Naples City in Italy, Europe

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High Renaissance

Oil Painting



King Alfonso I occupies Francesco Sforza's fiefs in the Kingdom of Naples and, to recover the situation, Sforza reconciles himself with Filippo Visconti.


December 6

Lorenzo de' Medici left Florence and went to the king at Naples.


March 13

Lorenzo de' Medici arrived in Livorno, on his return from Naples. It was considered a marvel that he should have returned, as everyone had doubted the king allowing him to resume his post, and a still greater marvel that he should have been able to arrange everything so diplomatically. God help him!(1) > (1) Lorenzo de' Medici had gone on his own initiative, seeing that the war could no longer be borne, and not wishing to lose the favour and authority that he had acquired in Florence, especially after the Conspiracy of the Pazzi. The Florentines feared lest harm should come to him, and remembered the case of Jacopo Piccinino, who in 1465 unwarily put himself into the hands of the same king, and lost his life. Lorenzo, however, must have felt his ground carefully before moving, and when he returned after having concluded peace, he became more popular and powerful than ever.

April 9

Two ambassadors were sent to the Pope and to Naples: Messer Antonio Ridolfi and Piero di Lutozzi.


April 28

The Duke of Urbino came to Florence, lodging in the house of Giovanni Tornabuoni, and he was received with honour. And on the 29th he left for Milan, to take up his post as _Capitano generale_, stopping at Ferrara where Signor Roberto was. There they besieged a fort called Ficheruolo till the 1st June.(1) And in these days the Duke of Calabria on the other hand was besieging Ostia, near Rome; and on the 10th June it was said that he had taken it, but this was not true. He sacked Corneto,(2) however. The Sienese now recalled some of their exiles. > (1) This is not correct; see note to 2nd July. > > (2) These are all facts relating to the war which had lately broken out between the Venetians and the Pope on the one hand, and the Florentines, Milan, and Naples on the other. Federigo, Duke of Urbino, was _Capitano generale_, and Commander of the League against Venice, and Roberto di Sanseverino was in the service of the latter.


October 23

We heard that the Duke of Calabria was dead, having died a natural death at Naples, possibly from despondency. It was extraordinary that father and son should have died within such a short interval, just when their country was in so much danger. Truly the fullness of time had come, and the hand of God struck. These things make us lay aside our pride, and take refuge in faith, when we consider that it will be the same for us all. Messer Francesco (Ah, you Frenchmen!), what is the use of subjugating other countries? May God pardon us our sins!


February 2

2nd February. We heard that the King of France had been defeated at Terracina, on entering the Kingdom (of Naples), and that there were hundreds slain.

February 22

22nd February. We received the news that the King of France had taken Capua, and was near Naples. It was thought that he would capture it quickly.

February 25

25th February. We heard that the King of France had taken Naples, and how he had entered it on the 21st without a blow. The King of Naples took refuge in the _Castel dell' Uovo_. This news was proclaimed here with great rejoicing, with drums and fifes, and the shops were shut. There were many bonfires and lights(1) on the towers, and other manifestations, to commemorate such a conquest.(2) > (1) These _pangeli_ were pieces of stuff swimming in oil or dipped in grease, and placed in flat round tins. > > (2) This is confirmed by a decree of the Signori on this date, which besides commanding the shops to be shut, also orders processions to be made on three successive mornings.

February 27

27th February. The Cardinal Sa' Malò left here, who had come to deliver Pisa over to us, and had not done so; but he carried away with him 22 thousand florins, and returned to the king at Naples.

March 4

4th March. There were very grateful letters from the King of France, telling us how pleased he was that we had celebrated the conquest of Naples.

March 5

5th March. Four ambassadors were chosen to go to the King of France and Naples, who were: Messer Guido Antonio, Pagolo Antonio Soderini, the Bishop de' Pazzi, and Lorenzo son of Piero Francesco de' Medici.(1) > (1) Landucci is not correct in the names of these ambassadors the work already quoted, Negotiations, etc., we read the instruction given to them and their names, but instead of Soderini and Pazzi are Bernardo Rucellai and Lorenzo Morelli. Ammirato, however, gives Soderini instead of Morelli; the truth is that the latter was appointed to replace the former, who was prevented from leaving on account of illness.

March 6

6th March. There was much argument as to why the king did not give Pisa over to us, seeing that we were such friends of his country and also that he had promised it us on the capture of Naples.


April 5

p85 5th April. We heard that the King of France had acquired the whole kingdom of Naples; and that the King of Naples had fled into Ischia, having lost hope.


May 13

Naples is captured by the Spanish.


January 14

With the Treaty of Madrid, peace is declared between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy to Charles, and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan.


Cecchino Cellini kills a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn is wounded by an arquebusier (rifleman), later dying of his wound. His brother, Benvenuto Cellini, kills his killer, then flees to Naples to escape the consequences of an affray with a notary, Ser Benedetto, whom he had wounded.


December 7


The family of Gian Lorenzo Bernini leaves Naples and moves to Rome.
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