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City of Siena

Italian body politic

1478

July 19

on Friday

The Sienese invaded our territory and took booty and prisoners, and on the 22nd they captured Calciano.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Calciano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 23

on Tuesday

4 days later

They (the Sienese) captured Rincine and destroyed it, and took away men and women of all classes; and our soldiers were worse than they, pillaging and working great havoc through Valdelsa, so that everyone left their homes and felt safe nowhere but in Florence. Each day there was some incursion or other, and the enemy overran Panzano, pillaging and burning.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Rincine was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

July 31

on Wednesday

8 days later

Our men took much booty in the neighbourhood of Volterra. He who seeks evil, finds it. It was not very intelligent of them (the Sienese) to let themselves be drawn into making war in their own territory, for they will suffer two-thirds of the damage, and we the rest; whilst the King of Naples and the Pope who brought it about, will get off easily.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Volterra was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

1478

August 19

on Monday

19 days later

A peasant was tried and hung, and was taken down as dead and placed on a bier; but having reached the Tempio,(1) he recovered consciousness, not being dead. He was taken to (the hospital of) Santa Maria Nuova, where he died a few days after. All Florence saw him.

And on the same day the enemy (the Sienese) encamped before Radda and Panzano.

(1) The Oratory of the Company of Santa Maria del Tempio, which consoled those condemned to death, and buried their bodies. It was beyond the Porta alla Giustizia, near the Porta alla Croce, outside the walls.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.
Sunrise in Panzano was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.
Sunrise in Radda was at 5:59 AM and sunset was at 6:06 PM.

1478

August 20

on Tuesday

1 day later

They (the Sienese) bombarded the said castles all day.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

August 24

on Saturday

4 days later

The enemy (the Sienese) made an incursion as far as Ponte a Grassina, carrying off a smith and many others.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.
Sunrise in Grassina Ponte was at 5:58 AM and sunset was at 6:05 PM.

1478

August 25

on Sunday

1 day later

Three men were hung, who were caught outside the Porta Sa' Niccolo, having gone about pillaging in the guise of the enemy; and it was they who had struck such terror into the hearts of the people outside Porta alla Croce, and caused them to desert their homes. These men were Florentines.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waning crescent that night.

1478

October 6

on Sunday

1 month, 12 days later

Six Sienese were arrested here, one of them being the Podesta of Castelnuovo, which had been regained.

And at this time there were about 100 sick of the plague, at the hospital of La Scala, and in many houses of Florence; amongst others a man was found dead upon one of the benches in Santa Maria Novella.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.
Sunrise in Castelnuovo was at 5:44 AM and sunset was at 5:51 PM.

1478

October 11

on Friday

5 days later

A boy was found sick of the plague at the gate of the hospital of San Pagolo,(1) and no one could be found to carry him to the hospital of La Scala.

At this time the enemy were bombarding the Monte a Sansovino.(2)

(1) On the Piazza Nuova di Santa Maria Novella, under the Loggie. This building, diminished in size, remained a hospital for many years. Lately, however, it has been changed into an educational institution for poor girls. (Trans.)

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a full moon that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:43 AM and sunset was at 5:50 PM.

1478

October 20

on Sunday

9 days later

A truce was made with the enemy for eight days, two days' notice to be given. Intelligent men did not approve of it.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the last quarter that night.

1478

October 31

on Thursday

11 days later

Notice was given, and the enemy pressed hard on the Monte a Sansovino. And there was a plot in our camp; and the Capitano hung one of the chief men under him.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing crescent that night.
Sunrise in Monte San Sansovino was at 5:40 AM and sunset was at 5:47 PM.

1479

December 23

on Tuesday

1 year, 1 month, 23 days later

Bernardo Bandini de' Baroncegli was captured at Constantinople, the Grand Turk having given him up. He had fled from Florence when Giuliano de' Medici was murdered, believing that his life would be safe at Constantinople.

News arrived that the Duke of Calabria had taken possession of Siena, but it was not true. However, to all intents and purposes, he was master of the place, for the Sienese were helpless, having left him come in with all his troops, and he did what he chose.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Constantinople was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Florence was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:03 PM.

1480

June 20

on Sunday

6 months later

The Duke of Calabria confined within limits 18 knights and citizens of Siena. He also kept his soldiers in the city, so that he was master of the situation. And the Sienese did not consider it at all just that he should act in this way, but he chose to do so. He had the idea of acting in the same way with regard to us; but please God, by a great miracle, it happened that on the 6th August the Turkish army came to Otranto and began to besiege it; so it was necessary to leave our neighbourhood, at the king's command, and return to defend the kingdom. The Turks were encamped in three places, being at Rodi (Rhodes), and with the Hungarians, besides at Otranto.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.
Sunrise in Rhodes was at 5:56 AM and sunset was at 6:04 PM.

1482

April 28

on Friday

1 year, 10 months, 12 days later

The Duke of Urbino came to Florence, lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and he was received with honour. And on the 29th he left for Milan, to take up his post as Capitano generale, stopping at Ferrara where Signor Roberto was. There they besieged a fort called Ficheruolo till the 1st June.(1)

And in these days the Duke of Calabria on the other hand was besieging Ostia, near Rome; and on the 10th June it was said that he had taken it, but this was not true. He sacked Corneto,(2) however. The Sienese now recalled some of their exiles.

(1) This is not correct; see note to 2nd July.

(2) These are all facts relating to the war which had lately broken out between the Venetians and the Pope on the one hand, and the Florentines, Milan, and Naples on the other. Federigo, Duke of Urbino, was Capitano generale, and Commander of the League against Venice, and Roberto di Sanseverino was in the service of the latter.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was waxing gibbous that night.
Sunrise in Milan was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ostia was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Corneto was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Ferrara was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Venice was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.
Sunrise in Naples was at 5:53 AM and sunset was at 6:00 PM.

1483

April 7

on Saturday

11 months, 14 days later

The Sienese beheaded three of their citizens, one being Antonio Belandi, and another one of the knights made by the Duke of Calabria. Thus, in the opposition of parties, are treated those ambitious men who are not contented with the state of life to which God has called them.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.

1483

June 14

on Thursday

2 months, 8 days later

A league was made with the Sienese for twenty-five years, and our fortresses were restored to us. At this time there died at Faenza a Brother of the Order of the Servi di Maria,(1) who had performed many miracles; the bells having rung of their own accord when anyone died, and sick persons being healed. People went to him from all the country round. I spoke to a trustworthy man, who said that he had witnessed these facts. Miracles were constantly happening; sometimes down by the river and sometimes up in the mountains; and sometimes he was seen speaking with a woman, who was the Virgin. I mention this to show that people were in the mood to expect great things from God.

(1) From the Historie di Faenza by Giulio Cesare Tonduzzi, and the Annali dell' Ordine de' Serviti by Arcangelo Giani, we find that this was the Beato Jacopo Filippo Bertoni, who died on the 25th May, 1483. These writers also testify to the prodigies referred to by Landucci, which so moved the Faentini that they wished honours to be conferred upon Misserino Bertoni dalla Cella di Monte Chiaro, father of the defunct, by a public decree.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was in the first quarter that night.
Sunrise in Faenza was at 5:55 AM and sunset was at 6:02 PM.

1483

August 5

on Sunday

1 month, 22 days later

The exiled Sienese came against their city, as far as the fortress of Sitorno, but were unable to do anything. The citizens took many prisoners from the fortress and carried them into Siena.

In these days the Florentines destroyed a fortress in the upper valley of the Arno, called Monte Domenici, because it had rebelled.

During this August of 1483, the Duke of Calabria captured many fortresses in Lombardy from the Venetians,(1) and crushed the Venetian troops in such a manner that they could not hold out any longer. This occurred because the Church had excommunicated all those who gave aid to the Venetians, which prevented them having soldies from beyond the Alps. And the fleet of the King of Naples came into the port of Ancona, and that of the Venetians set out to find it. But on the 5th September, the king's fleet sailed away without waiting for their opponents. Great things had been expected if they had encountered each other.

(1) From the 12th December, 1482, the Pope had made peace with the League, and then associated himself with it in the war against Venice.

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Astronomical Events

The moon was a new moon that night.
Sunrise in Siena was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Arno was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Monte Domenici was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.
Sunrise in Ancona was at 6:01 AM and sunset was at 6:08 PM.

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