidst continued cries of Viva Francia. Never was such joy seen before, or so much honour done to anyone, with heartfelt sincerity, as we were in hopes that he would bring us peace and rest. In the end it proved not to be so, as he took Pisa from us and gave it to the Pisans, which he had no right to do, seeing that he could not give what was not his.(1)

(1) On the same day the Signoria itself decreed that as long as the king remained in Florence each householder should keep a light burning every night in a window looking on to the street, from eight o'clock in the evening till one o'clock in the morning. And there was also a debate whether the keys of the Porte a San Frediano, San Gallo, and San Piero Gattolini (now Porta Romana) should be given to him.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1494

November 18

on Sunday

1 day later

The said king when to hear mass in Sa' Lorenzo, and I was at the same mass, and saw him quite close.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1494

November 19

on Monday

1 day later

He again heard mass in Sa' Lorenzo; and then went for a ride through Florence, going to see the lions.(1) And it was his wish that some of the prisoners in the Palagio del Capitano should be liberated, those namely who were detained for political reasons; amongst them a Ser Lorenzo, and an Andrea, and others; and this desire of his to benefit the prisoners on the occasion of his passing through the town was granted.

(1) According to ancient custom, the Republic kept some lions in cages. These cages were behind the Palazzo del Capitano, now incorporated in the Palazzo Vecchio, whence the piece of street between Piazza di S. Firenze and the Logge del Grano is still called Via de' Leoni. This custom was discontinued towards the end of the seventeenth century.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:49 PM.

1494

November 20

on Tuesday

1 day later

There were murmurs all over the city to the effect that the king wished to reinstate Piero de' Medici, and the ruling citizens seemed much vexed about this matter.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:42 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1494

November 21

on Wednesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The city was in great dread of being pillaged, and it was considered a bad sign that the king did not wish to sign the agreement. The French seemed to be becoming more and more masters of the place; they did not allow the citizens to go about armed, day or night, but took away their weapons, and kept striking and stabbing them. No one ventured to speak or to go out after the Ave Maria (at 5 o'clock); and the French went about robbing in the night, their guards parading the city. Everyone was so discouraged and intimidated, that when they saw anyone carrying stones or gravel they went crazy and struck out.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1494

November 23

on Friday

2 days later

The king rode out with a great troop of horsemen, and came to the Croce di San Giovanni; and when he was near the steps of Santa Maria del Fiore, he turned back and went towards the Servi; but having gone a few paces, he turned round again, and again went to the Croce di San Giovanni,(1) going at the back of San Giovanni, through that narrow Chiassolino,(2) and coming under the Volta di San Giovanni, d' Cialdonai(2); and those who saw him laughed,(3) and said slighting things of him, causing his reputation to suffer. Then he went through the Mercato Vecchio, and on as far as San Felice in Piazza, to see the festa of San Felice, which they were having on his account; but when he reached the door he would not enter; and they repeated everything several times, but he did not enter once.(4) Many people said that he was afraid, and did not wish to be shut in, and this proved to us that he was more afraid than we were; and woe to him if a disturbance had begun, although there would also have been great danger for us. But the Lord has always helped us, on account of the prayers of His servants and of the number of holy monks and nuns in the city, who are in truth on their way to God. At this time two Venetian ambassadors to the king arrived, and there were also the Genoese ambassadors, who came, it was said, to demand Serezzana and other things from him.

(1) The column with a small cross at the top of it, which was put up to commemorate the miracle of San Zenobi, in the year 341, as stated in the inscription. It was broken down by the flood of 1333 and set up again, which accounts for the inscription not being so old. (Trans.)

(2) This Chiassolino (alley) and the Volta da' Cialdonai were demolished when the Piazza was enlarged. (Trans.)

(3) The autographic MS. has a gap from page 17 till the 1st December, 1494; therefore I have supplied the missing pages from the MS. copy at the Marucelliana Library (Jodico del Badia).

(4) I copy this fragment from the Storie of Jacopo Nardi, who disagrees from what Landucci says here: "His Majesty the King, having rested a few days, was entertained by the representation of some solemn and beautiful feste, like that very singular one of the Virgine Annunziata, which is represented with ingenious and marvellous skill in the Church of San Felice in Piazza, and which pleased and delighted him so much, that having seen it once publicly, he wished to see it again incognito and privately." Our author also mentions this edificio (representation) of the Annunciation on 16th November, 1494. In Vasari's Life of Brunelleschi this is finely described.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Serezzano was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1494

November 26

on Monday

3 days later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king went together with the Signoria to hear mass at Santa Maria del Fiore and here he swore to observe the articles which had been drawn up, and which were as follows: that we should lend him 120 thousand florins, giving him 50 thousand florins now, and the rest before the end of July 1495; and that he should leave and give back to us the forts of Pisa and all the others; and leave our territory free and unmolested; and that Piero de' Medici should be confined to boundaries 100 miles away from Florence; and that the price of 2000 florins placed upon his head should be taken off, and also off his brothers'. All this he swore to observe, on the altar of Santa Maria del Fiore, before Christ Jesus, on the word of a king.(1)

(1) These articles had been signed the preceding day in the palace of the Medici, where the king was quartered. The Marquis Gino Capponi published them in the Archivio Storico Italiano, I Serie, vol. I., pp. 348-75. There are twenty-seven articles, and the last twelve regard entirely the persons and interests of the Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1494

November 27

on Tuesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king went out to see certain tents which had been set up on the Prato d'Ognissanti, and which had been presented to him by the Duke of Ferrara; there being one for the king himself that was really magnificent, with a sitting-room, a bedroom, and a chapel, and many other things besides. He was to have left this morning, but did not do so; the joy-bells were rung and bonfires were made. This morning more of the troops from Romagna reached Dicomano, and were quartered there, about 20 horses being put into my place even. I left my young son Benedetto there, and they nearly slew him several times, although he paid them proper respect, as I had impressed upon him. It was at a great cost to us. They were quartered everywhere, in the Val di Sieve, as far as the Ponte a Sieve and the Sieci, and then they went on along the upper valley of the Arno.(1)

(1) The king having proclaimed that all those who were with him should pay, on leaving, for everything that they had had, the Signoria, with a proclamation on this date, ordered the Florentines to be lenient in their demands, and requested anybody who thought himself overcharged to have recourse to them, threatening to cut off the hand of anyone who should offend the French. The following day they imposed the punishment of six blows of the lash upon anyone who should molest or strike the French.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

November 28

on Wednesday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The king left Florence after having dined, and went for the night to the Certosa, and all his men went before or after him, so that few remained here. It was said that Fra Girolamo of Ferrara, our famous preacher, had gone to the king and declared that he was not doing the will of God in stopping, and that he ought to leave. It was even said that he went a second time, when he saw that the king did not leave, and declared again that he was not following God's will, and that whatever evil should befall others would return on his head. It was thought that this was the cause of his leaving more speedily, because at that time the said Fra Girolamo was held to be a prophet and a man of holy life, both in Florence and throughout Italy. At the same time there came to Florence the captain of the French troops in Romagna, whose name was Begni,(1) and he told the king rather dictatorially that he ought to leave on every account, as the weather was favourable, and he declared that it would be ill to delay the advance. And in fact the king did leave, for he put more faith in this seigneur than in all the rest, and deservedly, as he was an extremely intelligent and worthy man, according to what was said; and this was in reality the strongest reason which induced him to leave.(2)

(1) Robert Stuart, Comte de Beaumont le Roger, Seigneur of Aubigny-sur-Nerre.

(2) On this day the Signori designed Guglielmo d'Antonio Pazzi, Braccio di Domenico Martelli, Niccolo Antinori, and Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici to go the following morning and accompany the king as far as Siena. Afterwards they substituted Francesco de' Rossi for the Medici.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

November 29

on Thursday

1 day later

Entry from "A Florentine Diary" by Luca Landucci:

The rest of the king's troops which were in Romagna went past here, coming from San Godenzo to Dicomano and to the Ponte a Sieve, and then going along the upper valley of the Arno, doing much damage. At Corella they slew about eleven men, and took others prisoners and placed ransoms upon them; ruining all the country like a flame of fire. The wall of my house at Dicomano was broken, and also all the locks, whilst my farm was entered forcibly, and suffered not a little, the wine and corn being consumed, and any household goods to which they took a fancy being carried off. Those whom they slew at Corella were certain old men who had come to receive them, but there was a misunderstanding. It is true that at first certain young men had come out and tried to force them back, but these old men caused the others to desist; these brutes of Frenchmen, however, struck them on the head and left them lying dead in the fields; and they committed cruelties on all sides.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Emilia-Romagna was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Dicomano was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Corella was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 5:45 AM and sunset was at 5:52 PM.

1494

December 9

on Sunday

10 days later

It was proclaimed that Piero de' Medici was to be confined within boundaries 100 miles outside the Florentine territory.(1)

(1) On the 2nd of this month the Signoria, in order to carry the articles stipulated upon with the French king, absolved Piero from his condemnation as a rebel, and on the same day they consigned him to boundaries 100 miles from Florence. These decrees were published on the 9th.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:49 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

1494

December 10

on Monday

1 day later

10th December (Wednesday). Money was continually being found hidden in the Dogana (city customs), underneath coals and heaps of nails, etc., to which the above-mentioned citizens who were imprisoned confessed by degrees. It was said that the king had reached Viterbo, and that the Pope had consented to give him a safe-conduct.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:50 AM and sunset was at 5:57 PM.

Agents

Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 63: pope
King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 75

1494

December 13

on Thursday

3 days later

13th December (Saturday). We heard that the king was having the houses in Rome marked with chalk for the quarters of his soldiers.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

December 13

on Thursday

14th December (Sunday). It was said that the king was in Viterbo, and that his men were doing brutal things as they did here.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:51 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 75

1494

December 14

on Friday

1 day later

14th December (Sunday). We heard how those Frenchmen who were marking the houses in Rome had been driven away, and many had been killed; the Romans wishing to defend themselves and not accept the Frenchmen in their city.

This same day we heard that the Pope and the cardinals had entered the castle of Sant' Angelo, and that the Duke of Calabria had arrived there with a large force, so that it was judged that it would fare badly with the French. It was also said that the king had sent a proclamation to Pisa, to the effect that the Pisans should submit to the Florentines; otherwise the Florentines would make such war upon them that they would be entirely destroyed, at the expense of the said King of France; that is to say that the money which he was to receive would be used instead for the cost of such an expedition; which was not true, but there was always a great deal of talk.(1)

The same day Fra Girolamo did his utmost in the pulpit to persuade Florence to adopt a good form of government; he preached in Santa Maria del Fiore every day, and to-day which was a Sunday, he wished that there should be no women, but only men; he wished that only the Gonfalonier and one of the Signori should remain in the Palagio, and that all the offices of Florence should be there; and he preached much about State matters, and that we ought to love and fear God, and love the common weal; and no one must set himself up proudly above the rest. He always favoured the people and he insisted that no one ought to be put to death, but there must be other forms of punishment; and he continued to preach in this manner every morning. Many forms were drawn up, and there was much controversy among the citizens, so that every day it was expected that the bell would be rung for a parlamento.

(1) There must have been some truth in it, as we read in the Memoriale of Portoveneri, where there are so many notices of the rebellion and war of Pisa, that on the 4th December there reached this city a herald from the king with the articles which the latter had agreed to with the Florentines, in which it is said: "Everything must be given back that formerly belonged to the Florentines. And this day the said messenger of the King has gone to Sarzana and to Pietrasanta and to Fivizzano and to Bagnone and to Castel-Nuovo and all Luligiana, to consign it to the Florentines." This was agreed to in the treaty.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Pietrasanta was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Sarzana was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:52 AM and sunset was at 5:59 PM.

1494

December 22

on Saturday

8 days later

22nd December (Monday). It was said that the king was still at Viterbo; everyone went on talking of the French, of Rome, and Pisa, and how Rome would not give a safe-conduct. The Duke of Calabria had arrived there, to resist the French.

This day many things were voted in the Palagio: Anyone who slew a man could not return to Florence; and a law as follows against the unmentionable vice: the first time the offender to be punished with gogna,(1) the second time, to be fastened to a pillar, and the third time, to be burnt; and many other laws, all recommended by the Frate.

(1) Alia gogna was when a prisoner was exposed on the outer wall of the prison of the Bargello, with his hands bound behind him to one of the iron rings, bare-headed, with his hat at his feet to receive soldi, and a placard on his breast upon which his crime was written. He had to remain there an hour, during which time the old bell of the prison was rung. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Viterbo was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Rome was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1494

December 30

on Sunday

8 days later

30th December (Tuesday). Ambassadors were chosen to go to Pisa: Piero Capponi and Francesco Valori, together with the French one; and they were to take letters from the king with them, saying that Pisa should be given back to us.(1) They were, in fact, playing us such tricks that the people thought that the king was making fools of us, which was considered a bad prospect, as indeed it was.

(1) On the 13th November the Signoria had elected Capponi, together with two other citizens, as Proveditori for the guardianship and care of the city of Pisa. On the 24th December the Dieci di Liberia e Balia deputed Capponi and Valori "General Commissioners with full authority in every place outside Florence"; and the same day they ordered that forty gold florins should be paid to them, as "elected commissaries to go with the ambassador of the Most Christian King, to Pisa." According to Portoveneri, they were not allowed to enter the city.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:00 AM and sunset was at 6:07 PM.

1494

December 31

on Monday

1 day later

31st December (Wednesday). We heard that certain of the king's ships which were bringing him a quantity of victuals had gone down, which was a misfortune for him.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 24: king

1495

January 3

on Thursday

3 days later

3rd January (Saturday). The ambassadors returned from Pisa, without having concluded anything; and we were in much fear about the place. It was said also that Piero de' Medici had gone to the King of France to complain of having been banished, because he had kept his word; and that the king had been gracious to him; and that the said Piero made threats, especially against a certain Girolamo Martegli, who was deputed to find Piero's hidden property.(1)

On the same day the sentence was passed that Ser Giovanni son of Ser Bartolomeo should be sent to Volterra into the vault of a fortress; and Ser Zanobi, who had been notary to the "Eight," was fined 500 florins, and confined in Florence; and Ser Ceccone was confined in the Stinche, together with others who had been captured.

(1) Martelli was one of the three citizens deputed by the Republic, on the 10th December, pro computo Comunis bonorum heredum Laurentii, qui una cum tribus ex creditoribus doctorum heredum, propterea deputandorum, habeant auctoritatum cognoscendi et judicandi etc.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

1495

January 4

on Friday

1 day later

4th January (Sunday). We heard that the King of France had entered Rome by agreement,(1) but, nevertheless, they did not give up the Castel Sant' Agnolo to him. It was said that he had pillaged the Orsini.

(1) Giuseppe Molini, p. 22 of vol. i . of the Documents di Storia Italiana, publishes the agreement made on the 15th of this month between the Pope and the King.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:02 AM and sunset was at 6:09 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king
Pope Alexander VI (1431-1503), aged 64: pope

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 79

1495

January 8

on Tuesday

4 days later

8th January (Thursday). It was said that the King of France wished to have the Castel Sant' Agnolo and the Pope and the cardinals, and the brother of the Turk,(1) who were in the said castello, delivered over to him.

(1) This was Zim or Gemme, son of the great Maometto and brother of the reigning Bajazet II., with whom he was disputing the Empire, and therefore he had taken refuge with the Pope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.

1495

January 9

on Wednesday

1 day later

9th January (Friday). We heard that the king had caused the French to give up certain silks belonging to Florence, which they had taken, and that they were in the hands of the Florentines in Rome; and that he was treating the Florentine nation well. And every day there passed horses with loads of French clothes (probably uniforms), which went to the French camp at Rome.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:04 AM and sunset was at 6:12 PM.

1495

January 22

on Tuesday

13 days later

22nd January. An ambassador came to us from the emperor, who was going on to Rome to the King of France.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Rome was at 6:09 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

Agents

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1519), aged 36: king
King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 81

1495

February 2

on Saturday

11 days later

2nd February. We heard that the King of France had been defeated at Terracina, on entering the Kingdom (of Naples), and that there were hundreds slain.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

February 5

on Tuesday

3 days later

5th February. The French Cardinal Sammalò,(1) who had just been made cardinal by the Pope, entered Florence. He had come here with the King of France as a bishop; and now he was returning to France. He had many horsemen with him. He was lodged in Santa Maria Novella in the papal apartments. All this time it was said that the King of France was in a bad situation, and there was cause for fear.

(1) Guillaume Briconnet, Bishop of Saint-Malo. From the 25th January, the Pisan ambassadors had written that the Reverandissimo of Saint-Malo, a man, they said, "of great intellect and authority," was going to be sent to Florence by the King of France, not on his way to France, but to remain in Tuscany or the neighbourhood, in order to preserve peace during the stay of the king in the kingdom of Naples; and in case of his going to Pisa begged the Signori to receive him and his suite with honour, "going to meet him outside, and with as many men" as was possible. He had left Rome the morning of the 27th January (Lettere, quoted i. 38).

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in France was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:18 PM.

1495

February 8

on Friday

3 days later

8th February. The Signoria went to visit him, and later, after having dined, sent eight(1) of the chief citizens to hear what he desired. And he asked for the money which had been promised to the king, and the loan of 40 thousand florins besides.

(1) Ammirato and the documents published in vol. i. of the Negotiations diplomatiques de la France avec la Toscane give five, and the names are as follows: Guidantonio Vespucci, Tanai de' Nerli, Guglielmo de' Pazzi, Francesco Valori, and Lorenzo de' Medici, who had changed his family name, taking that of Popolani.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.

1495

February 19

on Tuesday

11 days later

19th February. It was proclaimed that during the whole month of March the papers should be distributed (on which were to be filled in all particulars) for the tax of the Decima about to be imposed upon property.

19th February. We heard that the king had been defeated.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 83

1495

February 20

on Wednesday

1 day later

20th February. We heard that he had taken Gaeta.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Gaeta was at 6:11 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 83

1495

February 22

on Friday

2 days later

22nd February. We received the news that the King of France had taken Capua, and was near Naples. It was thought that he would capture it quickly.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.
Sunrise in Capua was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1495

February 24

on Sunday

2 days later

24th February. The Cardinal di Sa' Malo returned from Pisa without giving it over to us. And it was said that we should have to take it by assault. It was also said that the king had a hand in it, for he held both the new and the old citadels.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1495

February 25

on Monday

1 day later

25th February. We heard that the King of France had taken Naples, and how he had entered it on the 21st without a blow. The King of Naples took refuge in the Castel dell' Uovo. This news was proclaimed here with great rejoicing, with drums and fifes, and the shops were shut. There were many bonfires and lights(1) on the towers, and other manifestations, to commemorate such a conquest.(2)

(1) These pangeli were pieces of stuff swimming in oil or dipped in grease, and placed in flat round tins.

(2) This is confirmed by a decree of the Signori on this date, which besides commanding the shops to be shut, also orders processions to be made on three successive mornings.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:17 PM.

1495

February 27

on Wednesday

2 days later

27th February. The Cardinal Sa' Malò left here, who had come to deliver Pisa over to us, and had not done so; but he carried away with him 22 thousand florins, and returned to the king at Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:10 AM and sunset was at 6:16 PM.

1495

March 4

on Monday

5 days later

4th March. There were very grateful letters from the King of France, telling us how pleased he was that we had celebrated the conquest of Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:09 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p. 84

1495

March 5

on Tuesday

1 day later

5th March. Four ambassadors were chosen to go to the King of France and Naples, who were: Messer Guido Antonio, Pagolo Antonio Soderini, the Bishop de' Pazzi, and Lorenzo son of Piero Francesco de' Medici.(1)

(1) Landucci is not correct in the names of these ambassadors the work already quoted, Negotiations, etc., we read the instruction given to them and their names, but instead of Soderini and Pazzi are Bernardo Rucellai and Lorenzo Morelli. Ammirato, however, gives Soderini instead of Morelli; the truth is that the latter was appointed to replace the former, who was prevented from leaving on account of illness.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1495

March 6

on Wednesday

1 day later

6th March. There was much argument as to why the king did not give Pisa over to us, seeing that we were such friends of his country and also that he had promised it us on the capture of Naples.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 6:08 AM and sunset was at 6:15 PM.

1495

March 13

on Wednesday

7 days later

13th March. It was said that the king was about to return north.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.

1495

March 22

on Friday

9 days later

22nd March. We heard that the king had taken the Castello dell' Uovo.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1495

April 7

on Sunday

16 days later

p85 7th April. We heard that the king intended to return here.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 25: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p.85

1495

April 9

on Tuesday

2 days later

p85 9th April. We heard that the King of France had sent to demand that all the part of Florence beyond the Arno should be assigned him for quarters; and it was said that he would give Pisa back to us.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Pisa was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1496

April 5

on Sunday

12 months, 2 days later

p85 5th April. We heard that the King of France had acquired the whole kingdom of Naples; and that the King of Naples had fled into Ischia, having lost hope.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Ischia was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498), aged 26: king

Source: Primary

Luca Landucci; "A Florentine Diary"; p.85

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1499

January 8

on Sunday

2 years, 9 months, 8 days later

Louis XII of France marries Anne of Brittany, in accordance with a law set by his predecessor, Charles VIII.

No attachments

Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

Agents

King Charles VIII (1470-1498): king
Anne of Brittany (1477-1514), aged 22: queen

Source: Primary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1499

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